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death by Joshua or Eleazar into a volume. And he has not the slightest doubt that Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers, were written, alınost as we have them, by Moses himself. Moses is thus portrayed to us by his own hand in these three Books, and in Deuteronomy by the hand of a contemporary; and the truth concerning him is best arrived at by a close scrutiny of the scriptural narrative.

Materials for a description of the "times" of Moses exist now in enormous quantities through the interpretation of the hieroglyphic inscriptions, and of the other native Egyptian documents. They are contained in the works of Lepsius, Wilkinson, Rosellini, Mariette, Brugsch, Birch, Chabas, Stuart Poole, and others. The difficulty here has been that of selection. In a work limited to two hundred pages, the author found it necessary to contract within a painfully narrow space his notices of the contemporary history of the manners, customs, and religion of Egypt; while of the grand buildings executed by the Egyptian monarchs, amongst which Moses was brought up, he could only allow himself the briefest and most general description. Similarly, with respect to Moses' life in the wilderness, and to the geographical problems involved in the wanderings, he found it impossible within the limits assigned him to enter into details, or to attempt more than some general portraiture of the Sinaitic region, and the life of its ancient inhabitants. For this portion of his essay he is largely indebted to the labours of Stanley, Tristram, Robinson, Trumbull, Porter, and the travellers whose works have been published under the auspices of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Recent commentaries, as the "Speaker's," the "Pulpit Commentary," and that sanctioned by the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, have also been laid under contribution, and have afforded valuable aid. Among general histories of the time, he has derived the greatest assistance from the late Dean Stanley's "History of the Jewish Church,” which, though not faultless, is a work of sterling merit. Ewald's History seems to him far inferior; and the other accounts given of Moses in Cyclopædias and Biblica. Dictionaries add nothing of any value to the researches and reflections of the two above-mentioned writers.


G. R.

February 27, 1887.


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