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APPENDIX TO PART II.
This Appendix gives some account of certain British Possessions and Protectorates which are not governed as Colonies, but are controlled by High Commissioners or Chartered Companies, or are otherwise in a position of dependency to the British Empire.
IMPERIAL BRITISH EAST AFRICAN Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, Bart., Sir John
On the 3rd of September, 1888, a charter was issued incorporating this Company for the "entire management of those parts of the islands and mainland of the Zanzibar dominions on the East Coast of Africa appertaining to the territory lying between Wanga and Kepini, both inclusive, which are recognised in the Anglo-German Treaty of 1886 as reserved for the exclusive exercise of British influence, together with any further rights of a similar nature in East Africa or elsewhere which the Company may hereafter acquire." The Company thus formed has for its president Mr. William Mackinnon, to whom the concession was originally granted on the 24th of May, 1887, by the Sultan of Zanzibar. The concession is a strip of coast 150 miles in length, including the important harbours of Mombassa and Kilifi, probably the finest harbours on the East Coast of Africa, and stretching inward to the ten-mile limit to which the Zanzibar dominion on the mainland was confined by the Anglo-German agreement referred to. The Company, however, have full powers for acquiring territory to the west of this limit as far as the zone of British influence extends, 360 miles from the coast to the shores of the Victoria Nyanza.
Kirk, G.C.M.G., Gen. Sir Arnold Burrowes
The capital of the Company is 250,000l., held by thirty-five shareholders, but only ten per cent. has as yet been called up.
Mr. Mackenzie, who has had considerable experience of Arab and Persian tribes in the Persian Gulf, is engaged with a well selected staff in organising the territory. About 20 white officers are employed, caravans being despatched into the interior in various directions, for commercial and exploring purposes.
A good road has been constructed between Mombassa and Mbungo (50 miles), and another from Mombassa to Malindi is being proceeded with. A telegraph line along the coast is under construction. A few miles of light railway on the island of Mombassa are in contemplation. Camels have been introduced, but they do not thrive; donkeys, mules, and ponies do well.
The ports of Mombassa and Kilifi have been surveyed, and piers are being built at both places. The Company's copper coinage is well received, and a silver currency is under consideration. London Office, 2, Pall Mall East, S.W.
Chief Local Officers.
G. S. Mackenzie, Managing Director in East Africa.
BRITISH NORTH BORNEO.
Situation and Area.
The general character of the East African coast is deadly, but beyond the central half of the British line, from a little south of Mombassa to Malendi, the climate is reported to be much better. There is little information respecting the interior, but it appears that after about twenty-five miles of low hills the country slopes gently to the central plateau. The atmosphere is reported to be dry and comparatively healthy. The sandstone undersoil is unfavourable to rank vegetation, but the rainfall appears not to be abundant, as ebony, teak, thorn, and other hard woods abound, and vast quantities of lupatic and fibre aloes flourish, but the ground is said to be covered with a short sweet pasturage. Before the region was depopulated by the Masai it appears to have been filled with a pastoral population, and in the dense forest patches are still found with plantations of Indian corn, beans, and lentils, and flocks of oxen, sheep, and goats. There will be for some time great difficulty in developing the country owing to the want of labour, and the warlike and thieving propensities of the Masai, but if these last can be overcome there will be no difficulty in obtaining labour from India. Indian traders from Zanzibar and the German East African Protectorate are already settling in the Company's territory. The directors of the Company are William Mackinnon, The principal stations of the Company are at President, Lord Brassey, K. C.B., Vice-President, Sandakan (where are also the headquarters of the and Gen. Sir Donald M. Stewart, Bart., G.C.B., | administration), and Silam on the east, Kudat on
The territory under the jurisdiction of the British North Borneo Company (incorporated by Royal Charter under date of 1st Nov., 1881), now known as "the State of North Borneo," comprises the whole of the northern portion of the island of Borneo from the Sipitong River on the west to the Sibuco River on the east coast, together with all the islands within a distance of three leagues, including those of Banguey and Balembangan; it is held under grants from the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu, and contains an area of 30,709 square miles, with a coast line of about 900 miles. It extends from 115° 20' to 119° 20′ E. long., and from 3° 50' to 7° 25' N. lat.
the north, Gaya on the west and Mempakol (in Brunei Bay). At each of these there are excellent harbours, especially at the first-named, which is situated in a magnificent bay some fifteen miles in length, with an average breadth of five miles. It is 1,000 miles from Singapore, 1,200 from Hong Kong, and 1,600 from Port Darwin.
The greater part of the country is at present covered with jungle, but the soil is found to be well adapted for the growth of almost all tropical products, more particularly tobacco, sugar, coffee, sago, tapioca, &c. 600,000 acres have already been alienated on 999 years' cultivation leases.
The mineral resources of the country have not yet been fully investigated. Gold has been found in two of the rivers on the east coast; coal, copper, and other minerals have also been met with, but so far have not been worked.
The country is mountainous, although the shore is flat and fringed with mangrove. The highest
point yet discovered is Kinabalu, 13,698 feet.
The inhabitants, who are supposed to number about 200,000, are mainly wandering Dyaks, who remove their villages periodically, and live by hunting and plunder, with occasional attempts at planting and trade. There are Malay and Chinese settlements on the coasts, which cultivate the flat areas, and carry on a considerable trade. Sandakan, the chief town, has a population of 5,000.
The state and town of Brunei appear to have been prosperous from a very early age. They were visited by Europeans in 1322, 1503, and 1520, but the first settlement in Borneo was made by the Dutch at Landak and Sudakana in 1608, and soon abandoned. An English settlement was made in 1609, and abandoned 1623. The Dutch factories were re-established in 1747 and 1776, but finally given up in 1790.
A British settlement was formed under the East India Company in 1762 at the island of Balembangan, which had been ceded by the Sultan of Sulu. This was attacked by pirates in 1775, and the staff was removed to Labuan, a small factory being at the same time established at Brunei. Å second attempt in 1803 was made to establish a settlement on the former island, and on its failure, the East India Company gave up its connection
with Northern Borneo.
Sir James Brooke, in 1840, established the independent State of Sarawak, which, as well as Brunei, is under the exclusive influence of Great Britain; and Labuan became a British colony in 1846. Some
Americans obtained extensive cessions in North Borneo in 1865 from the Sultan of Brunei, but they were never utilised. Finally, in 1877 and 1878, the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu ceded the same district to Mr. Alfred Dent, who transferred it to the British North Borneo Company, and some further cessions have since been added to the Company's territory. The British Government assumed a formai protectorate over the Territory by agreement with "the State of North Borneo," dated the 12th May, 1888. By this agreement the State is to continue to be administered by the Company as an independent State, under the protection of Her Majesty's Government, who may appoint consular officers, and shall conduct all foreign relations, but does not interfere in internal administration.
The climate, though tropical, is equable; the temperature varies from 70° to 93°, but there is The annual rainfall is about 120 inches, chiefly from November to usually a light breeze. February.
Agriculture is now beyond its primitive state, and certain of the more advanced tribes use the plough and harrow. The chief products are tobacco, sago, rice, coffee, pepper, tapioca, maize, sugar, and pine-apple fibre. There is still a large trade in the collection of jungle produce; but during the past year much attention has been given to the cultivation of tobacco. The soil and climate have proved to be eminently suited for its growth; several estates have been successfully opened for its cultivation, and additional land is being eagerly taken up by several syndicates.
The exports comprise tobacco, sago, rice, coffee, gutta-percha, indiarubber, rattans, beeswax, edible pepper, tapioca, maize, sugar, pine-apple fibre, birds' nests, camphor, resin (called damar), gold. &c., sent almost entirely to Singapore, China, and Australia; from Singapore part of these find their way to Europe.
tralia and China. A timber trade has been opened with both Aus
The Company does not itself engage in trade.
The revenue is derived from import duties, stamps, and royalties on the various exports, a poll tax, licences for the sale of opium, spirits, and tobacco; and from the sale and rent of forest lands, suburban lots, and town sites. 600,000 acres have been sold on 999 years cultivation leases, 18 tobacco estates and 4 general plantations have been opened by Europeans, especially the Dutch, and the demand for land has been so great as to cause the price to be raised during 1888 from $1 to $3 per acre. Pepper and sago are exported from the West Coast. At the end of 1888 four timber companies were engaged in the timber trade, chiefly with China. One saw-mill was at work. and another is being erected.
The territory is administered by a court of directors in London, appointed under the Royal Charter; and a Governor, Government Secretary, and Residents appointed by them. There are 9 provinces (Alcock, Cunliffe, Dent, Dewhurst, Elphinstone, Keppel, Martin, Mayne, and Myburgh).
The appointment of the Governor is subject to the approval of the Secretary of State.
The law of the country is based on the Indian Penal, Criminal Procedure, and Civil Procedure Codes, with an adaptation in special instances of several of the Acts in force in the British colonies, and an Emaum's court, for the administration of
Mahommedan law. There is a force of about 400 armed police under European officers. An European medical officer is attached to each residency.
Means of Communication.
A contract has been entered into with Messrs. Holt for regular communication by steamer between the local ports and Singapore and Hong Kong at least once in six weeks. There is frequent communication by steamer with Singapore and Hong Kong, and occasionally visits are made by steamers running between Hong Kong and Australia. There are no railways or telegraphs, and but few roads. Internal communication is mainly by water. The nearest point in telegraphic connection with Europe is Singapore.
Customs Tariff (Proclamation 3 of 1888).
diture. $51,654 $25,449 $391,547 $82,449 $15,458 $242,450 $110,452 $2,863 $241,398 $127,731 $12,034 $215,061 $142,687 $14,505 $202,220 $148,286 $246,457 $195,511
Ditto cigarettes, per 100
Java, Sumatra, Palembang, or Sulu
tobaccos, per catty
Native, per 10 bilis, or same as Java at
Burmah, Ceylon, or Indian cigars, per
50 large or 100 small
Matches, per 10 boxes of 50 to 70
Brass ware, 5 per cent. ad valorem
Salt, per picul.
BRITISH NORTH BORNEO-SARAWAK.
Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Charles Vande-
Judicial Commissioner, Leicester Paul Beaufort,
Resident of the Interior, W. B. Pryer, $4,200.
West Coast, G. L. Davies, $3,360. Assistant Resident, Dent, Daniel Dominie Daly, $2,760.
Alcock, F. G. Callaghan, $2,400.
Magistrate and Protector of Coolies, Labuk and Sugut,
Cashier, C. A. da Silva, $1,500.
Dent, C. A. Francis,
Superintendent of Immigration, W. B. Pryer.
Medical Officer, West Coast, Robert Hugh Chap-
Cadet, Ethelbert Forbes Skertchly, $720.
the north-west coast
An agreement was entered into with the Rajah
The territory of Sarawak comprises an area of
siderable distance inland, and commands about
situated on the north of the mouth of the Brunei
The principal towns are Kuching, the capital, situated on the Sarawak river, about 23 miles inland, lat. 1° 32' N., long.110° 28' R. (approximate); Bintulu, at the mouth of the Bintulu river; and Kabong, at the mouth of the Kalaka river.
The principal sources of revenue are the opium, gambling, arrack, and pawn farms, producing $186,000.
Harbour, buoy, and light dues:-Three cents. vessels of five tons and upwards. per ton, payable on arrival, and chargeable to all
of The taxes levied are:-Exemption, $2 per annum, payable by Malays; $1, or 1 rice, per annum per door, payable by sea dyaks; $2 per annum for every able-bodied land dyak.
The total amount of Dyak and Malay revenue for the year 1888 was $59,500.
The stamp duties are 3 cents on all receipts of paid bills above $5, on bills of sale, all agreements, bills of lading, and mates' receipts.
Imports from over Sea.
Gin, per case of 15 bottles
Ditto, old tom, per dozen.
Jar, gusi, each.
Brass guns, lelahs, per picul
Iron and steel, per picul
*1 picul = 133 lbs.
1 coyan 2 tons 7 cwt. 2 qrs. 18 lbs.
1 dollar = 3s. (in1889).
Situation and Topography.
The Island of Cyprus is situated in the easternmost basin of the Mediterranean Sea, with Asia Minor to the north and Syria to the east, at distances of 60 and 41 miles respectively. It lies between 34° 33' and 35° 41' N. latitude, and between 32° 20' and 34° 35' E. longitude. The port of Larnaca on the southern coast is 258 miles from Port Saïd, and 1,117 miles from Valletta in Malta.
It has been now systematically surveyed, and its area is 3,584 square miles. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean, being only exceeded in size by Sicily and Sardinia. Its greatest length from west-south-west to east-northeast, between Cape Drepano and Cape St. Andrea, is about 140 miles, and its greatest breadth from north to south is about 60 miles.
The main topographical features of the island are the northern and southern mountain chains, and the great plain of the Mesaoria extending between them across the island from the Bay of Morphou to that of Famagusta. The northern range, called the Carpas Mountains, and, towards their western extremity, the Kyrenia Mountains, forms a continuous chain near the northern shore from Cape St. Andrea to Cape Kormakiti, a distance of about 100 miles. The southern range, which is the more extensive and lofty of the two, occupies the western and south-western portions of the island, and trending thence eastwards along the south coast, terminates in the isolated peak called Santa Croce, about 12 miles west of Larnaca. The highest summit of this range is Mount Troodos, 6,406 feet above the sea level, and on its south-eastern slopes are the summer quarters of the English troops, and of the High Commissioner who administers the Government.
The rivers of Cyprus are nearly all mountain None are navigable. torrents, dry in summer. The principal are the Pedias and the Idalia