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University totally disgraced themselves by choosing Lord Henry Petty when in office and deserting him when out. Mr. Roscoe was hooted at Liverpool on the cry of “No Popery,’ and every Whig was called a Papist. Sheridan, neglecting to canvass for Westminster, lost it. Sir Christopher Baynes in vain endeavoured to raise the cry of “No Popery’ in Middlesex. At Canterbury, Sandwich, Dover, and Kincardineshire, the Ministerial candidates were beat. Colonel Ponsonby declined Derry. We were beat in Hampshire and Durham. Fuller gained Surrey. Grattan was returned for Dublin. At the meeting of Parliament Ministers disowned the cry. Mr. Perceval alone said that it was the general cry of the people and must be well founded. I stayed at Woodnesboro’ till July 15, when I came to London ; and, after having passed a few days there and a few at Woburn, I began my tour through Scotland with my father, the Duchess, and Dr. Hunt. For this tour see Volume III.

Volume III. is entitled, ‘A Journal of John Russell during a Tour to the Lakes and Scotland, and commences— ‘On Monday, August 3, 1807, I left Woburn Abbey in company with the Duke and Duchess of Bedford and the Rev. Dr. Hunt.' The tourists passed through Northampton, Leicester, Manchester, Lancaster, and Kendal, reaching Windermere on the following Thursday. There they were the guests of Mr. Curwen, and made acquaintance with Dr. Watson, Bishop of Llandaff."

He is a man of a very strong mind, very great learning, and an astonishing power of voice. He put me in mind of the idea I had formed of Dr. Johnson, excepting that his manners were perfectly those of a gentleman. . . . The Bishop attacked some lawyers who were there concerning their defending men whom they knew to be guilty. The lawyers defended themselves very well. In my opinion the lawyer should urge everything that can be pleaded from law, but not use the law for a purpose when it was evidently intended to mean otherwise. The Bishop is very vain. He said, for instance, ‘I made a very long speech, and I think a very good one,’ &c. . . . Nothing can exceed the respect with which he is looked upon.

Turning their backs on Windermere, the tourists followed what is now one of the most familiar roads in England to

Mr. Curwen was one of the pioneers of reform. He carried in 1809 a measure for preventing the sale of seats in the House of Commons. Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, is chiefly recollected (1) as the author of An Apology for the Bible, a book written in reply to Tom Paine's Age of Keason; and (2) as living continuously in the Lakes without going to his see.

Keswick, where they passed the beautiful cottage of Lord William Gordon, ‘hid in so retired a bay that it cannot be seen even from the top of lofty Skiddaw. Everything here is executed in so finished and appropriate a taste that it is almost the only place concerning which I could say “If this were mine nothing should be altered.” But, alas ! even on the banks of Derwentwater, in 1807, there were drawbacks to enjoyment.

Mr. Pocklington, a gentleman from Yorkshire, is a person who has rendered himself odious to every traveller of taste by building houses, &c., on the lake. He turned the course of his waterfall, so that there might be a good gravel walk made to the top, and moreover has built amongst some trees a white wall with a door and two Windows in it, which he calls a hermitage.

Shaking the dust off his feet in testimony against the utilitarian of Yorkshire, Lord John proceeded by Pooley Bridge to Ulleswater. After duly admiring that beautiful lake, the party drove through Carlisle, where there is nothing seemingly sufficient to excite curiosity,' and Langholm to Hawick. From Hawick, on the following day, they went to Selkirk, sleeping at Lord Somerville's.

Sunday, 16th.-Walter Scott, the minstrel of the 19th century, Came to breakfast with us. He afterwards went with me to Melrose Abbey . . . one of the most beautiful ruins perhaps in the world.

Tuesday, 18th.-I went with Dr. Hunt to Walter Scott's house." We passed through Galashiels, a pleasant manufacturing town on the Tweed. Indeed, we never quitted the Tweed during our whole drive. At last we forded the river and came to his house just in time to eat * good breakfast. I then went shooting and missed two shots at §rouse. I then had the pleasure of walking with Walter Scott through grounds which nature had adorned with a beauty which art cannot imitate. After passing a very pleasant evening we retired to bed betimes.

Wednesday, 19th.-My father and the Duchess came to breakfast at Mr. Scott's. Soon after breakfast we left his house to continue our journey.

Ascending the Tweed, the excursionists crossed into the Valley of the Clyde; and, passing Lanark, came to Hamilton, where they were the guests of the Duke of Hamilton ; and,

l 'In 1807 Sir W. Scott was living at Ashestiel. Abbotsford was not purchased till 1811.

after spending the next few days in visiting factories at Peebles, and ironworks at Carron, and in admiring the streets of Glasgow, ‘the best built and handsomest town I ever saw,” and the adjacent country, they came to Stirling. ‘There is a big but thin hill, rising in the middle of the Carse of Stirling; on the top of it is Stirling Castle, and the houses creep up the hill-side like chickens to get under the protection of the old hen.' Their route lay thence through Perth, Lochcarnhead, Callander, and the Trosachs, which, though they had not yet been hallowed by “The Lady of the Lake, ‘appeared before us in majestic glory. Never did I see so fine an assemblage of mountains—all forms, all sizes, one is covered with wood, another with heath. Loch Kitturin [sic] was soon before us, and instantly delighted us.' Thence, after spending a few days with the Duke of Montrose at Buchanan, where “His Grace gave us an excellent turtle soup, the best I ever tasted,’ the party proceeded up Loch Long, over ‘the dreadful hill of Glencroe, the most formidable pull for a carriage I ever saw,' to Inverary.

And now I first got a sight of the finest place I ever saw—Inverary. Reaching the top of a gentle ascent, we saw the whole view to advantage. The castle with four towers appeared in the midst of a small plain. The lake made a bay before it, and at the end of the bay appeared the town, which gave a complete idea of dependence on the castle. It is more like a handsome front of a great man's offices than a town. The Duke had a large party in the house, and we were handsomely received.

After passing five days most agreeably in this hospitable house, they bade adieu to Inverary, and drove past Loch Awe to Killin and Loch Tay—where Lord Breadalbane's new house at Taymouth contrasted unfavourably, in Lord John's opinion, with Inverary. Passing Dunkeld, ‘we were soon delighted by seeing the Pass of Killiecrankie where Lord Dundee lost his lise.'

From Killiecrankie the tourists drove to Blair Athol, and thence through a gloomy country to Kinrara, the Duchess of Bedford's house on the banks of the Spey. There they rested eight days, and thence proceeded to Inverness, our journey's end.'

Leaving Inverness, the party passed over the Field of Culloden, and Lord John soon after began to inquire how far it was to a still more interesting field—the Heath of the Witches. Thence their road was through Fochabers (where they naturally stayed at Gordon Castle), Cullen, Banff, and Turriff, to Aberdeen. From Aberdeen they followed the coast to Stonehaven and Dundee, where they were the guests of Lord Kinnaird. A few days' easy travelling brought them to Edinburgh, “the pride of Scotchmen and capital of their beautiful country.' There they, of course, visited Holyrood, going first to the gallery where the imaginary portraits of Scotch kings are placed, where the representative peers are chosen, and where two French gentlemen hear mass every Sunday. The portraits are shockingly painted, the peers are shamefully chosen, and the High Mass would shock the ears of those who cried No Popery.' Three days afterwards the Party left Edinburgh, and, after passing a night with Lord Lauderdale at Dunbar, Lord John brought both tour and journey to a close at Ayton. Steam has made the country through which Lord John thus travelled accessible to men with only moderate purses. In 1807, such a tour as that which has just been described was undertaken by, or possible for, only the few. From Ayton, Lord John returned alone to Woodnesboro'; and Perhaps it may be of some interest to record the cost of such a journey eighty years ago. Lord John paid 8/. 19s. 6d for his place in the mail from Ayton to London ; I/ 14s. 6d for his place from London to Canterbury; 15s. for a chaise from Canterbury to Woodnesboro'; 13s. 2d. to postboys; and 3' os. 6d to guards and coachmen between Berwick and Woodnesboro'. Without counting the cost of food in a journey which occupied three days and three nights, or of the inevitable play in London, Lord John spent in actual travelling rather more than 15/ on a journey which a first-class passenger could now accomplish for less than 4/. The journal—if it can be so called—for the next few months is so short that it may be quoted almost in its integrity. After passing nearly three months in seeing the beautiful landVOL. I. D

scapes of Scotland, I left Ayton on October 19 in the mail for London. We passed though Newcastle, a populous place famous for coal and glass. But the place I admired most was Durham. Its situation upon the verge of a hill, the river which encircles it, and the grandeur of its cathedral, made me place it in the number of the most beautiful cities of England. We were at York at midnight, and, having come though Doncaster and Huntingdon, we arrived in London on Saturday morning after a journey of two days and three nights. I got into the mail again on Sunday for Woodnesboro’, which I left on December 28 for Woburn. . . . After this I passed a week at Ampthill, whilst my father was in town. We met again at Woburn on Saturday, January 25. Tavistock and William followed the day after. . . . The Duke of Gloucester, a man of no very brilliant talents, but of good sense and judgment, is the only man to save the country. He will probably marry the Princess Charlotte of Wales." In the Houses of Lords and Commons on the day of the meeting, Ministers cut a most despicable figure on the Copenhagen affair. Several Lords entered their protest against it. Ministers all told different stories about the sources of their information. Lord Mulgrave said they got it from Bonaparte. Whilst he was speaking Lord Eldon said to Lord Ellenborough that it was impossible to muzzle a fool. I left Woburn on February 6, and, after passing two or three days in town, returned to Woodnesboro’. The day before I left town I went to the House of Lords for the first time, and heard an interest. ing debate on the Copenhagen expedition.” On March 25 the frost was so hard as to freeze Mr. Smith's pond entirely. On the same day Clare and I went to shoot on the shore, and found it a very pleasant day. About the same time William again came to Canterbury as aide-de-camp to Sir George Ludlow, and I went every now and then to spend a day with him. It was

* The Duke of Gloucester was the nephew of George III. Instead of marry. ing the Princess Charlotte, he married his cousin Princess Mary, and died without issue.

* In August 1807 the Ministry sent an expedition to the Baltic to seize the Danish fleet at Copenhagen, though Denmark was then at peace with England. The proceeding was justified on the ground that Napoleon—as the Ministry be. lieved—intended to compel the Court of Denmark to close the Sound, and to seize the Danish navies for the invasion of Great Britain and Ireland. Lord W. Russell saw his first service in this expedition. The propriety of the expedition has been often questioned, and perhaps the late Sir G. Lewis described it most accurately as ‘an extreme exercise of the rights of war.’

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