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No. 16 of 1864, to remove some difficulties in the exercise of the functions of the College of Electors.
The Constitution may be summed up very briefly. It consists of a Governor, Court of Policy, and a Combined Court. The functions of an Executive and Legislative Council and House of Assembly are performed by the Governor and Court of Policy, except as regards taxation and finance, which are dealt with by the Combined Court, composed of the Governor and Members of the Court of Policy, combined with the six Financial Representatives. The Court of Policy passes all laws and ordinances, except the Annual Tax Ordinance, which is passed by the Combined Court.
The Court of Policy is composed of five official and five elective members. The official members are the Governor, the Attorney-General, the Government Secretary, the Auditor-General, and the Immigration Agent-General. The elective members are chosen as follows:-When a vacancy occurs the College of Electors meets and submits to the Court of Policy the names of two persons, from whom one is selected by the Court.
The elective franchise is regulated by Ordinance No. 15 of 1849. The Colony is divided into five Electoral Divisions, each of which has its representative in the College of Electors, chosen for life or during permanent residence in the Colony, and one or more Financial Representatives, elected for two years, and eligible for re-election. The number of registered electors is about 1,400. In 1837 the first municipal body was incorporated, but the principle has not been materially extended in its application.
The existing municipal authorities are mayor and town council, Georgetown; and board of superintendence, New Amsterdam. Their aggregate revenue in 1888 was 53,7721., their expenditure was 52,9187., and their total debt at the end of the year was 52,2697.
The Roman Dutch law is in force in civil cases, modified by Orders in Council and local Ordinances; the Criminal Law is now based on that of Great Britain, and is administered in the same manner, except that there is no Grand Jury.
The three rivers, Demerara, Essequebo, and Berbice, are navigable for 90, 35, and 150 miles respectively. There is a good network of roads, and there are small canals in connection with the Demerara River. There is a railway from Georgetown to Mahaica, about 21 miles in length, owned by the British Guiana Railway Company, Limited. 1ts receipts in 1888 were 32.080., its expenses 17,6727. The line was constructed at a total cost
of 280,000. The telegraph system, owned and worked by the Government, now comprises about 260 miles of line, with seven cables covering a distance of 12 miles. It is in connection with a cable to Trinidad, and thus with Europe and the United States. A telephone exchange is established at Georgetown in connection with the Government Telegraph; length of telephone lines 32 miles, longest line 43 miles. There are lines of local steamers between Georgetown, New Amsterdam, and some stations on the rivers. A well organised postal service extends throughout the colony, letters reaching Pomeroon in 24 hours from Georgetown.
A state aided system of elementary education was established by Law No. 14 of 1876.
The schools are denominational, except the Estates schools. The central administration is vested in the Inspector of Schools, and the local control conducted by managers, who are usually ministers of religion.
The number of schools receiving aid in 1888 was 159, with 21,384 scholars, and the aid granted amounted to 21,1247.
Provision is made for higher education by a Government college in Georgetown, in which the course of instruction is similar to that of a public school or first grade grammar school in England, and there is awarded annually one public scholarship of the value of 2001. per annum, tenable at a University in England for three years.
Currency and Banking.
Accounts are kept in dollars and cents. British sterling and United States gold coin is current and legal tender, as well as Spanish and Mexican gold. Spanish, Mexican, or Columbian dollars are no longer legal tender, under Ordinance No. 6 of 1876. There are also remaining some old silver tokens from one-eighth to three guilders (one guilder being equal to one shilling and fourpence).
The Colonial" and "British Guiana Banks have establishments at Georgetown, with branches at New Amsterdam. The deposits of the British Guiana Bank reached 289,6787. on the 30th June. 1888, and it had a note circulation of 70,9797. The total note circulation in the Colony is about 130,2187.
The first Government savings banks were established at Georgetown and New Amsterdam in the year 1836. A branch bank was opened at Suddie, Essequebo, in 1879, at Belfield on the East Coast, Demerara, in 1884, and another at Fellowship on the West Coast, Demerara, in 1887. total deposits amounted on 31st December, 1888, to 204,3507., among 13,513 depositors.
Industry and Productions.
The staple products of British Guiana were in former years sugar, rum, molasses, cotton, and coffee. The soil of some parts of the Colony is capable of producing coffee of rare excellence, the Berbice River coffee being once much prized. The latter two industries have now given place to the cultivation of the sugar-cane, which at present is the chief industry of the Colony, and furnishes nearly ninety-two per cent. in value of its exports. Timber, charcoal, rice, and coco-nuts are also exported.
value. Some of the hard woods are, from their The forests abound in woods of rare beauty and remarkable durability, peculiarly suitable for house and shipbuilding purposes, while others are equally prized for the manufacture of household furniture.
There were 96 sugar estates in active operation in British Guiana in the year 1888, having an aggregate of sugar cane cultivation of 77,481 acres, and of plantain cultivation of 4,205 acres. The sugar crop for 1888 yielded about 120,135 hogsheads. The bulk of the production is the high class sugar known as Demerara crystals.
Further attention is being given to the planting of coffee and cocoa on the vegetable soils to the rear of the cane grove; and several abandoned
The cocoa estates are chiefly on Canal No. 1, West Bank of the Demerara River, and cocoa is grown on a small scale on some sugar estates aback of the cane cultivation. Coffee is grown principally in the country of Berbice, and the Liberian coffee bean has been planted with great success also on some estates on Canal No. 1.
Salmon per barrel of 200 lbs.
Mackerel, per do. of do.
And all other sorts, per barrel of 200 lbs. 0 25
Fish, smoked, per lb..
Grain of every description not otherwise
Ground feed, middlings, shorts, and bran,
Customs as blasting gunpowder, per lb.
and ammunition, imported by order of the Executive Government, hogs and pigs of every description, horses, baggage, and furniture of officers in Her Majesty's naval and military services, ice, lime, including the packages in which it is contained. Machinery, comprising the following-Machinery employed in the drainage of land or in mining operations, or in the manufacture or preparation of the produce of raw materials, or in the manufacture or preparation of manures, whether imported for sale or on private account; also machinery and implements intended for waterworks, tanks, and lamp posts, with their appurtenances; paving and kerb stones, and draining pipes, imported by the Mayor and Town Council of Georgetown, or by the Board of Superintendence of New Amsterdam; also machinery. retorts, gasometers, and pipes imported for the construction of gasworks in this colony: machinery and apparatus imported for electric lighting; locomotive engines; railway plant; machinery for steamboats, sawmills and foundries; steam boilers of every description; steam boiler plates and tubes; all pans, teaches, tanks, and other vessels used exclusively in the manufacture of sugar or for the storage or supply of water; locks or sluices for sea defences or water supply; iron cane punts, iron bridges, grating bars; tile and brickmaking machinery; and articles imported for the use of the pilot service of the colony, manures, including nitrate of soda, plaster of Paris, and whiting, molasses, materials and church furniture which may be specially imported for any place of worship of the Christian religion in this colony, mongooses or ichneumons, packages in which goods are imported (except trunks and canisters, and except hogsheads and puncheons not containing lime or coals), patterns or samples, poultry, printed books, not subjeet to duty under Ordinance No. 14 of the year 1851. Printing presses and types. Printing paper and printing ink imported by or directly for the conductor of any newspaper or printing establishment for the exclusive purpose of being used by him in the course of his trade, provisions and stores of every description imported by Her Majesty's Government for the use of Her Majesty's land or sea forces, salt, sewing machines, sheep, specimens illustrative of natural history; garden seeds, bulbs and roots, steam ploughs, steam diggers, and steam dredgers, telegraph instruments and other materials imported by telegraph companies, and necessary for the use and construction of their works, offices, and stations in this colony, uniforms, arms, ammunition, accoutrements, and prizes, imported by and for the use of Her Majesty's land or sea forces, or of the colonial militia, or any volunteer force or rifle association sanctioned by the Governor. Wines, spirituous liquors and stores, imported by and for the use of the Governor.
Goods, wares, and merchandise, except wine, any spirituous liquor or gunpowder, on which duties have been paid, are entitled to a drawback of duties on exportation.
There are no export duties, but under the Crown Lands Ordinance, 1887, a royalty of one cent. per lb. is levied on all india-rubber, ballata, and gums exported.
The customs revenue in 1888 was 247,8607.
Auditor-General, F. J. Villiers, C.M.G., 1,000.
Chief Clerk, C. H. G. Legge, 4007. to 5007.
3rd ditto, W. Whitney and R. Drysdale, 2001. to 2507.
4th ditto, J. Dowdy (1 vacancy), 1507. to 2007. 5th ditto, C. E. M. Johnston and C. Davis, 1007. to 150%.
6th ditto (vacant), 50%. to 1007.
Receiver-General, C. P. Austin, 1,000.
3rd Class:-Charles Brumell, Alexander Winter, J. H. Erskine, J. N. Hicken, D. S. Duff. G. W. Armstrong, A. B. Allt, Donald Cameron, L. A. R. Davis, 2007. to 2507.
4th Class:-J. McConnell, T. Paddenburg, K. S. Houston, F. A. Viret, S. C. Clarke, J. D. Fraser, R. W. Odlum, 150l. to 2007.
5th Class:- J. W. G. Cullingford, W. V. Phillips, W. H. Hohenkirk, J. P. Allt, C. L. H. Rudder, A. Fraser, C. De Ros, J. B. C. Belmonte, J. V. Mittelholzer, J. W. H. Chubb, H. A. N. Burrowes, J. H. P. Ibbott, E. P. Fraser, A. Ridley, 1007. to 1507.
6th Class:-H. T. Bowen, W. P. Newsom, G. Harrison, T. W. C. Rudder, 75l. to 1007. Surveyor and Admeasurer of Shipping, Thomas Hubbard, fees.
W. H. Gladwin, 150l. to 200% W. A. King, 100l. to 150.
Colonial Bookkeeper and 1st Clerk, D. Y. C. Hill, Emigration Agent at Calcutta, R. W. S. Mitchell,
500l. to 600Z.
Assistant Receiver-General, Berbice, J. T. Ibbott, 5007., with 1007. personal.
Sub-Accountant, Essequebo, Alex. Fraser, 400l. to
Accountant, Savings Bank, Percy Hemery, 3007. to 4007.
Immigration Clerk, F. C. M. Choppin, 3007. to 4007. Cashier, S. S. Jones, 3007. to 4007.
2nd Class Clerks, O. E. Swain, A. F. Bowen, R. S. F. Lambert, and F. May, 250l. to 3007. 3rd, A. G. W. Choppin, A. R. Cox, E. H. H. Van Nooten, J. Slater, and J. S. Hill, 2007. to 2507. 4th, W. M. Steele, N. G. King, C. May, R. H. King, and C. A. Comacho, 150l. to 2001. Clerks, N. Farrar, H. Fernandes, F. Agard, F. W. Bury, P. Fairbairn, 100l. to 150%.
Chief Commissary, W. S. Turner, 8007., and 2007. personal allowance. Commissaries:-T. N. King, J. R. L. Cruikshank,
F. E. King, F. Harcourt, W. H. A. Burrowes, A. L. Layton, J. Solomon, T. Fraser, P. C. Harel, C. S. Swain, L. Dornford, F. C. M. Anson, H. Barclay, E. R. Anson, A. C. Swain, B. A. Day, 3751. each.
Assistants:-E. J. Cross, 2501.; S. Walker and H. T. King, 1877. 10s. each; R. D. Hill, 1257.
Surgeon-General, R. Grieve, 1,2007. (with consulting practice).
Medical Inspector, J. S. Wallbridge, 9007. Clerks, S. Hooton, 1757. to 2507; G. C. M. Sealy and N. Cox, jun., 100l. to 1501, each. Medical Officers:-A. Finlayson and M. Shannon, 1,0007. each; F. H. Anderson, W. F. B. Pollard, D. Kennedy, J. Veendam, O. D. Honiball, 9007 each; A. D. Williams, 8251.; J. Encas, 8007; E. G. Leary, 7251.; C. H. Massiah, 6007.; G. Snell, 550l. and 2007. allowance; E. D. Rowland, 475l. and 2007. allowance; R. Freeman, J. Widdup, C. Young, 6251. each; W. Smartt and J. È Godfrey, 6007. each; H. Pentland, 5501.; W. Dickson, J. Witz, J. Hill, G. Ozanne, P. Perot, J. D'Aguiar, F. Fernandes, P. Delamere, and A. Ozzard, 500l. each; C. Castor, 4251. and 1507. allowance; W. Law, 425l. and 501. allowance; J. Ferguson, 4251. and quarters; J. K. Reid and R. Carter, 4007. each and quarters; F. Fisher, 3007.; W. S. Barnes, M. Irving, A. Matthey, W. von Winkler, and P. M. Earle, 300l. and quarters. The medical officers when in charge of a district receive allowances from 100%. to 150., according to district. They are also allowed private practice.