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souls, saying unto us, “ receive ye the holy spirit.” The holy spirit of God reveals itself to the spirit of man in proportion as we remove unholiness from us. What use of language then can be more affectingly elevating and solemn than that which designates God, when in communication with man, as the Holy Spirit? A spirit, he is spiritually discerned : and holy, only those that are holy have affinities with Him.
Such then is the primary signification of the expression Holy Spirit when used in the Scriptures—the Holy Spirit of God naturally or supernaturally in communication with the spirit of man, and in fuller communication in proportion as man by holiness seeks it and prepares himself for it. From this however there is derived a secondary signification, and so natural and easy is the derivative meaning, that it is a strong confirmation of its primary. That portion of his spirit which God communicates to man, may be regarded as separated from Him. It has entered into man and become his. It is a gift, an inspiration from our God. Man has become the possessor of it, but still God is the origin of it, and therefore though imparted to us it may still be spoken of as God's holy spirit. There are therefore in Scripture two significations of the Holy Spirituo primary one-God in communication with man—and the secondary one—that portion of his spirit which God has communicated, naturally or supernaturally, and which become ours. We have received the Holy Spirit, when we have spiritually received what only God can communicate. These two comprise, I believe, all the meanings of the ex. pression, Holy Spirit, first, God communicating to man, ang secondly that portion of His spirit, which, by communica tion, man's spirit has received.
I shall give some instances of each of these applications on the phrase.
There can be no difficulty in all those cases in which holy Spirit signifies God himself in spiritual commu
with man.—“And when they bring you into the synagogues, and unto magistrates, and powers; take ye no thought how or what thing ye shall answer, or what ye shall say. For the Holy Ghost shall teach you, in that same hour, what ye ought to say.”—Luke xii. 11, 12. Now in the parallel passage in St. Matthew's Gospel we have the expression, the Holy Ghost, explained to mean the spirit of God our Father. “But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak. For it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak. For it is not ye that speak, but the spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.”—Matt. x. 19, 20. “Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man : but holy men spake, as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.”. “ As they ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them—so they being sent forth by the Holy Spirit departed unto Seleucia.”—Acts xiii. 2,4.
The expression the “Spirit of God” is sometimes used with the same signification, only with this difference, that “the Spirit of God” frequently signifies the essence and being of God as He is in Himself, whilst the expression “ the Holy Spirit” is I believe never employed except to designate our heavenly Father when in living communication with the spirits of his children. “What man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of a man that is in him? Even so the things of God knoweth no man [or no one] but the spirit of God.”—1 Cor. ii. 11. Here if the spirit of man means man, the spirit of God must mean God, and how in opposition to language so precise and definite, a separate personality could be introduced into the godhead, called the spirit of God, it is difficult to imagine. « Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence ?”—Ps. cxxxix. “ By his spirit he has garnished the heavens : his hand has formed the crooked serpent (the galaxy).—Job, xxvi. 13.
I shall now adduce some of the more remarkable cases in which the various expressions, “ spirit,” “ holy spirit,” ana “ spirit of God,” are used to designate that portion of God's spirit which naturally or supernaturally has entered into man, and become ours, but which in reference to Him from whom it was derived, and with whom it retains blessed connections, is called the spirit of God. God being a Spirit, and man being a spirit, whatever man knows or feels of God, may, not figuratively, but with the strictest truth, be called the Holy Spirit within him. “ If ye then being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him.”—Luke, xi. 13. Now that the Holy Spirit signifies here not a third person in the godhead, but our heavenly Father's gifts and inspirations to the soul, is clearly shown by the parallel passage in St. Matthew's gospel—“ If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in Heaven give good things to them that ask Him.”—Matt. vii. 11. “But as it is written, eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. But God hath tea vealed them unto us by his spirit: for the spirit searchetn all things, yea, the deep things of God.”—1 Cor. 11. Yg "V Now here the spirit is used first in its primary sense of God in communication with man, and immediately after in secondary sense of that portion of His spirit communica! to man, for it is just in proportion as it partakes of His sp that the spirit of man searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. God enlightens and man receives—but light which has entered into man, since it came from us may well continue to be called the Spirit of God." have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit
is of God;—but the natural man receiveth not the things of the spirit of God: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. But we have the mind of Christ." -1 Cor. ii. 12—16. Here the Apostle distinctly declares that our portion of the spirit of God is “ the mind of Christ.", In proportion as we have that we know Him, the only true God, whom to know is life eternal. “ Likewise the spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings that cannot be uttered.”—Rom. viii. 26. Now nothing can be more marvellous in all the marvels of scripture interpretation, than that this spirit within us which vents itself in groanings that cannot be uttered should ever have been referred to a third personality in the godhead. How beautiful is this passage when truly and spiritually considered! We know not what to pray for as we ought; our spiritual apprehension is feeble and dim; and our vague yearnings after the heavenly and the perfect are not distinct enough to present clearly-defined objects to our pursuit and love; yet we have a holy impulse within us, a divine tendency leading us towards God; God has given us this Spirit, and partaking of His nature it sighs after the perfection to which it is akin; it knows not fully its heavenly origin and end, but still true to the divine instinct it yearns after Him and tends towards Him; it sighs for a glory and a happiness which it cannot distinctly conceive or express, but God who gave it understands the prayer, and hears this intercession of His own spirit—that divine impulse planted by Himself which now supplicates Him to make bright its dim longings and to help it forwards unto that glory towards which the divinity within it tends—and He who searcheth the heart knoweth what is the mind of that spirit which He himself put there, and that it maketh intercession with Him, for all holy ones,*
* And he that searcheth the heart knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit. because it maketh intercession for the Saints, according to the will of God." -Rom. viii. 27.
that He would fulfil the promise of the heavenly impulse that sighs for good.* How has Trinitarianism destroyed the spiritual power of the Scriptures, by taking all this beautiful and holy meaning out of the individual heart, and for the sighings which cannot be uttered after the immortal and the good, which God, who inspired them, comprehends and blesses, substituting a third Person in the godhead who intercedes for us to another Person, with groanings that cannot be uttered !
I believe that these two significations of the expression, “ Holy Spirit,” so closely connected as scarcely to be two, will explain all the cases of its scriptural occurrence; first, God Himself in communication with the Soul, and secondly, that portion of His spirit which He has comm unicated to man, and which as being His, derived from Him, and a portion of the true knowledge of His Mind, is called His Holy Spirit.
I shall now examine the Scriptural evidence which is chiefly relied upon in this controversy, as proving, not the personality and deity of the Holy Spirit, for here we agree, but a personality and deity distinct from those of God our Father.
“ Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
“ It is said that God has promised his Spirit to those who ask for it. But the gift of the SPIRIT, that unction of which St. John speaks (probably in allusion to the anointment of the Hebrew priests, the interpreters of the Old Law), was not intended as a check but as a GUIDE to the rational mind of man. He will guide you into all the truth,' namely of the simple Gospel. The Divine Spirit of Truth has been promised to sincere Christians, to guide them into all that conce rns their moi safety. The two SPIRITS—the Spirit (i.e. the mind, so we may call it witho irreverence) of God, and the spirit of man, though infinitely apart from each othe in their nature, are clearly represented by St. Paul as analogous (I might say akin) to each other. Nor could it be otherwise, since the one is the fountain-head on reason, the other a derived stream. 'Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our int mities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought; but the Spiri itself maketh intercession for us (with sighs not expressed in words);' i. e. tr divine impulse after holiness which is in us, makes us sigh for what we can express : but God, who gives us that Spirit, knows what it is we wish for."—0 servations on Heresy and Orthodoxy, by the Rev. J. B. White,