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(2.) It was made of the man's body, to teach men to love their wives as their own flesh.
(3.) It was not made out of man's head, to shew her that she is not to be her husband's mistress, nor usurp authority over him, 1 Tim. ii. 12.; nor out of his feet, to shew him that she is not to be his slave, to be trampled on by him; but out of his side, near his heart, to shew him that she must be treated as his companion, loved, nourished, and cherished by him.
(4.) Lastly, The mystery of the church drawing her life out of Christ's sleeping the sleep of death on the cross, Eph. V. seems to have been here intended and shadowed forth.
The bodies of both our first parents were far more beau- t tiful, handsome, and graceful than our bodies are now. We are begot of men, but they were the immediate workmanship of God. The author being more excellent, the workmanship must be so too. And so Adam signifies to be ruddy, and to shine, Lam. iv. 7. So that to Eve in particular may justly be applied the following lines of a celebrated poet :
A woman loveliest of the lovely kind,
In body perfect, and complete in mind. Secondly, The soul of man was of an original far different from that of his body. Moses gives us this account of it
, Gen, ü. 7. The Lord God-breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. The Lord inspired him with a living reasonable soul, which presently appeared by his breathing at his nostrils; whereas before he was only a fair lifeless body. And this different account of man's soul and body clearly holds forth, that it was not fetched out of any power in the matter of his body, but was created of nothing. For this inspiration plainly implies that some thing was infused into it, which was not in it before, and did not originally inhere in it.' Thus was the soul both of the man and the woman created; for chat both were created with rational souls, is taught in our text, where they are said to be made after God's images and Moses leaves us to ga ther the manner of the creation of the woman's soul from that of Adam's. Concerning the soul of man, three things are specially to be known,
1. That it is an incorporeal or spiritual substance, different from the body. It is called a spirit, Zech. xi. 1. And Stephen prays, Acts vii. 59. • Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.' Compare Luke xxiv. 39. where our Lord says concerning his body after his resurrection from the dead, 'Handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.'
2. As the souls of Adam and Eve were immediately crea ted of God, so the souls of all their posterity are immediately formed by God, and proceed not from their parents by generation, or any other way: but God infuseth the soul created by him of nothing; into the body formed in the womb when it is fitly organised to receive it. And yet a man may properly be said to beget a man, though he only begets the body, as well as to kill a man, though he can only kill the body. This is plain from that express scripture-testimony, Zech. xii. 1.-that formeth the spirit of man within him.' So, Heb. xii. 9. God is held forth as “The Father of spi. rits,' in opposition to men as the fathers of our flesh;' which must needs be by immediate creation: for otherwise he is the Father of our flesh too, Eccl. xii. 7. " Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was; and the spirit shall return to God who gave it." He gave the body too, but the soul in such a manner as he gave not the body.
3. Hence the soul is immortal, being a spirit, and dies not with the body, Eccl. xii. 7. just cited. Being immaterial, pot consisting of parts, it cannot be dissolved. Men can kill the body, but not the soul; and therefore it doth not die with the body, being invulnerable, and unsusceptive of external injuries, Matth. x, 28. and xxii. 32. Neither does it sleep till the resurrection, as some have foolishly supposed. Our Lord told the thief on the cross, that that very day he (that is, his soul) should be with him in paradise, not to sleep, but to be actively employed in exercises peculiar to the heavenly state. And certain it is that the apostle Paul had no such thought, when he said, Phil. i. 23.” “I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better. If his soul was to sleep and doge in indolence and inactivity after his death, he had never preferred the dissolution of his body, and the advantage of being with Christ, to his continuing in his mortal state, in which he was most usefully employed.
Thirdly, Why did God make man male and female ?
1. That man might have a meet help, Gen. ii. 18.; and this was the meetest help for the comfort of life, (however uncomfortable sin has now made it); otherwise God had given Adam a friend, and not a wife. Hence the endear. ments of conjugal society, when discreetly and properly entered into and cultivated, are found, even in our present imperfect state, far preferable to those arising from the strictest and closest friendships among men.
2. For the lawful propogation of mankind, Gen. i. 27, 28. that there might be a godly seed, Mal. ii. 15. and for a remedy against all inordinate lusts and libidinous desires.
II. Let us now consider God's making man after his own image.
Here I shall shew, 1. Who was created after God's image; and 2. Wherein this image consisted.
First, I am to shew who was created after the image of God. It was both the man and the woman, as is clear from the text. In this respect, indeed, there was one thing wherein the man excelled the woman, which is taken notice of by the apostle, 1 Cor. xi. 7. He is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of the man.' Not but that the woman is the image of God in knowledge, righteousness. and holiness, as well as the man : but the man is the image of God in respect of that authority which he has over his wife, who is the glory of man in respect of her subjection to him. So that what we say of the man as to his being created after the divine image, must be understood of the woman too.
Secondly, I will shew wherein the image of God, in which our first parents were made, consisted. Abstracting from the spirituality of their souls, and the erect and graceful posture of their bodies, peculiar to rational creatures alone, which are but a faint shadow of the image of God, (if they can with any propriety be called a shadow of it at all), this image doth principally at least shine in the soul, and those glorious qualities wherewith man was endued, that is, both the man and the woman.
1. The image of God, after which man was created, consisted in knowledge, Col. i. 10. He was created wise: Not that he knew all things, for that is proper to the omniscient Being alone; but he was ignorant of nothing that he was.
obliged to know; he had allthe knowledge that was necessary for life and godliness. He had clear and distinct apprehensions of God, his nature and perfections, far superior to any knowledge of that kind that can now be acquired by the most diligent and the most laboured researches of human industry. And we can hardly suppose that he was ignorant of the great mystery of the Trinity, considered abstractly; as it was most certainly the second person who appeared to and conversed with him* This knowledge or wisdom of man appeared in his knowledge of the miraculous formation of Eve, whose nature and duty, as well as his own towards her, he declares; which he could not know but by a prophetical spirit. The primitive pair had God', law written on their hearts, Rom. ii. 15. even that same law which was afterwards written on tables of stone, and promulgated from mount Sinai. It was consecrated with them; so that no sooner were they man and woman, than they were knowing and intelligent creatures, endowed with all the knowledge necessary for their upright state. Adam's giving names to the beasts, and those such as were expressive of their natures, Gen. ii. 19. was a great evidence of his knowledge of nature. Thus his knowledge reached from the sun, that glorious fountain of light, to the meanest glow-worm that shines in the hedge. And that God gave them dominion over the earth and all the inferior creatures, is an evidence that they were endued with the knowledge of managing civil affairs, which a wise man will manage with discretion.
2. The image of God consisted in righteousness, Eph. iv. 24. There was a perfect conformity in his will to the will of God. He was endued with a disposition to every good thing, Eccl. vii. 29. God made man upright.' His will was straight with God's will, not bending to the right or left hand, without any irregular bias or inclination. And he had full power and ability to fulfil the whole law of God. As, in respect of knowledge, he perfectly knew the whole extent of his duty, so he was created with sufficient powers for the due performance thereof.
3. It consisted in holiness, Eph. iv. 24. Man's affections were pure and holy, without being tinctured with any vitious appetite. They were regular and orderly, free from all dis
• The learned Witsius may be consulted upon this head, Oeconomy of the Cove. Rants, book i, chap. 2. & 5. et seq.
order and distemper. They were set on lawful objects, and that in a right manner, loving what God loved, and hating what he hated; loving and delighting in God with all his heart, strength, soul and mind. Yet all this happy disposition was mutable, he was not confirmed therein, nor set be. yond the reach of falling therefrom, as the event has mournfully shewed.
This is that image of God wherein man was created, consisting in original righteousness, where his reason was naturally subject to God, his will to his reason, and his af. fections to his will, and consequently all duly subordinated to God, and directed to him, without any propensity or inclination to evil. A signal of this was, that both our first parents were naked, and yet were not ashamed, nor susceptive of shame.
That man was created in this condition, wise, altogether righteous, and holy, is not only clear from the above-cited scriptures, but is also agreeable to reason; which suggests, that nothing impure or imperfect, nothing having any vitious tendency or inclination, could proceed out of the hands of an holy God, who cannot be the author of evil. Man was crented after the image of God; and in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, the scripture shews us, the image of God consists. Moreover, God made all very good, Gen. i. 31. Man's goodness consists in these excellent qualities, and without these he would not have been fit for the end of his creation. How was it possible for him to have exercised the dominion he was invested with over the creatures, or served his Creator in the manner that became him, without such endowments? Hence I infer,
(1.) That man was not created in pure naturals, that is, with bare faculties, neither good nor evil. For God made man upright,' Eccl. vii. 29.
(2.) That there was not naturally in man a combat betwist the flesh and the spirit, betwixt reason and appetite; no inclination to sin, no lustings of the flesh, or the inferior faculties of the soul. For this
corrupt will or inclination is sin properly and truly, as the apostle shews, Rom. vij. 7. and the fountain of all sin. And to say, that these dispositions were in man at his original formation, makes God indeed the author of sin ; seeing he made (as they falsely pretend) man of such matter as is necessarily accom