A Concise History of Finland
Cambridge University Press, 13.7.2006
Few countries in Europe have undergone such rapid social, political and economic changes as Finland has during the last fifty years. David Kirby here sets out the fascinating history of this northern country, for centuries on the east-west divide of Europe, a country not blessed by nature, most of whose inhabitants still earned a living from farming fifty years ago, but which today is one of the most prosperous members of the European Union. He shows how this small country was able not only to survive in peace and war but also to preserve and develop its own highly distinctive identity, neither Scandinavian nor Eastern European. He traces the evolution of the idea of a Finnish national state, from the long centuries as part of the Swedish realm, through self-government within the Russian Empire, and into the stormy and tragic birth of the independent state in the twentieth century.
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active administration agrarian agreement Ahti Karjalainen Alexander amongst Armfelt Baltic Bobrikov century church constitutional country’s crisis culture decades defence demands Diet east Karelia eastern Finland economic eduskunta elections elite emperor empire Erik estates Europe European farmers farms favoured Finland Proper finlandisation Finnish affairs Finnish army Finnish communists Finnish government Finnish language Finnish nationalist forces foreign minister foreign policy frontier German governor-general Grand Duchy Gustav Ha¨me Helsinki hinterland imperial Karelia Karelian isthmus Karjalainen Kekkonen king kingdom Koskinen labour land leaders leadership major Mannerheim ment military Moscow negotiations nobility northern Old Finland organisation Ostrobothnia Paasikivi parliament peace peasant people’s persuade Plate political population president prime minister realm reform region remained riksdag ruler Russian Russian empire Ryti Sami Savo Senate socialist Soviet Union Sprengtporten St Petersburg state-secretary Stockholm Sweden Swedish Swedish-speaking territory tion town trade troops Turku Viipuri western Yrjo