Sivut kuvina

The national judges of first instance are the following: Four civil judges, two commercial judges, two criminal judges, and one correctional judge, all of whom are appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. There are two courts of appeal, one in civil matters, and the other in criminal, commercial, and correctional matters. These courts decide finally cases that come under their jurisdiction. Each court is composed of the president and four associate judges. The death penalty can not be imposed unless all the members of the court are present and their decision is unanimous. The members of the court are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. Of the two federal judges of the Capital, one exercises the criminal jurisdiction and the other the commercial. The civil jurisdiction is exercised by both, alternating every month.

The federal judges decide, in the first instance, constitutional cases, civil cases in which the parties are a citizen and a foreigner, and those cases in which one of the parties is domiciled in the Capital and the other in one of the Provinces; cases where one of the parties is a foreign consul, contraband cases, and cases of crimes committed on the high seas, when the ships in which they were committed come directly to the port of the Capital.

The public prosecution is exercised before the courts of the Capital by a fiscal from the courts of appeal, and by four fiscal agents before the judges of first instance. Minors and incapacitated persons have two defenders, and the poor and absent six official defenders. No one can be convicted without being heard.

The governors of national territories are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate; their term of office being three years. A secretary countersigns the signatures of the governors. Among the functions of the governors, is that of appointing justices of the peace for those districts whose population does not exceed 1,000 inhabitants. The justices of the peace in the other districts are elected by the people. These jus.

tices decide cases in which the amount involved does not exceed $100, and also those where the time of imprisonment does not exceed four days. Other cases are decided by a juez letrado, appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate.

Those districts whose population exceeds 1,000 inhabitants have the right to elect a municipal council, composed of five members. The national territories, whose population exceeds 30,000 inhabitants, have the right to elect a legislature, composed of delegates from the municipal districts-one member for every 2,000 inhabitants or fraction thereof above 1,500 inhabitants, their term of office being three years. When a territory acquires a population of 60,000 inhabitants, it acquires with it the right to be declared a Province of the Republic.

The legislative power of the Province of Buenos Aires is vested in an assembly, divided into two chambers, one of Deputies and the other of senators. The deputies are elected by the people, one for every 10,000 inhabitants and fraction thereof above 5,000. The number of deputies can never exceed one hundred. Their term of office is two years and the election of half of the members of the chamber of deputies occurs every year. The chamber of senators consists of one for every 20,000 inhabitants or fraction thereof above 10,000 inhabitants. The number of senators can not exceed fifty. Their term of office is three years, and the election of one-third of their number takes place every year. The sessions of both chambers last from the 1st day of May to the 31st of August, the governor having the power to pro. long their sittings and convoke them in extraordinary sessions.

The term of office of the governor and vice-governor, who are elected by the people, is three years, and they are not eligible for the following term. Three ministers, the minister of state, the minister of finance, and the minister of public works, countersign the signatures of the governor.

The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, a court of

appeal, and other courts and judges established by the constitution of the Province. At the present time, the judicial division of the Province of Buenos Aires, is as follows:

In the city of La Plata, capital of the Province, there is a court of appeals, a court of first instance in civil and commercial matters, and a court of first instance in criminal matters. All these courts have jurisdiction over the department of the capital and over forty-three other departments. Similar courts are established in the cities of Mercedes, San Nicolas, and Dolores, with jurisdiction over the remaining departments.

Each of the eighty-six departments into which the Province is divided has a justice of the peace, whose functions are purely judicial, the local government of the department being left to the municipalities.

The constitutions of the other Provinces of the Republic are similar to that of the Province of Buenos Aires.

Bull. 67-2

Chapter III.

THE PROVINCES: THEir resources, cities, ETC.

The Argentine Republic is bounded on the north by Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil; on the west and south by Chile, and on the east by Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic Ocean. Its area is 1,118,000 square miles and its population is between four and five millions.

Excepting the northern and Andine Provinces, which are mountainous, the country may be regarded as an unbroken plain, stretching from the foot of the Andes to the Atlantic coast. It has been said that the longest straight railroad line of the world can be laid in the Argentine Republic.

The Rio de la Plata and its tributaries, the Uruguay, Paraná, and Paraguay, in the east, are navigable in all their courses. The other important rivers are the Pilcomayo and Bermejo, flowing into the Paraguay; the Solado, flowing into the Paraná; and the Colorado and Negro, emptying into the Atlantic, the two last running through what was formerly called Patagonia. Many other rivers and streams of less importance run through the different regions of the country, constituting a natural system of irrigation.

The political divisions of the country are as follows: The capital, Buenos Aires; the Provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fé, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, San Luis, Mendoza, San Juan, La Rioja, Catamarca, Santiago del Estero, Tucuman, Saltá, and Jujuy; the territorial governments of Misiones, Formosa, El Chaco, La Pampa, Nauquen, Rio Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz (the last five territorial

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