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And again, this explanation only serves to make matters worse than before. For how puerile is it to suppose, that men will rest satisfied with tracing back their ills to Adam, and refrain from asking, who was Adam's cause! And then comes upon us at once the ancient dilemma about evil; was it mistake, or was it malignity, that created so poor a creature as our progenitor, and staked on so precarious a will the blessedness of a race and the well-being of a world? So far, this theory, falsely and injuriously ascribed to Christianity, would leave us where we were: but it carries us into deeper and gratuitous difficulties, of which natural religion knows nothing, by appending eternal consequences to Adam's transgression; a large portion of which, after the most sanguine extension of the efficacy of the atonement, must remain unredeemed. So that if, under the eye of naturalism, the world, with its generations dropping into the grave, must appear (as we heard it recently described)* like the populous precincts of some castle, whose governor called his servants, after a brief indulgence of liberty and peace, into a dark and inscrutable dungeon, never to return or be seen again : the only new feature which this theory introduces into the prospect is this ; that the interior of that cavernous prison-house is disclosed; and while a few of the departed are seen to have emerged into a fairer light, and to be traversing greener fields, and sharing a more blessed liberty than they knew before, the vast multitude are discerned in the gripe of everlasting chains, and the twist of unimaginable torture. And all this is a penal consequence of a first ancestor's transg Singular spectacle to be offered in vindication of the ch of God!

We are warned, however, not to start back from this sentation, or to indulge in any rash expression at the which it gives of the justice of the Most High ; for t

transgression! the character

this repre

* See Rev, H. M'Neile's Lecture; The Proper Deity of our Lord the Ground of Consistency in the Work of Redemption, pp. 339, 340.

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*; and that if the system deduced from Scripture acwith that which is in action in the creation, there arises

presumption that both are from the same Author. gement which is the prime subject of objection in ag theory, viz., the vicarious transmission of conTom acts of vice and virtue, is said to be familiar rvation as a fact ; and ought, therefore, to present

les in the way of the admission of a doctrine. Is it Dot obvin

Mous, for example, that the guilt of a parent may entail disa

disease and premature death on his child, or even remoler descendants ? And if it be consistent with the divine perfections, that the innocent should suffer for others' sins at the distance of one generation, why not at the distance of a thousand? The guiltless victim is not more completely severed from identity with Adam, than he is from identity with his own father. My reply is brief: I admit both the fact and the analogy; but the fact is of the exceptional kind, om which, by itself, I could not infer the justice or the bene

nce of the Creator; and which, were it of large and prevaSent amount, I could not even reconcile with these perfections. If then you take it out of the list of exceptions and difficulties, and erect it into a cardinal rule, if you interpret by it the whole invisible portion of God's government, you turn the scale at once against the character of the Supreme, and plant wreation under a tyrant's sway. And this is the fatal principle norrading all analogical arguments in defence of Trinitarian hristianity. No resemblances to the system can be found in niverse,except in those anomalies and seeming deformities

plex the student of Providence, and which would

ine his faith, were they not lost in the vast spectacle undermine his

and of good. These disorders are selected and


of beauty and of good. These spread out to view, as specir nature; the mysteries and horro pular theology are extended by the

steries and horrors which offend us in the po

e extended by their side; the comparison is made, point by point, till the similitude is undeniably made out; and when the argument is closed, it amounts to this: do you doubt whether God could break mens' limbs? You mistake his strength of character; only see how he puts out their eyes! What kind of impression this reasoning may have, seems to me doubtful even to agony. Both Trinitarian theology and nature, it is triumphantly urged, must proceed from the same Author; aye, but what sort of Author is that? You have led me in your quest after analogies, through the great infirmary of God's creation; and so haunted am I by the sights and sounds of the lazar-house, that scarce can I believe in any thing but pestilence; so sick of soul have I become, that the mountain breeze has lost its scent of health and you say, it is all the same in the other world, and wherever the same rule extends : then I know my fate, that in this Universe Justice has no throne. And thus, my friends, it comes to pass, that these reasoners often gain indeed their victory; but it is known only to the Searcher of Hearts, whether

it is a victory against natural religion, or in favour of revealed. | For this reason, I consider the “ Analogy” of Bishop Butler

(one of the profoundest of thinkers, and on purely moral subjects one of the justest too,) as containing, with a design directly contrary, the most terrible persuasives to Atheism that have ever been produced. The essential error consists in selecting the difficulties,—which are the rare, exceptional phenomena of nature,-as the basis of analogy and argument. In the com: prehensive and generous study of Providence, the min. indeed, already have overcome the difficulties, and wir lights recently gained from the harmony, design, and or creation, have made those shadows pass imperceptibly an but when forced again into their very centre, compelled adopt them as a fixed station and point of mental vision, th deepen round the heart again, and, instead of illustrating an thing, become solid darkness themselves.

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appears to be nothing in nature and life, at all analoto the vicarious principle attributed to God in the Tri

scheme of redemption. There is nowhere to be y proper transfer or exchange, either of the qualities, consequences, of vice and virtue. The good and

men do indeed affect others as well as themselves; eht suffer with the guilty, as in the case before ad" a child suffering in health by the excesses of a But there is here no endurance for another, similar

8 alleged endurance in the place of men; the incon on the child is not deducted from the parent; it does mol bing to lighten his load, or make it less than it would have been, had he been without descendants ; nor does any one s ppose his guilt alleviated by the existence of this in

cente + fellow-sufferer. There is a nearer approach to analogy in those cases of crime, where the perpetrator seems to escape, and to leave the consequences of his act to descend on otherg; as when the successful cheat eludes pursuit, and

the stolen gains of neighbours constructs a life of luxury Sor himself; or when a spendthrift government, forgetful of

its high trust, turning the professions of patriotism into a lie, is permitted to run a prosperous career for one generation, and is personally gone before the popular retribution falls in the next, on innocent successors. Here no doubt the harmless suffer by the guilty, in a certain sense in the of the guilty; but not in the sense which the analogy

For there is still no substitution; the distress of the unoffending part

wffending party is not struck out of the offender's pu

• does not lessen, but rather aggravates his guilt;


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nishment; does not lessen. and instead of fitting him sentiments of justice to foll tion. Nor does the scheme from the fact, that whoever attemy himself suffer; must have the

bes the scheme receive any better illustration that whoever attempts the cure of misery must must have the shadows of ill cast upon his

sadness he alleviates; and interpose himself to stay the plague which, in a world diseased, threatens to pass to the living from the dead. The parallel fails, because there is still no transference: the appropriate sufferings of sin are not given to the philanthropist; and the noble pains of goodness in him, the glorious strife of his self-sacrifice, are no part of the penal consequences of others' guilt ; they do not cancel one iota of those consequences, or make the crimes which have demanded them, in any way, more ready for forgiveness. Indeed, it is not in the good man's sufferings, considered as such, that any efficacy resides; but in his efforts, which may be made with great sacrifice or without it, as the case may be. Nor, at best, is there any proper annihilation of consequences at all, accruing from his toils ; the past acts of wrong which call up his resisting energies, are irrevocable, the guilt incurred, the penalty indestructible; the series of effects, foreign to the mind of the perpetrator, may be abbreviated; prevention applied to new ills which threaten to arise; but, by all this, the personal fitness of the delinquent for forgiveness is wholly unaffected; the volition of sin has gone forth; and on it, flies, as surely as sound on a vibration of the air, the verdict of judgment.


Those who are affected by slight and failing analogies like these, would do well to consider one, sufficiently obvious, which seems to throw doubt upon their scheme. The atonement is thought to be, in respect to all believers, a reversal of the fall: the effects of the fall are partly visible and temporal, partly invisible and eternal; linked, however, together as inseparable portions of the same penal system. Now it is evident, that the supposed redemption on the cross has left precisely where they were, all the visible effects of the first transgression: sorrow and toil are the lot of all, as they have been from of old; the baptized infant utters a cry as sad as the unbaptized ; and between the holiness of the true believer and the worth of the devout heretic, there is not discernible such a differ

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