Forging Democracy: The History of the Left in Europe, 1850-2000
Oxford University Press, 11.4.2002 - 720 sivua
Democracy in Europe has been a recent phenomenon. Only in the wake of World War II were democratic frameworks secured, and, even then, it was decades before democracy truly blanketed the continent. Neither given nor granted, democracy requires conflict, often violent confrontations, and challenges to the established political order. In Europe, Geoff Eley convincingly shows, democracy did not evolve organically out of a natural consensus, the achievement of prosperity, or the negative cement of the Cold War. Rather, it was painstakingly crafted, continually expanded, and doggedly defended by varying constellations of socialist, feminist, Communist, and other radical movements that originally blossomed in the later nineteenth century. Parties of the Left championed democracy in the revolutionary crisis after World War I, salvaged it against the threat of fascism, and renewed its growth after 1945. They organized civil societies rooted in egalitarian ideals which came to form the very fiber of Europe's current democratic traditions. The trajectories of European democracy and the history of the European Left are thus inextricably bound together. Geoff Eley has given us the first truly comprehensive history of the European Left--its successes and failures; its high watermarks and its low tides; its accomplishments, insufficiencies, and excesses; and, most importantly, its formative, lasting influence on the European political landscape. At a time when the Left's influence and legitimacy are frequently called into question, Forging Democracy passionately upholds its vital contribution.
STABILIZATION AND THE WAR OF POSITION
Muita painoksia - Näytä kaikki
action active became Bolshevik Britain British Cambridge campaigns capitalism capitalist central civil coalition collective Committee Communism Communist Party Congress cooperation councils crisis culture demands democracy early Eastern economic elections emerged equality especially Europe European feminism feminists followed force formed France French Front future gender German groups History independence industrial International Italian Italy joined labor movements leaders Left Left's Liberation linked living London March Marx Marxism mass Mensheviks militancy moved needed opposition organized Oxford parliamentary peace percent political popular postwar production radical reform remained Resistance Revolution revolutionary rising Russian Second sexual Social Democratic socialist parties society Soviet Spain strike struggle student suffrage Third tion trade union traditions unions University Press vote wage welfare West Western women workers working-class World York
Sivu ix - I pondered all these things, and how men fight and lose the battle, and the thing that they fought for comes about in spite of their defeat, and when it comes turns out not to be what they meant, and other men have to fight for what they meant under another name...
Sivu 38 - The mode of production of material life conditions the social, political and intellectual life process in general. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness.
Sivu 38 - The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness.