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national college, two normal schools, one for young men and the other for girls, and several elementary schools.

LA RIOJA.

The Province of La Rioja is bounded on the north and east by Catamarca, on the south by San Juan and San Luis, and on the west by Chile. Its area is 31,500 square miles and its population over 100,000 inhabitants. The Province is very similar to Catamarca. It is mountainous in the west and center and level in the east. Maize, wheat, lucerne, oranges, figs, and olives are successfully cultivated. The gold, silver, and copper mines, situated near Famatina and Chilecito, constitute the principal source of wealth of the Province. La Rioja is also rich in coal, kaolin, and a great variety of other minerals. Cattle, sheep, goats, etc., are bred, and cattle are also fattened in La Rioja and exported to Chile.

The capital of the Province is the city of La Rioja, of about 10,000 inhabitants. It is surrounded by a luxuriant orange plantation that gives it a picturesque aspect. It has one national college, one normal school for girls, and ten elementary schools.

SAN JUAN.

The Province of San Juan is bounded on the north and east by La Rioja, on the south by Mendoza, and on the west by Chile. Its area is 29,700 square miles and its population 150,000. It is, like the other Andine Provinces, rich in mineral resources, which have not yet been worked to the extent that they deserve. Gold, silver, copper, coal, malachite, kaolin, iron, salt, sulphate of lime, etc., are found in San Juan. The principal industry, however, is agriculture. Wheat and maize are raised, but the cultivation of lucerne, necessary to fatten the great number of cattle exported to Chile, is most profitable. The cultivation of grapes is also a very remunerative industry, the wines of San Juan

being sold throughout the Republic. The total value of the cattle, sheep, horses, mules, goats, etc., of San Juan, is estimated to amount to $2,500,000.

The capital of the Province is the city of San Juan, situated on the banks of the river of the same name. Its population is about 15,000, and it has two banks, one national college, two normal schools, a national school of mining engineers, and fifteen public schools.

MENDOZA.

The Province of Mendoza is bounded on the north by San Juan, on the east by San Luis and the territorial government of La Pampa, on the south by the territorial government of Nanqueen, and on the west by the Andes, that separate it from Chile. Its area is 54,000 square miles and its population 200,000. Mendoza is mountainous only in its western part, being level in the center and east, where the soil is very rich, and where maize, wheat, lucerne, olives, and several classes of fruits (especially peaches and grapes) are extensively cultivated. The wines of Mendoza, its olives, dried grapes, and dried figs are sold throughout the Republic.

Like the rest of the Andine Provinces, Mendoza is rich in mineral resources. The Uspallata copper mines are very important, and gold, silver, coal, iron, salt, asphalt, petroleum, mineral waters, etc., are also found in this province.

At the close of the year 1888, Mendoza had 180,000 cattle, 45,000 horses, 120,000 sheep, the total value of the live stock being estimated at $2,000,000. Over 50,000 head of cattle are annually exported to Chile from this province.

The city of Mendoza, the seat of the provincial government, has now about 25,000 inhabitants. In 1861, it was almost completely destroyed by an earthquake, over 10,000 persons perishing under the ruins. A great part of the inhabitants were at mass

when the earthquake came, as that sad event happened during Holy Week. The ruins of the old city are yet visible, the new city having been built alongside of it.

Mendoza has several tramway lines, its streets are wide and well paved, it has some very pretty parks, and the city presents, in general, a most pleasant aspect. It has one national college, two normal schools, one agricultural school, and twenty public schools. It can be reached by railroad from Buenos Aires in about thirty hours.

SAN LUIS.

The long and narrow Province of San Luis is bounded on the north by La Rioja, on the east by Cordoba, on the south by the territorial government of La Pampa, and on the west by Mendoza. Its area is 18,000 square miles and its population 100,000. San Luis is mountainous in its northern part, but level in the south. Mining is its principal industry, the Province being very rich in gold, silver, copper, iron, malachite, etc. Wheat, maize, barley, potatoes, lucerne, grapes, etc., are raised, but only for home consumption. In 1888, there were in this Province 480,000 cattle, 110,000 horses, 240,000 sheep, the value of the live stock being estimated at $4,200,000.

The capital of the Province is the city of San Luis, situated on the banks of the Chorrillo stream, and its population is about 10,000. It has one national college, one normal school, and ten elementary schools. Four daily newspapers are published in this city.

CORDOBA.

The Province of Cordoba is situated in the heart of the Republic, and is the second in size and population, coming after Buenos Aires. It is bounded on the north by Santiago del Estero, on the east by Santa Fé, on the south by Buenos Aires and the territorial government of La Pampa, and on the west by San Luis,

La Rioja, and Catamarca. Its area is 54,000 square miles and its population is 400,000.

The general aspect of the province is that of a plain, slightly inclined from west to east. Its soil is equally adapted to the agricultural, mining, and grazing industries. The southern part of the Province is especially given to breeding cattle, horses, and mules. In the center and north, large flocks of sheep and goats are bred. In the valleys of the west, and along the courses of the different rivers and streams, excellent wheat and very good fruits are raised. The mountainous part of the northwest is rich in copper, silver, and gold, but especially in marble and an excellent quality of lime.

In 1890, there were in Cordoba 1,298,000 cattle, 256,000 horses, 11,386,000 sheep, and 370,000 goats; the total value of the live stock being $19,500,000.

In 1891, the cultivated area of the Province was distributed in the following manner: Wheat, 140,000 acres; maize, 340,000; lucern, 51,000 acres. In 1886, there were in tobacco, 63,000 acres; beans, 50,828; barley, 42,000; sweet potatoes, 41,000; potatoes, 30,665; chick-peas, 9,884; miscellaneous, 74,130.

The industrial production for 1891 was $4,000,000, distributed as follows: Flour, $1,500,000; lime, $500,000; cement, $4,500; bricks, $350,000; hides and leather, $305,918; wine, $12,000; alcohol, $20,000; beer, $500,000; artificial ice, $5,000; vermicelli, $36,000; salt, $10,870; minerals, $350,000; belt making, $30,000; textures, $20,000; embroideries in gold, $25,000; candles, grease, and soap, $30,000; butter and cheese, $30,000; candies, $10,000; dried fruits, $2,000; boots and shoes, $220,000; pottery, $5,000; cut stone, $20,000; cut wood, $200,000. The total productions for 1891 were

Pastoral.
Agricultural
Mining...

Total..

Dollars. 9, 500, 000

6, 800, 000

200.000

16, 500, 00c

The city of Cordoba, the capital of the Province, is situated on the right bank of the Rio Primero. The census taken in 1887 showed that it had at that time, 66,247 inhabitants. It was in this city that the first national fair was held in the year 1871. In 1869, Cordoba was already in railroad communication with Buenos Aires. The University of Cordoba, established in 1813, is, after that of Lima, the oldest in South America. There is also a National Academy of Science, an astronomical observatory, established in 1871, the National Meterologic Institute, one national college, two normal schools, and quite a number of elementary schools. In this city, which has all the modern improvements, such as sewers, electric light, running water, tramways, well paved streets, handsome parks, fine public and private buildings and residences, twenty newspapers and reviews are now published.

SANTA FÉ.

The very prosperous Province of Santa Fé is situated east of Cordoba, south of the territory of El Chaco, west of Corrientes and Entre Rios, and north of Buenos Aires. Its area is 18,000 square miles and its population is 300,000, of which at least 100,000 are foreigners.

Santa Fé's soil is especially adapted for agricultural and grazing purposes. Many are the agricultural colonies of this Province, and the following statement will show their importance and rapid increase:

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These figures show the colonies established under the laws of colonization, very liberal in their nature. The land is sold by the

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