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living soul, is only (tupos) the type or shadow of him, à quickening spirit, that was to come (Rom. v. 14). How important is therefore the divine testimony which the Lord delivered to Nicodemus, “that which is born of the Spirit is spirit; marvel not,” our Lord repeated, “ye must be born from above,” for “God is the Father of spirits" (Heb. xii. 9). The originality of the first man Adam is of great importance to be believed, for it is the testimony of God. The Hebrew words Adamdam and damuthare considered by many Hebraists to be derived from one and the same Hebrew root : but if not, nevertheless the Hebrew word Adam does signify red earth, and is the Hebrew word for sardine, a red stone. And dam is the Hebrew word for red and blood, and damuth is the Hebrew word for likeness : and by comparing Scripture with Scripture, we shall see that the first man Adam is only the type or figure of him that was to come. “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness ; so God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him” (Gen. i. 26, 27). There is not a truth more fully and clearly revealed, than that blood is an essential part of man—the Holy Scriptures abound in proof thereof; for instance, it is written, “ Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made he man(Gen. ix. 6). Now all the blood of the sacrifices so shed was typical or a shadow of all the sacrificial blood shed before and after the law was given at Mount Sinai ; for it is written, “ Without shedding of blood there is no remission.” Again, Moses took the blood, &c., and sprinkled both the book and all the people, saying, “This is the blood of the testament which God hath enjoined unto you. Moreover, he sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry ; and almost all things are by the law purged with blood(Heb. ix. 19-22). Now the things so purified are called patterns (hupodeigma) or examples : it was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these ; but the heavenly things, or heavenlies themselves (the elect of mankind) with better (blood) sacrifices than these (Heb. ix. 19-23); therefore Christ by his own blood hath entered in once into the holy place, into heaven itself, having obtained eternal redemption (Heb. ix. 11, 12—24). . Again, “ Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate” (Heb. xiii. 12). His blood cleanseth from all sin (1 John, i. 7). “For how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the Eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God” (Heb. ix. 14). Now all the blood of the sacrifices so shed was typical or a shadow of Christ's blood to be shed; so the first man Adam is the type or figure of him that was to come : and as the children of God have borne the image of the first Adam, a living soul, so they are to bear the image of the last Adam, a quickening spirit (1 Cor. xv. 45). Now what image are the children of God to bear? It is written, “God giveth to every seed its own body(1 Cor. xv. 38). The body of the spiritual seed of Christ, it is written, “Is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption ; it is. sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory ; it is sown in weakness, it is

raised in power ; it is sown a (psuchikos) soul body, it is raised a (pneumatikos) spiritual body.” And so it is written, “The first man Adam was made a living soul, the last Adam a quickening spirit(1 Cor. xv. 42—45).

The natural or soul man not born of the Spirit, his body will be raised a soul body; and his soul and body will be cast into hell (Mat. x. 28). Note, reader, it is written, that the wisdom of the natural or soul man dead in sin, “ descendeth not from above, but is earthly (psuchiku), soul, and devilish” (James, üi. 15). And of such it is written, “There should be mockers in the last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts; these be they who separate themselves (psuchikoi), soul, having not the (pneuma) spirit(Jude, 18, 19).

Again, it is written, “The body of every one of the elect of mankind is for the Lord, and the Lord for the body(1 Cor. v. 13). “What, know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God? And ye are not your own, for ye are bought with a price ; therefore, glorify God in your body and in your (pneumati) spirit, which are God's,” or of God (1 Cor. vi. 19, 20). And if it be asked with what price they are bought, it is written, “Feed the church of God which he has purchased with his own blood(Acts, xx. 28). And as they are predestinated to be conformed to the image of the last Adam, a quickening spirit, so they “ look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ ; who shall change their vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself” (Phil. iii. 20, 21). “Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God. Beloved, now are we the sons of God ; and it doth not yet appear what we shall be, but we know that when he shall appear we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is ” (1 John, iii. 1, 2). If it be asked what revelation we have of Christ's appearing, or of his glorious body, by searching the Scriptures we find two very important ones among others; one in the day of his humiliation, recorded by the evangelists as seen by Peter, James, and John, when they were with him in the holy mount. Peter says, “We were eye-witnesses of his majesty” (2 Pet. i. 16–18). For it is written, “Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart, and was transfigured before them ; and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light” (Matt. xvii. 1-6). And John says, “The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father), full of grace and truth” (John, i. 14). The second is recorded in Rev. iv., “After this I looked, and, behold, a door was opened in heaven ; and the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with me, which said, “Come up hither, and I will show thee things which must be hereafter.' And immediately I was in the spirit ; and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne, and he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone ; and there was a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald” (Rev. iv. 1-3). Now jas

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per is a Hebrew word, the meaning thereof is given in Rev. xxi. 11, compared with the twenty-first and twenty-second verses ; but the sar. dine stone answers to the Hebrew word adam, red stone! “And the four-and-twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, “Thou art worthy, O Jehovah, to receive glory, and honour, and power ; for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created' (Rev. iv. 10, 11). Therefore, he that sat upon the throne was God manifested in the flesh, for Jehovah alone made all things (see Neh. ix. 6 ; Isa. xv. 18; Gen. i. ; John, i. 1-3). Therefore the first man Adam, a living soul, who had the dominion given to him, as recorded in Gen. i. 26, and elsewhere, is only a (tupos) type, or print (John, xx. 25), or figure (Rom. v. 14), or pattern (Heb. viii. 5), “ of the last Adam, a quickening spirit;" the second man Jehovah from heaven (1 Cor. xv. 45, 47), who was to come (Rom. v. 14), who was made of the seed of David as concerning the flesh (Rom. i. 3), who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen (Rom. ix. 5).

To conclude, the good and faithful witnesses take pleasure in the stones of Zion, and favour THE DUST thereof (Psalm cii. 13, 14).



For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from

the law of sin and death.-Romans, viii. 2.
Much is revealed in the New Testament about life. Naturally it im-
plies action, animation ; spiritually it means breathing after God, the
least portion of which calls for our exertions wherever or whenever it
is seen to keep it from going out. Herein we imitate him who, strictly
speaking, is alone worthy our imitation ; who would not break a
bruised reed, or quench the smoking flax. “Wherefore lift up the
hands which hang down, and the feeble knees, and make straight path's
for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the ways; but
let it rather be healed” (Heb. xii. 12, 13). Others are stronger : these
press on towards the prize of their high calling, while the others come
creeping behind, and are scarcely discerned to move at all. The strong
are exborted to give them a lift by bearing their infirmities, and not at
all times to please themselves only! This, it is feared, is a duty often
forgotten. They are interrogated in a manner which hides pride from
man-Who maketh thee to differ?” Each living soul is united to
Christ, therefore has an interest in Christ ; feeds on Christ by spiritually
eating his flesh and drinking his blood : without which He himself said
“ Ye have no life in you.” Each walks in Christ, each leans on Christ,
and, when faith is in strong exercise, triumphs in Christ. Thus to each
and to all he is the first and the last, the All in all. I need not tell the

enlightened reader, however strong, that out of Christ he has nothing to boast of. He is taught this by the infallible Teacher, the Holy Spirit. Every successive trial shows him his weakness; and he supplicates the blessed Spirit to lead him to Christ, to show him the suitableness of Christ, and from Christ receives a daily supply in order to stand. If he neglects this one day and ventures out, that one day's trial shows him, it is poor going alone!

The words under consideration involve two great particulars, showing the nature of extremes. There is much in this chapter particularly interesting and momentous, considerations worthy our continual notice and prayerful attention. Every clause is full of rich information. The apostle speaks of two laws or powers, at variance with each other, and let us not forget that, in the words before us, he distinctly speaks of himself. “The law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death.” There are others united to Christ as well as Paul, and all are in possession of these two principles ; but are the same effects produced ? I fear not; all believers in Christ are not freed from the law of sin and death. The word law, in its common or general acceptation, means a “rule of action.” Now to lay this down as a proposition (and I think a fair one), the necessary deductions would show the nature and character of each of these laws. It would also exhibit, as in a glass, our own likeness ; and tell us of itself the plain reason why we go mourning, and inquiring, “Have ye seen my Beloved ?”—and also the reason why Paul triumphs while we tremble. Why his soul prospers, flourishing and fat, fighting and warring a good warfare, while we are sick and languishing and are ready to die ; continually complaining, “Omy leanness, my leanness !” I must beg to revert the order of the words, by first considering the “law of sin and death ; ” next the believer's antidote against it, the “law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus.”

First, then, the “ law of sin and death.”

James tells us, “When a man is tempted he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed, and when lust hath conceived (by earnestly looking on something forbidden) it bringeth forth sin ; and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death.” Thus, as Dr. Owen wisely says, “Every lust aims at the height in its time.” This the law tolerates ; this is its extent, and death follows as a sure consequence. I wish to be understood here as not meaning either natural or eternal death, but spiritual death. The mind, under these circumstances, is absent from Christ ; some evils have crept in through unwatchfulness. The man has sought to gratify his carnal appetite ; and although providentially prevented, perhaps, from the wicked end at which he aimed, so that no “open shame” may have been caused, yet taking the will for the deed, and conscience alive to the foulness of his intention, brings him into darkness. Find a man in such a plight; point him to the rich sweets of the everlasting Gospel ; try all you can to lift him up, and you cannot. No; to be carnal in purpose or practice vitiates the mind, and that, too, becomes carnal (verses 6 & 7). As the man who shuts himself up in a cellar is unconscious of daylight, so is he, under such circumstances, unconscious of the kind care of the good Shepherd. His song, if indeed it may be called such, is all lamentation. He is under condemnation, not having walked after the Spirit but after the flesh. A fresh application of the blood of Christ by the blessed Spirit must be made, in order to restore to him the joy of his salvation. He learns by experience that it is no trifling thing, either to sin against God or even attempt it!

This law of sin tolerates the worst practices, and rests nothing short of a full accomplishment ; and in proportion' as we incline to it, we recede from Christ. Objects of attraction are continually before us, and Satan plying hard at our weak side with the sin which doth most easily beset us, in order, if possible, to get the mind on the same side. Without this he cannot succeed in triumphing over our fall. We groan, not at all times for falling into sin in act, but rather that our foolish propensity molests us. The body is to us a pull-back to our spiritual enjoyment, and mars the realization of our best blessings; it captivates, in the sense of charming the members. It will appear evident, too, that sinning is dying, in the sense given by the apostle (ver. 13); that is, the death of enjoyment of our interest in Christ. But the word of God exhibits a remedy, a sure one if applied ; so certain is it that this law weakens, and so far is the believer from fearing to fall, that he counts it all joy when he falls into divers temptations ; knowing this, that the trying of his faith worketh patience (James, i. 1–12). It moreover tells us, “Blessed is the man that endureth temptation ; for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him.” But wherein is this blessedness ; and how does he endure so as not to fall a prey to a power so vast, with Satan at its head and his own body, or members, in close alliance with him? The blessedness consists in being united to Christ, from whom his mind receives strength more than equal to the opposition described ! Now the antidote.

“The law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus.”

Keeping the attention to the proposition-viz. a rule of action- so as to show the cause of grace reigning (in the believer's mind), through righteousness unto eternal life, in every one who believes ; it will easily be seen why “sin and death”-are kept in subordination, rather than having dominion over the believer. But what is meant by the “law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus ?” The Gospel evidently is intended here by law; and Christ Jesus himself the Spirit and life of it.

A few words only will sufficiently prove this : the Gospel is called the perfect law of liberty, and whosoever continues therein, not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the word, that man shall be blessed in the deed (James, i. 25). This law is composed of precept-obedience to which is a declarative proof of life. Nothing less than the Gospel of Christ can rightly be called a law of liberty—spiritual obedience to which flows from a principle of love ; all others from a slavish fear. Besides this, had there been a law which could have given life, then verily righteousness had been by it : but here, in the words before us, is life itself ; so that it may be said, “They are spirit, and they are life.”

The mind cannot be engaged in two opposite directions ; and the Gos

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