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God. This he attempts to sustain by an a priori argument, and by the statements of the Scriptures themselves. The latter seem to us inade. quate to the purpose; the former, we think, is essentially fallacious. He declares that thoughts cannot be conceived in or conveyed to the mind, except in words, or equivalent signs, and that therefore God could not have given the writers of Scripture the truths which they wrote, except by giving them the very language also. We have some objections to the conclusions of the work, and regard them as at least entirely unnecessary to a satisfactory theory of plenary inspiration, besides being encumbered with some peculiar difficulties of their own; but we must be content with specifying several objections to the argument by which these conclusions are reached. First: Is it true that we have no more thoughts than words? If so, what is the meaning of the unsuccessful and repeated effort, of which every writer is conscious, to express an idea ? Second : Is not the argument akin to Hume's famous one against miracles? Is it noteither a manifes, petitio principii, or else does it not draw a universal conclusion from limited premises ? The fallacy seems in fact to be of the latter kind. It is analagous to that of Campbellism, which argues that because man influences man by motives, therefore God is restricted to the same means. Mr. Lord's idea seems to be that because man is ordinarily conscious of thought only in words or their equivalent signs, and because he can only through them convey thought to others, therefore conception or communication in any other way is impossible, and that even when God is the communicator. Verily here is rationalism fought with its own weapons.
THED Ernest; or the Heroine of Faith. Vol. 1. (Nashville, Tenn.: South-Western Publishing House, Graves, Marks & Co.; N. Y.: Sheldon, Blakeman & Co.)
This is a work, the value and popularity of which have been already well attested by both the press and the people. In a notice of this new edition, therefore, we need do no more than refer to what is peculiar to it. A sneering review of Theodosia Ernest having appeared in the St. Louis Presbyterian, from the pen of its editor, Dr. N. L. Rice, that review is here given, and is in return reviewed by the author in the form of a dream. This dream, which is “not all a dream,” not only triumphantly repels the insinuations of Dr. R.'s review, but furnishes strong additional confirmation of the positions of the book. It constitutes the first new feature of the present edition. The second is the illustrations. We h..ve our doubts about pictures at all in such works ;—but that is a matter of taste; and they will be popular with a large class. We think, however, that the pictures in this book are, in their execution, very unworthy of the pages which they illustrate, and are calculated to inspire ridiculous associations with the characters represented. Thus the cut opposite to page 395, of Theodosia ministering to her sick lover, represents a bewhiskered exquisite propped on a pillow, and a scowling girl presenting a spoon to his lips. It is such a cut as is most inappropriate to the really touching scene described—it is just such as one might expect to find in the comic illustrations of Harper or Punch, but never on the pages of any serious work. But what shall we say of the picture, fronting page 205, of an infant sprinkling? Why this;—that the hideous face given to the poor baby is a libel upon babyhood, and, if correct, would give some color to the theory revived by Dr. Beecher, that every soul is an old demon enjoying a new probation in a human body. But seriously, we do deplore such a travesty of that which, though in our belief no divine ordinance, has yet pleasing and serious associations in the minds of many. Such a burlesque can only prejudice a Pedobaptist against the cause in behalf of which it is used. He will regard it, and justly, as scarcely less objectionable than Baptists have regarded the illustrations in Parson Brownlow's book. Has it come to this, that our side needs to be defend
ed with such weapons ? We are almost ashamed to have touched on what we deem scarcely worthy of our pages, but the book which we are called on to notice, and not we, are responsible. Perhaps our strictures will be regarded by the publishers, and will in fact prove a profitable advertisement of the very thing we condemn. We are sorry for this; but cannot allow it to prevent the candid expression of our opinion. We repeat that for the book itself we have a high regard, esteeming it as really able, and knowing that it has been practically effective.
THE TECNOBAPTIST: A Discourse, wherein an honest Baptist, by a course of argument to which no honest Baptist can object, is convinced that infant Christians are proper objects of Christian Baptism. By R. B. Mayes. (Boston: Printed by John Wilson & Son, 22 School St, 1857.)
This work has excited no little attention, and has caused no little embarrasment among Pedobaptist writers who have been called upon to Review it. Its author is Judge Mayes of Yazoo city, Miss., himself not connected with any denomination of Christians, and who from this circumstance and from his judicial position may be expected to bring to the subject which he treats, an unusual share of both candor and ability. His argument is original and ingenious, and is designed to show that the analogy between the Jewish Theocracy and the Christian Church between circumcision and baptism-proves not that infants are proper subjects of baptism, but that that ordinance is restricted to believers. He, reasons thus: that baptism is to the New Testament Church what circumcision was to the Old Testament Church, that therefore those who are baptized must sustain the same relation to the New Testament Church that those who were circumcised did to the Old Testament Church. This argument he fully developes, and illustrates by the use both of algebraic signs and of geometrical diagrams; and it is in our judgment little short of a demonstration. We should not have preferred the dialogue form, which the judge has adopted, and hope he may yet present his argument in a direct, positive, succint shape.
QUESTIONS TO THE IMPENITENT. By J. M. PENDLETON. (Nashville: South-Western Publishing House, Graves, Marks & Co., pp. 109. 1857.)
ThoughTS ON CHRISTIAN DUTY. By J. M. PENDLETON. (Vashville: Graves, Marks & Co.)
PREDESTINATION AND THE Saints' PERSEVERANCE, stated and defended from the objections of the Arminians, in a review of two sermons published by Rev. R. Reneau. By P. H. Mell, Professor, &c., &., Mercer University, Georgia. Third Thousand. (Charleston, S. C.: Southern Baptist Publication Society, &c., &c. 1858.)
The first two of these tracts are unassuming, and not without slight blemishes of syle, yet pointed and practical, and are worthy of circulation and likely to do good. Though these tracts are smail, the number of subjects discussed is sufficient to make an index desirable.
In the third tract whose title is above, the doctrines of Predestination and the Saints’ Perseverance, are, we doubt not, correctly stated and strongly defended. We object, however, to its controversial form. Nor are Professor M's reasons for retaining this form sufficient. If he had “no time" to strike out what is irrelevant, and to re cast his book, the public has just as little to read it. Nor is the demand for the work in this form in certain localities a reason for its publication by the Southern Baptist Publication Society, which should confine its issues to works calculated for general circulation.
THE WORLD OF MIND. An Elementary Book. By Isaac Taylor, author of “Wesley and Methodism." (N. Y.: Harper & Brothers. 1858. 12mo. pp. 377.)
This book may be called “ elementary,” only because it treats of the "elements” of mental philosophy, and not because it is suitable for beĝinners, or in any sense a text-book. “ The World of Mind” is defined as" comprehending all orders of beings that indicate powers of perception and a centralized consciousness, and that are locomotive from within.” Man, of course, takes the highest place in this “world,”—almost immeasurably elevated above other animated beings, and the author throws out, in his well-known peculiar style, many striking and valuable thoughts, in discussing the mutual resemblances and differences between the human mind and the instincts of animals.
The “ Postulates” on which he bases his system are, first, “the absolute reality of mind, apart from, or irrespective of matter;" second, "the causative property of mind,” and “its absolute liberty as distinguished from physical causation of every sort;" third, “that in the original structure of the mind there is nothing fallacious,-nothing contrary to the reality of things.” These fundamental principles are presented and illustrated in a variety of forms, and their relation to philosophy and theology exhibited. A sober, Christian spirit pervades the whole discussion. His views of the value of philosophical study are remarkably free from extravagance. He esteems it chiefly as a means of intellectual culture, and as teaching the true limits of the human faculties, and the legitimate subjects of inquiry, and thus securing “an exemption from the invasions of lawless and interminable speculation.”. In short, without endorsing all the opinions of the author, we regard this work as well worthy of the careful attention of all who are engaged in teaching or studying intellectual philosophy.
THE LIFE AND LABORS OF Rev. T. H. GALLAUDET, LL. D. by Rev HeMAN HUMPHREY, D. D. (New York. Robert Carter & Brothers, No 530 Broadway. 1857.)
The subject of these memoirs is already widely known, and will be long and gratefully remembered as the originator, and for some years the conductor of the first institution in this country for the instruction of deaf mutes, and scarcely less as the author of a number of valuable religious works for the young. In the volume before us, his personal history, uneventful, but not uninteresting, is detailed, and incidentally much information is conveyed with reference to that benevolent and important enterprize to which his best years and energies were devoted. thor has done well in letting the subject mostly tell his own story; and except in the omission of some things which we would have liked to know, and a too great prolixity on some other points, has in our judgment executed his delicate commission with rare taste and judgment. We had prepared a more extended notice of the book, embracing some account of the character and labors of Mr. Gallaudet, but this we are compelled from want of room to withhold, and must content ourselves with recommending attention to the biography itself, as highly instructive, on curious and important subjects and as well calculated to beget a zealous philanthropy.
THB HISTORY AND LIFE OF THE REVEREND DOCTOR JOHN TAULER, OF STRASBOURG ; with Twenty-Five of his Sermons (Temp. 1340) translated from the German by Susannah WINKWORTH, with a Preface by the Rev. CHARLES KINGSLEY, with an Introduction by Rev. RosWELL D. HITCHCOCK, D.D. (New York: Wiley & Halsted, 351 Broadway. 1858.)
The contrast between the dates in the above title, “ Temp. 1340” and “1858,” is not greater than that presented by the quaint style and antique typography on the one hand, and the unmistakably modern elegance on the other, which distinguish this book. The thanks of the
American reading public are due to the publishers who, without expecting pecuniary reward, have issued this edition an exact reprint of the English original, and scarcely inferior to it in elegance, yet at one-third of the price. The preface and the introduction are worthy of their subject and authors, bespeaking an appreciation of the life and character and writings of Tauler, yet guarding against what may have been erroneous in his opinions, or mistaken in his course. Mr. Kingsley's preface is one of the most beautiful specimens we have ever seen of strong, simple Saxon, and presents thoughts as just and weighty as they are vigorously and tersely expressed. The life of Tauler is highly instructive, as sho ing the precious fruits which divine grace can produce, even in the darkest and most unpropitious times, the possible co-existence of erroneous theories with a piety which shall largely neutralize their baleful influence, the tendency of sincere religion to induce earnest, practi, cal effort to do good, even amid circumstances the least encouraging, the certainty that good seed sown never so fearfully shall in due season yield its harvest, and especially as furnish. ing a key to the better, fuller understanding of the remote and hidden causes of the great Protestant Reformation.
THE SPANISH CONQUEST IN AMERICA, and its relation to the history of Slavery, and to the government of Colonies. By ARTHUR HELPS. Vol, iii. (New York: Harper and Bro.'s. 1857.)
Without having seen the volumes to which the present is a sequel, we regard this as one of the choicest morsels of history that we have ever met with. The author draws his information directly from original sources; and this seems to impart peculiar freshness both to his subject matter and style. His descriptive powers are very fine; and if one wants to become familiar with the characters and exploits of such men as Cortez and Pizarro, we know not how he may be better gratified than by the perusal of this volume. We have rarely met with an author who seemed so perfectly to combine the graceful simplicity of Herodotus with the profundity and dignity of Thucydides. The easy, and sometimes almost colloquial stýle, which characterizes especially the descriptive portions, prepares us to find and to forgive occasional slips; such as for instance this, on page 52: “The Indian, who is now in such a state of stolidity that no reward, hardly, can induce him to stir," etc. The publishers have illustrated this history by numerous wood-cut maps of different parts of the country. Why did they not complete the good work, and give one map of the whole, and not compel the reader to resort to his atlas ?
THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, from their Colonization to the End of the Twenty. sixth Congress, in 1841. By GEORGE TUCKER. Four Volumes, 8vo. (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co.)
This elaborate and able work opens with an introductory outline of the Colonial and Revolutionary, periods, and enters into detail from the close of the Revolution. The author has enjoyed peculiar advantages for its preparation. Forty years ago a member of Congress, he was afterwards for a long time Professor in the University of Virginia, and is known for his Life of Jefferson, and several valuable treatises on Political Economy and Statistics.
Every intelligent man at the present day, of whatever calling, feels the need of some acquaintance with the civil history of our nation. But those who are not politicians by profession, can rarely read this history in its voluminous and comparatively inaccessible sour
Mr. Tucker has furnished just what we need. He has given in satisfactory, and yet not tiresome detail, an account of the formation of the Federal Constitution and of the principal debates and leading measures of the successive sessions of Congress. The external relations of the nation are duly recorded; but we find it peculiarly interesting to pursue the internal history-to trace the rise and subsidence of successive political agitationsand from the record of fierce contests, shaking the country to its centre, which yet did not end in the dreaded ruin, to derive hope that for us too, notwithstanding the storms which now alarm us, there may be a calm hereafter.
The work is characterized, in our estimation, by unusual fairness. It may not please par. tisans of any stamp, but candid men will hardly fail to agree that the author has striven to do exact justice to the various parties, measures and men; and he has constantly furnished the facts and arguments on both sides, so that we may judge for ourselves. Many of his occasional remarks are striking and profound. The concluding chapter contains an interesting sketch of the general advancement of our people, material, social, literary and religious. The style of the work is plain, but not unpleasing. We notice occasional inaccuracies and infelicities of expression, and' a good many errors of typography, which, we presume, will be corrected in subsequent issues.
It can hardly be expected that such a work will become, in the common sense of the term, popular; but we are sure that no one can read it without great benefit.
EUROPEAN ACQUAINTANCE: being Sketches of People in Europe. By J. W. DEFOREST, author of Oriental Acquaintance. &c. (N. Y.: Harper & Bros. 12mo., pp. 276.)
The author, an invalid in search of health, spent several months at the Hydropathic estab. lishment of the celebrated Priesnitz at Graefenberg, and at another in Divonne, near Geneva, and lounged away many hours of delicious idleness in Venice, Paris, Florence and Rome. In this book he has recorded his experiences and observations, describing with much vivacity the queer and interesting people he met with, the severe yet ludicrous modus operandi of the "water-cure, and giving the reader occasionally a charming glimpse into the merry social circle of the French better classes. The book abounds in laughable anecdote and grotesque portraiture of character, and while not very instructive, will serve to pass away a leisure hour innocently and profitably.
The Literary Intelligence, Ecclesiastical Record, and notices of a few other Books, are ne cessarily deferred for want of room.
ERRATA.–Page 181, line 3, for “division” read “diversion.” Page 186, line 13, for “Stimca” read “Stunica.” Page 187, line 5, for “Proscription" read “Prescription." Page 196, line 1, for “ Conjectures” read “ Conjunctures."
CHRISTIAN REVIEW .
NO. XCIII.-JULY, 1858.
ART. I.—THE AUTHORSHIP OF THE EPISTLE
FROM THE FRENCH OF EUGENE ARNAUD.*
WE find among the apostles two persons going by the name of Ioúdas, viz.:
1. Ioudaç Síuwvos 'Iokapiórns, “Judas Iscariot (son) of Simon.” John vi. 71; xii. 4; xiii. 2, 26; also catalogues of the apostles, Matt. x. 4; Mark iii. 19; Luke vi. 16, etc.
2. Voúdas lakásov ; " Judas the brothert of James.” Luke vi. 16; Acts i. 13; John xi. 22. In the lists of the apostles given by Matthew (x. 2-4) and Mark (iii. 16–19), the name of Jude is not found, but is supplied in the first by Lebbeus, surnamed Thaddeus, and in the second by Thaddeus only; so that this apostle is found to have had three names: Jude, Lebbeus, and Thaddeus.
Among the deadoù of Jesus Christ, we find a third Jude; Matt. xiii. 55, and Mark vi. 3. “Is not his mother called Mary, and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and
* Translated from the Introduction to a work entitled “ Recherches Critiques sur l'Epitre de Jude, présentant une Introduction a l'Epitre et un Commentaire sur chaque Verset, par EUGENE ARNAUD, Pasteur.” Strasbourg and Paris, 1851. 8vo, pp. 218.
† [Here and elsewhere we adopt the word brother, as supplied in the English version of the Scriptures, for convenience, without prejudging the question, hereafter to be discussed, whether Jude was the brother or the son of James. Arnaud translates literally, Jude de Jacques.- TRANSLATOR.]