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sins followed and increased it. The first pilot dashed the ship on a rock, and then all that were in it were cast into a sea of misery. Our first parents fell, and we being in them felt with them the sad and mournful effects of their fall.

III. I proceed to shew what that inisery is which hath by the fall overtaken all mankind. It may be taken up in these three things

1. Man's loss by the fall.
2. What he is brought under by it.
3. What he is liable to in consequence of it.

First, Let us view man's loss by the fall. He has lost communion with God. He enjoyed it before that fatal period; but now it is gone. It implies two things. 1. A saving interest in God as his God. Man could then call God his own God; his Maker, his Husband, his Friend; his Portion, being in covenant with him. 2. Sweet and comfortable society and fellowship with God: and all this without a mediator, God and man not having been enemies or at variance: This sweet and agreeable communion he lost, as appears from Gen. iii. 8. where it is said, “ They (our first parents) heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day; and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the garden. When God spoke to him before, it was refreshing and comfortable to him; but now it was a terror to him; evidently shewing that all correspondence was broke up.

Thus man lost God, Eph. ii. 12. the greatest and the foun. tain of all other losses. He is no more the God of fallen men, till by a new covenant they get a new interest in him. This is the greatest of all losses and miseries. Had the sun been for ever darkened in the heavens, it had been no such loss as this. God is the cause and fountain of all good; and the loss of him must be the loss of every thing that is good and excellent. Man is a mere nothing without God; a nothing in nature without his common presence, anda nothing in happiness without his gracious presence, Psal. xxx. 5. In his ta. vour is life.' Psal. Ixiii. 3. • Thy loving-kindness is better than life. That day man fell, the foundation of the earth was drawn away, and all fell down together; the soul and the life departed from all men, and left them all dead, having lost God, the fountain of life and joy. Hence we may infer, VOL. I.


1. Man is a slave to the devil, 2 Tim. ii. 26. When the soul is gone, men may do with the body what they will; and when God is gone, the devil may do with the soul what he will. Man without God is like Samson without his hair, quite weak and unable to resist his spiritual enemies, as Samson to oppose

the Philistines. Satan has over men in nature the power of a master, Rom. vi. 16. so that when he bids them go, they go; and when to come; they come ;-that of a conqueror, and so he makes them his slaves and vassals ;and that of a jailor, keeping them fast bound in chains, so that they cannot escape from his clutches, Isa. Isi. 1.

2. Man has lost his covenant-right to the creatures which he had when in favour with his Maker; and therefore Adam was driven out of paradise. Men have no right to the crea. turės, or their service now, but that of common providence, until it be otherwise restored by their coming into the bond of the new covenant.

3. Hence man is in a fruitless search after happiness in the creatures, set, as a poor infant that hath lost the breasts, to suck at the dry breasts of the creatures, where nothing is to be met with but continued disappointments.

4. Man cannot help himself, John xv. 5. His help is alone in God in Christ, without whom one can do nothing. He is like a poor infant exposed, that cannot help itself, Ezek. xvi. He is like one grievously wounded, who can neither make a plaster for his wounds nor apply it. Ah! how miserable is the case of man under the fall!

Secondly, Let us consider what man is brought under by the fall.

1. He is brought under God's wrath. Hence sinners are said to be the children of wrath, Eph. ii. 3. Wrath in God is mixed with no perturbation, but is pure from all discomposure. It imports,

(1.) That sinners are under the displeasure of God. He can take no delight in them, but his soul loaths them. There is a holy fire of anger burning in his breast against them. Should the sun be continually under a cloud, and the heavens ever covered with blackness, what a miserable place would the world be? But that is nothing to the divine anger: Who knows the power of thine anger ?' says the Psalmist, Psal. xc, 11.

(2.) God deals with them as with enemies, Nah. i. 2.

'God is jealous, and the Lord revengeth, the Lord revengeth and is furious, the Lord will take vengeance on his adversaries; and he reserveth wrath for his enemies,' Isa. i. 24.- Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies.' To have men in power ene. mies to us, is sad; but to have God an enemy, is beyond expression dreadful: seeing we can neither fight nor flee from him, and he can pursue the quarrel through all eternity

2. They are under his curse, Gal, iii. 10. Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.' Now, God's curse is the binding over the sinner to all the direful effects of his wrath, This is the dreadful yoke which the broken law wreaths about the neck of every sinner as in a natural state. God's curse is the tying of a sinner to the stake, that the law and justice of God may disburden all their arrows into his soul, and that in him may meet all the miseries and plagues that flow from the avenging wrath of God.

Thus every sinner, while in a natural state, is under the wrath and curse of God; a burden on him, that if not removed by him who was made under the law, and bore the curse thereof, will sink sinners into the lowest pit of hell.

THIRDLY, Let us next consider what man is liable to, both in this world and that which is to come.

First, In this world, he is liable.

1. To all the miseries of this life. Now these are twofold.

Ist, Outward miseries. There is a flood of these that man is subject to; as,

(1.) God's curse upon the creature for our sake, Gen, ji. 17. “Cursed is the ground for thy sake.' Under the weight of this curse the whole creation groans and travails in pain, longing for deliverance. It is not the groan of a wearied beast desiring to be disburdened of its load, but a groan the effect of the fall of man. The treason and rebellion of man against his rightful Lord and Sovereign, brought distress and misery upon all that was formed for his use; as when the majesty of a prince is violated by the rebellion of his subjects, all that belongs to them, and was before the free gift of the prince, is forfeited and taken from them. Their lands, palaces, cattle, even all that pertains to them, bear the marks of his sovereign fury. Consult Deut. xxviii. 15, &c.

(2.) Outward miseries, such as sword, famine, and pes. tilence. Many times the curse of the Lord makes the heavens as brass, and the earth as iron, binds up the clouds, and restrains their necessary influences, so that the fruits of the earth are dried up. It raises divisions, wars, and mutinies in a kingdom. All the confusions and disorders which are to be seen among men, are the woful fruits and native results of sin. It kindles and blows up the fire of discord in families, cities, and nations. This is that fury that brings a smoking firebrand from hell, and sets the whole world in a combustion. Pride and ambition, covetousness and desire of revenge, have made the world a stage of the most bloody tragedies. We have some terrible threatenings with respect to these judgments, Deut, xxviii. Lev. xxvi

. And they are all summed up in one verse, Ezek. v. 17. 'I will send upon you famine, and evil beasts, and they shall bereave thee; and pestilence and blood shall pass through thee, and I will bring the sword upon thee: I the Lord have spoken it,

(3.) Miseries on men's bodies, sickness and bodily pains, as burning fevers, languishing consumptions, distorting con vulsions, ugly deformities, gout and gravel, and all the dismal train

of wasting diseases and acute pains. Sin hath made man's body a seminary of diseases, and planted in it the fatal seeds and principles of corruption and dissolution, and made him liable to attacks from all distempers, from the torturing stone to the wasting consumption,

(4.) On our estates, as losses, crosses, wrongs, and oppres. sions. How often do those in trade suffer heavy losses by the bankruptcies of their debtors, by unfair práctices, and sinistrous dealings, by cheating and tricking, by extortion and rapine, &c?

(5.) On our names, by reproach, disgrace, &c. Many estates are blasted, and families reduced to poverty and con tempt, which sometime have made a good figure in the world. People are made to groan under pinching straits and wants, and yet they seldom consider the bitter root from which all this springs. It is sin that makes men poor, mean, low, and contemptible in the world, and that brings reproach and disgrace upon their names, Deut. xxvüi. 37.

(6.) On our employments and callings. These are many times full of pain, labour, and disappointments. Men earn wages, and put it into a bag with holes, and they disquiet and vex themselves in vain. Whence are our cares and fears but from sin? Fear is the ague of the soul that sets it a shaking. Some fear want, and others alarms. Whence come ail the disappointments of our hopes and expectations but from sin? When we look for comfort, there is a cross; where we expect honey and sweetness, there we find wormwood and gall.

(7.) On our relations, unequal uncomfortable marriages, false and treacherous friends, harsh and cruel masters, un, dutiful and unfaithful servants. It is sin that makes children ungrateful and undutiful to parents; they that should be as the staff of their parents old age, are as a sword many times to pierce their hearts. It is sin that makes wives disobedient to their husbands, and to defile their beds.

2dly, Inward spiritual iniseries: As (1.) Blindness of mind, Eph. iv. 18. the devil putting out the eyes that would not receive the light of the gospel, 1 Cor. iv. 4. (2.) ' A reprobate sense,' Rom. i. 28. whereby men are left of God, so as to have no sense of discerning betwixt good and evil, but take bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter. (3.)

Strong delusions, 2 Thess. ii. 11. whereby men, forsaking the truth, doat on the fancies and imaginations of their own hearts, and embrace lies for solid truths. (4.) · Hardness of heart,' Rom. ii. 5. whereby men's hearts are hard. ened from the fear of the Lord, and proof against convic, tion, and means used for awakening them. (5.) Vile affections, Rom. i. 26, eagerly desiring sin and vanity, and all manner of filthiness, without regard to the dictates of reason and a natural conscience. (6.) Lastly, Fear, sorrow, and horror of conscience, which torment men, embitter life, and often bring death in their train, Isaiah xxxiii. 14.

2. At the end of this life, man is liable to death, Rom, vi. 23. ! The wages of sin is death. The soul must be separated from the body; the man falls into the hands of the king of terrors, and goes down to the house appointed for all living.

Object. But if these things be the effects of the fall, how comes it that those who are delivered from the curse of the

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