« EdellinenJatka »
Sir S. G A. Shippard, K.C.M.G
Sir Marshall J. Clarke, late
Gov. and Com.-in-Chief Sir C. B. H. Mitchell, K.C.M.G. 18 Sept., 1889 1 Dec., 1889
1,000 1,200 500
Sir James Shaw Hay, K.C.M.G.
29 Nov., 1888
29 Nov., 1888
14 Jan., 1886
24 Oct., 1888
Gov. and Com.-in-Chief.. Gen. The Hon. Sir A. E. 26 Oct., 1886 26 Nov.. 1886 In Fortress
£2,200 from Imperial Funds; £700 from Colonial funds, and £46 from quit-rents. e £1,000 personal allowance from Imperial furds. f from Imperial funds, £500 allowance. g and h, £250 table allowance. Nothing from Army Funds. k £3,000 from Colonial Funds; 11,540, and £500 table allowance as Officer commanding the troops from Imperial Funds. 14,800 dols. table money. m 5,000 dols. Entertainment allowance. Paid as Governor of the British North Borneo Company. o Imperial funds
* Sir A. Havelock will take over the government in June, 1890.
t Of which £300 personal.
And £300 duty Allowance.
The British Colonial Empire comprises forty-three distinct and independent governments. But in addition to these organised communities, there are a number of scattered dependencies under the dominion or protection of the Queen which do not possess regularly formed administrations, and vast territories controlled by the British North Borneo Company, the Imperial British East African Company, and the Royal Niger Company, in addition to the Somali (North East Africa) Protectorate, under the supervision of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. In November, 1889, a Royal Charter was granted to the British South Africa Company, which proposes to develop the industrial resources of the vast territory lying between British Bechuanaland and the River Zambesi. Particulars of this territory will be found at p. 300. The affairs of Ascension are administered by the Admiralty, and those of Aden, Perim, Socotra, the Laccadive, Nicobar, and Andaman Islands by the Secretary of State for India.
Of the forty-three Administrations nine have elected Assemblies and responsible Governments; the constitutional position of the other thirty-four is as follows:
1. No Legislative Council. Legislative power delegated to the officer administering the Government (7).
(a.) Crown has reserved power of legislating by Order in Council-Gibraltar, Heligoland, Labuan, St. Helena.
(b.) No general power reserved of legislating by Order in Council-Basutoland, British Bechuanaland, Zululand.
2. Legislative Council nominated by the Crown (16).
(a.) Crown has reserved power of legislating by Order in Council--British New Guinea, Ceylon, Falklands, Fiji, Gambia, Gold Coast, Grenada, Hong Kong, Lagos. St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks Islands.
(b.) No general power reserved of legislating by Order in Council-British Honduras.
3. Legislative Council partly elected (10).
(a.) Crown has reserved power of legislating by Order in Council-British Guiana, Malta, Mauritius (including Seychelles).
(b.) No general power reserved of legislating by Order in Council-Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Natal, Western Australia.
Cyprus, which is not a British Possession, has a Council of the Class 3 (a).
The greater portion of the Colonial Empire has accrued within comparatively recent times, thongh the first attempt at Colonial settlement, that of Sir Humphrey Gilbert in Newfoundland, was made as early as 1583. The end of the seventeenth century saw us in possession, in addition to the New England States, only of St. Helena, two slave-trading stations at the Gambia and the Gold Coast, the Bermudas, Jamaica, Barbados, and several of the minor West Indian Islands, and of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island on the continent of America. Until the great wars which marked the second half of the eighteenth century, we made but little progress in territorial acquisition. The States of New England, and the steadily increasing business of the East India Company, afforded sufficient outlet for our colonising energy; but when the progress of the Seven Years' War brought us into collision with France in North America and India, we were fairly launched in our definite career of colonial extension. The peace of 1815 left us with most of the West Indies, South Africa, and a free hand in India, North America, and the Pacific. During the reign of Victoria we have occupied Natal, British Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and the Transkei, Zululand. British Columbia, and the wide North West Territories of the Canadian Dominion, as well as Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania, British New Guinea and North Borneo. We have also acquired by cession Labuan, Lagos, and the greater portion of the Gold Coast, Fiji, and by arrangement Cyprus and the basin of the Niger, besides countless smaller possessions, and nearly all the isolated rocks and islands of the ocean. Most of the latter little known dependencies are described in the Appendix to Part II of this Edition. Including India, the Empire now extends over nearly nine millions of square miles, or seventy times the area of the mother country. The area of the Colonies alone is sixty times that of the United Kingdom, but they have a population of only nineteen and a half millions as compared with the thirtyseven millions at home.
Of the total Colonial area of 7,599,738 square miles, the nine self-governing Colonies cover 5,947,395 square miles inhabited by a population of 10,278,708, so that the area still more or less under the direct authority of the Home Government amounts only to 1,652,303 square miles, with a population of 9,996,645. With a population so small in proportion to the vast area, and the facilities that now exist for the interchange of produce, there are naturally but few towns of considerable size in the Colonies, only thirty having a population of more than thirty thousand. In order of population these are: Melbourne with a population of 325,000, Sydney 292,567, Montreal 200,000, Victoria (Hong Kong) 180,000, Toronto 166,000, Adelaide 123,538, Colombo (Ceylon) and Singapore 100,000, Port Louis (Mauritius) 70,000, Quebec 65,000, Auckland 57,048, Georgetown (British Guiana), 50,000, Dunedin (New Zealand) 45,518, Cape Town 45,000, Christchurch (New Zealand) 44,688, Hamilton (Ontario) 43,000, Halifax (Nova Scotia), Brisbane (Queensland), Lagos, Georgetown (Penang), and Kingston (Jamaica) 40,000 each, Valetta (Malta), 38,000 Sandhurst and Ballarat (Victoria) 37,000 each, Malacca 35,000, Port of Spain (Trinidad) and Galle (Ceylon) 32,000, Ottawa (Canada) 40,000, Hobart (Tasmania), St. John's (New Brunswick), with 30,000 each. All these are ports except Hamilton, Ballarat, Sandhurst, Ottawa, and Toronto. The aggregation of the population of Australia in the three large towns Melbourne, Sydney, and Adelaide is very remarkable, more than one-fourth of the population of the Australian continent being crowded into them. This appears to be mainly due to the enormous development of the external trade of Australasia, of which these towns largely enjoy a monopoly. Last year, as will be seen from the figures in the preceding table, that trade reached the enormous figure of 123,439,605, or over 317. a head of the whole population. In other respects, however, the Colonies have made great progress. In the self-governing Colonies complete provision has been made not only for elementary education, but also for secondary and higher
instruction. In all of them primary instruction is compulsory, and in Canada, Victoria, and New Zealand also free. Extensive provision has also been made for secondary and technical education and higher education provided for by the establishment of the following chartered and amply endowed universities empowered to grant degrees, McGill College and King's College, Montreal, Trinity College, Toronto, and Bishop's College, Quebec, Laval University, Quebec, Sydney University, Melbourne University, Adelaide University, New Zealand University, and the University of the Cape of Good Hope; besides many endowed colleges in Canada and Australia.
In the other Colonies, as will be seen from the following pages, education has not been neglected, though with inferior resources and in most cases a mixed population, the provision for this purpose falls short of the standard in the more favoured colonies. There are endowed colleges in Barbados, Trinidad, British Guiana, Ceylon, and Mauritius, and a university in Malta established by the Knights of St. John in 1769.
In the matter of railways and telegraphs, as will be seen from the figures in the preceding table, great progress has also been made. In 1875 only 7,121 miles of railway, and 22,116 miles of telegraph were open, as compared with 24,365 miles of railway and 76,912 miles of telegraph for 1887, and 25,857 miles of railway and 88,520 miles of telegraph for 1888. All the railways are the property of the several Governments, except those in Barbados, British Guiana, Malta, and Newfoundland, and some of those in Canada, Cape, New Zealand, and Tasmania; and so are all the telegraphs, except the line of the Tasmanian Cable Company and the oceanic cable network. As regards intercolonial communications, regular and efficient steam mail services now exist with all Colonies. All are in connection with the world telegraph system except Mauritius, Labuan, Fiji, British Honduras, Tobago, Bahamas, Bermuda, St. Helena, Falkland Islands, Turk's Island, and New Guinea, which have as yet no cables; but a cable from Halifax to Bermuda is under construction, and is expected to be opened in June next. Excluding the tiny railway of Malta, for which there are no returns available, the cost of construction of the 25,857 miles was 272,292,7087. The receipts (of about 25,000 miles) in 1888 were 19,560,7267., and the working expenses 13,069,3917., showing a net return of 6,491,335l., or three and a-third per cent. on the cost of construction.
The Parcels Post with this country is in operation to and from all of them (including also Ascension, Norfolk Island, Sarawak, Matabeleland, and Tristan d'Acunha) except Queensland, Bermuda, Fiji, New Guinea, and Basutoland.
The vast extent of territory over which is spread the population of the large self-governing colonies, has led to the development of very complete systems of local government by elected urban and rural boards entrusted with the management of local affairs, and with the usual rating powers. In the Crown Colonies, on the other hand, the government is centralised, and except in a few, independent local authorities are unknown, although the officials are sometimes assisted by municipal or other consultative boards. A full account of the somewhat peculiar system of local government in the Cape Colony will be found at p. 92, and a description of the Canadian system at p. 53.
In the matter of trade the Colonies have made great strides. During 1885 their imports amounted to 135,768,6217., and the exports to 114,833,0757. Ten years before, in 1875, the figures were 115,858,5221. and 98,194,106/. respectively, showing an increase in the value of imports of 17.2 per cent., and of exports of 16.9 per cent.
This development received a temporary check during 1886, the value of the imports only reaching 130,738,4167., and the exports only 107,987,6041. Part of the decrease no doubt was due to the general fall in prices during 1886, but there was also a considerable diminution in volume in some of the principal articles of exchange such as wheat, sugar, cotton, and iron goods.
During 1887 the decline was arrested, and a further rise took place. Including Sarawak, the total exports were 118,187,7677., and the imports 133,528,5027. In 1888, the imports had grown to 139,826,0621., and the exports to 127,669,8111., showing a total external trade of 137. per head. The trade of the United Kingdom per head in 1888 was 187.
As yet the trade of the Colonies is mainly an exchange of raw materials for manufactured goods. It is interesting to note how the main bulk of their 128,000,0007. of exports is made up. By far the largest item is wool, coming from Australasia and South Africa, with some from Canada and the Falkland Islands. Out of the total of some 26,000,000l., nine-tenths come direct to the world's great wool mart in London, making up nearly one-third of England's colonial imports. Next to wool stand sugar and molasses, the product of the West Indies (with British Guiana and British Honduras), Mauritius, Fiji, Natal, Queensland, and the Straits Settlements. Only 2,000,000. out of a total sugar export of 7,000,000l. comes to this country, the balance mostly proceeding direct to the United States. Almost as important as sugar is the export of hides, skins, leather, and furs, the total reaching over 6,000,000 sterling. These products come from Australasia, South Africa, Canada, and Newfoundland, and are consigned mainly to London. The total colonial gold product reaches about 5 millions sterling annually, or about one-fourth of the world's production. This is contributed mainly by Australia and New Zealand, but the Gold Coast, Canada, British Guiana, and the Cape are also gold producers. Corn and flour vary in amount according to American and European seasons, but the average colonial export is over five millions sterling, whilst the export of oxen, sheep and dead meat (including bacon) exceeds four millions, nearly the whole arriving from Australasia and Canada. The latter country furnishes over 3,000,000l. of timber annually, and the Cape the same value of diamonds.
The eight products named in the preceding paragraph account for nearly one half of the aggregate colonial exports. The other items are very numerous, the chief being cheese (Canada), coal, New South Wales and Canada), fish, fish oils, and lobsters (Newfoundland, Canada, the Cape, and Barbados), copper (Cape, New South Wales, South Australia, with some also from Canada, Newfoundland, and Queensland), tin (New South Wales, Straits Settlements, Tasmania and Queensland), tea (Ceylon), coffee (Ceylon, Jamaica, Straits Settlements), fruit (Jamaica, Tasmania, Fiji, Canada, and British Honduras), Cocoa (Trinidad and Grenada) and horses (Canada and New South Wales). Smaller values are represented by ostrich feathers, palm oil and kernels, chinchona, logwood, plumbago, and silver; and there are innumerable other colonial products of which the aggregate export does not amount to half a million (c)
sterling annually in each case. Some commodities of prime importance are, however, wanting. Little iron or quicksilver is produced in the Colonial Empire, though both Canada and New South Wales T work their own iron and steel to a small extent; and practically no petroleum, sulphur, or platinum. So far as has been possible the tonnage of the shipping registered in each colony is given among the statistics in the body of the book, with the names of the various ports of registry. The total amounts to 1,701,590 tons, Canada possessing by far the largest share. In the United Kingdom the registered ship ping amounts to 9,224,574 tons, or more than five times as great a tonnage as the amount registered inars, the colonies.
Our Colonies have grown considerably in favour as a resort for emigrants. Only 35,264 persons) were entered as emigrants to the British Colonies in 1837; of whom 29,884 went to North America, 326 to the Cape, and 5,054 to Australasia. In 1886 the numbers were 24,745, 43,076, and 3,897 respectively. In 1887 the figures were 32,025, 34,183, and 4,909 respectively. In 1888 the numbers were s 34,853, 31,127, and 6,466.
One very satisfactory feature is the very general development of savings banks and other institutions for promoting thrift. As will be seen from the figures in the preceding table, there is scarcely a Colony in which such institutions do not exist. The total amount of the deposits in these institutions on 31st December, 1888, was 29,149,4207., or nearly 12 per cent. of the public debt of the Colonies. Ordinary bank ing establishments exist in all the more important Colonies, and have about 150,000,000l. of deposits, No banks (except public savings banks) yet exist in Heligoland, Labuan, Basutoland, any of the West African Colonies, St. Helena, British Honduras, Falkland Islands, New Guinea, or Zululand. One of the most interesting and successful of these institutions is the New Zealand Government Life 294 Insurance Office established in 1870, an account of the establishment and organisation of which will be found in the article on New Zealand, p. 198.
Since 1870 the Imperial troops have been gradually withdrawn from all the self-governing Colonies, and now with the exception of the garrisons of the naval stations at Halifax (Nova Scotia) and Cape Town, the land defence of these Colonies rests entirely on their local forces. Of the other Colonies 38 Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus, Natal, Mauritius, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast Colony, St. Helena, Ceylon, Straits Settlements, Hong Kong, Barbados, Jamaica, St. Lucia, Trinidad, British Guiana, British Honduras, Bahamas, and Bermuda still possess Imperial garrisons. Including the garrisons of Halifax and Cape Town the total number of Imperial troops stationed in the Colonies is 28,000 men. towards the cost of which the Colonies contribute 185,000l. The various local forces of the Colonies, including volunteers, militia, and armed constabulary, number about 83,000, the Canadian militia alone furnishing a force of 38,000 men. The naval defence of the Empire still rests mainly on the Imperial navy, though the Australian Colonies and Canada have taken considerable steps in the direction of making provision in this matter. Fortifications are in course of erection at Cape Town, Freetown, St. Helena, Singapore, and Hong Kong, towards which the Imperial Government contributes about hal of the total estimated cost. There are Imperial naval stations at Simon's Bay, Trincomalee Bermuda, Esquimalt, Halifax, Malta, Gibraltar, Hong Kong, and Ascension.
The most important event of recent years relating to the Colonies was the summoning of a Colonial Conference in London in 1887.
The invitations to this Conference despatched by Mr. Stanhope in November, 1886, met with a prompt response in all quarters. All the self-governing Colonies sent delegates, as well as Natal and Western Australia, and representative gentlemen from some of the larger Crown Colonies attended meetings at which matters of interest to these dependencies were discussed. The proceedings were opened on the 4th of April with an address from the President Sir Henry Holland, in which he reviewed the progress of the Empire during Her Majesty's reign, and indicated the object for which the Conference had been summoned. The most prominent question discussed was the organisation of Colonial Defence, and an important agreement was arrived at for the increase of the Australasian Squadron. Five fast cruisers and two torpedo gunboats were to be added to the squadron, the Colonies paying for maintenance and depreciation of these vessels 126,000l. per annum for ten years. the Colonial Legislatures, except Queensland, have passed the necessary legislation for giving effect to this arrangement, and the construction of the vessels is rapidly proceeding. The defence of the important stations of King George's Sound and Thursday Island were also fully discussed, but no final decision was arrived at. It was also agreed that an Imperial Officer should be selected to inspect the Colonial forces and military defences. Among the other questions which came before the Conference were the provision for the Government of British New Guinea, and it was agreed that Queensland acting with New South Wales and Victoria should contribute 15,000l. a year for ten years for this purpose, the Imperial Government undertaking to provide a suitable steamer and maintain it for three years at an estimated cost of 29,000l. Queensland passed the necessary legislation in 1887, and the proclamation of sovereignty over the territory took place on the 4th of September, 1887 Dr. (now Sir) William MacGregor, was selected as the first administrator of the new colony.
A full interchange of views on the relations of the Australasian Colonies with the Islands in the Pacific took place between Her Majesty's Government and the Colonial delegates, and the Conference unanimously approved the position taken up with regard to Samoa, and also the proposal for a joint Anglo-French Naval Commission for the preservation of the neutrality of the New Hebrides.
Among other questions discussed were the Australian and Pacific Mail services, telegraphic communication with Australia, the proposal for an Imperial Penny Post, the adoption of similar legislation with regard to merchandise marks and patents, and the enforcement of Colonial judgments and Orders in Bankruptcy. On the 4th of May the Colonial representatives proceeded to Windsor, and presented to Her Majesty a joint address of loyal congratulation on behalf of the Colonies they represented, to which Her Majesty returned a most gracious reply.
The proceedings closed on the 9th of May, 1887.
In pursuance of the arrangement as to the inspection of the local forces of Australasia referred to above, Major-Gen. Edwards, C. B., visited all the principal Colonies during last year, and inspected their forces and defences, and his report is now under consideration.