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Salt. There are five centers of this industry at present. In Bahia Blanca, Province of Buenos Aires, the production of salt yields about 5,000 tons per year. In Patagones, the Rio Negro Salt Company, Limited, sell about 111,000,000 pounds per year, of rough and refined salt. In Córdoba, about 4,000 tons are produced per year; in Salta and Jujuy, 4,400,000 pounds. The fifth salt region lies in the Pampa Central, but no figures are given regarding its production.

Alcohol from maize.-There are 19 distilleries where alcohol of excellent quality from maize is prepared, in quantities exceeding the home consumption of this article. These 19 distilleries can produce over 15,000,000 gallons per year. The production of 1892 is calculated to have been 7,500,000 gallons of 40° Cartier, using more than 220,000,000 pounds of maize as raw material. The value of last year's production is estimated to have been $15,000,000 paper money.

Alcohol from sugar cane.-The mills where the sugar cane is ground, and in which alcohol is also made, number 71, distributed as follows:

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The producing capacity of these mills, as also of those for the preparation of alcohol from maize, is greatly in excess of the home consumption. Last year's production can be estimated at 3,750,000 gallons, worth $7,500,000.

Spirits of wine.-No figures can be obtained regarding the production of spirits of wine, which is prepared in San Juan and

Catamarca, and is of a very good quality. In the Province of Buenos Aires fruit alcohol is also made.

Liqueurs and cordials.-There are 354 factories in the country where different kinds of liqueurs of all qualities are made. The production of 1892 is estimated to have been 6,250,000 gallons, although the producing capacity of the mills greatly exceeds these figures.

Wines. This industry has assumed considerable importance during the last five years, Argentine wines being now consumed by a great number of the population. The area cultivated in grapes amounts at present to 98,840 acres, distributed as follows:

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Over 13,000,000 gallons of wine were produced in 1892. Vinegar.-Sufficient vinegar is produced in the country for home consumption. The importation of this article has ceased.

Paper mills.-There is only one important paper mill in the country, in which paper for the use of shopkeepers is manufactured. The mill is provided with machinery to produce printing and writing paper, but the great profits which the manufacture of rough paper realizes satisfy the owners of the mill. The production of cartoon paper is also limited. That of sandpaper, on the contrary, satisfies the demand, its importation having ceased.

Printing establishments.—There are in the city of Buenos Aires alone, 101 printing, 25 lithographic, and 27 engraving establishments. The books and printed matter imported in 1892, from the 1st of January to the 30th of September, amounted to only 360,310

pounds, while the paper imported, to be used in the printing of books, etc., amounted to 5,477,833 pounds, which gives an idea of the work done by the printing establishments, etc., most of which can be advantageously compared with the best of Europe. Wood.-Over five hundred different classes of wood exist in the forests of the Argentine Republic, which only of late have begun to be developed, especially in Tucuman, Santiago, Córdoba, Santa Fé, Misiones, Chaco Austral, Chaco Central, Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, and Corrientes. With the introduction of a better system for utilizing the forests and treating the woods, the importation of American and Canadian woods is destined to cease, according to the opinion of those who are well acquainted with the great variety and splendid quality of the Argentine woods, of which it would be impossible to give here a full description.

Furniture. In the city of Buenos Aires there are 811 establishments for the manufacture of furniture of all kinds, the importations of furniture having, in consequence, almost ceased. Over 50,000 men are employed in the country in the profitable industry of manufacturing the woods, and almost every known article of wood is produced in the country.

Soap. The production of ordinary soap amounts to about 39,600,000 pounds per year, the importation of this article having ceased completely. Fine soap is also manufactured with success, its importation having considerably diminished.

Perfumery. There are several factories for the preparation of perfumes, which find a ready sale in the markets.

Ink. There are several factories in which all kinds of ink are prepared.

Candles. Candles are manufactured in great quantities, almost sufficient to satisfy the home consumption.

Gunpowder. This article is manufactured in the several mills that exist in the city of Buenos Aires, Santa Fé, and Córdoba. The production is almost equal to the demand. In Zarate, in the

Province of Buenos Aires, there is a great establishment for the manufacture of dynamite, and it also produces great quantities of sulphuric acid.

Blacking. This article is manufactured on a large scale, its importation being very small.

Hides and leather. The manufacture of leather is an important industry, the leather produced sufficing for the wants of the country.

Boots and shoes. It is calculated that the number of persons employed in the manufacture of boots and shoes throughout the country amounts to 25,000, and that the value of the annual production of these articles reaches the figure of $50,000,000 paper money. Almost every known article of leather and skin is manufactured in the country, the importation of such articles, like that of boots and shoes, being very small.

Tobacco. The yearly production of tobacco is calculated to be 26,400,000 pounds at present, but as the industry is assuming greater proportions every day, this production may be doubled in a very short time. The importation of Havana tobacco has diminished considerably, and as far as cigars and cigarettes are concerned it has almost ceased, the manufacture of both these articles being carried on in the country with great success. It is calculated that the per diem production of cigarettes amounts to $600,000, worth $80,000 paper money, and that the number of persons employed in the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes throughout the country reaches 10,000 men, women, and children. There are several great manufactories which turn out 100,000 packages of cigarettes per day.

Glass.-There are several establishments in which glass is manufactured, and which employ altogether 300 workmen, the value of the annual production of this article being about $2,000,000 paper money. As the importation of glass is still very great, there is ample opportunity to establish more manufacturing establishments.

Lime. This article is produced in sufficient quantity and quality to satisfy home consumption.

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Marble. Lately, several deposits of marble have begun to be worked with success, their products finding a ready sale in the


Earthenware, mosaics, etc.—Articles of earthenware, mosaics, etc., are extensively manufactured.

Bricks. These are manufactured in sufficient quantities for home consumption, although great improvements could be made in the systems employed.

Cements and asphalts.-There are five mills in the city of Buenos Aires, which manufacture cement and asphalt, the total production of the mills being about 66,000,000 pounds per year.

Metal products.-The different metals, steel, iron, copper, etc., are extensively worked, the manufacture of all classes of metallic articles constituting one of the principal industries in the country. Argentine safes, for example, have almost stopped the importation of European and American safes, as has been the case with other articles.

Dry goods. Of late, several mills have been established for the manufacture of cloths and underwear, with profit to the owners. The annual importation of dry goods amounts to $40,000,000 in value, so that capital employed in the textile industry is sure to obtain abundant return.

Sacks.—The annual production of sacks, employed in the transportation of cereals, etc., amounts to about 30,000,000, of different kinds.

Shirts.—There are in the city of Buenos Aires, eighty-one establishments where shirts are made, the importation of readymade shirts into the country having entirely ceased. The importation of ready-made clothes has also ceased.

Hats. There are seventeen factories in the city of Buenos Aires, where hats are manufactured, the progress of the industry competing with the imported hats.

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