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dominates. To the south, extend the regions of the Antarctic forests.

The most important river is the Pellegrini, the width of which varies from 197 to 328 feet. The Toldos, 12 de Diciembre, Roca, and San Pablo are streams of less importance.

The principal zoological species are the alpacas, deer, foxes and


In the northwestern part of the Isla de los Estados, there is a light-house, situated on a promontory 200 feet high. The light can be seen at a distance of 14 maritime miles.

The capital of the territory is the village of Ushuaia, situated on the banks of the Beagle canal. An English mission is established there, and many of the native Indians speak English better than Spanish.

Lately, important discoveries of gold have been made in the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego.


These islands, which lie 330 miles east-northeast from Magellan Straits are one hundred in number. Many of them have no other occupants than penguins, which are very plentiful. The islands were used only as a penal colony till 1852 (according to Mr. Mulhall), when Mr. Samuel Lafone, of Montevideo, and others formed the Falkland Company, whose chief settlement is still at Darwin Harbor, on the isthmus which connects Lafonia with the rest of East Falkland, and distant 70 miles from Stanley. Their sheep farm extends along the shore of Choiseul Sound by Mount Pleasant and Port Fitzroy to within 15 miles of Stanley, and numbers 100,000 sheep of Cheviot breed crossed with Argentine merinoes. The company has also about 20,000 horned cattle, of which the tame "rodeos" do not number one-fourth, the rest being wild. Among the other farms on East Falkland, sheep con

stitute the principal and almost exclusive industry, cattle being found only on those of Packe, Bonner, and Pittaluga.

West Falkland was first colonized in 1867, and proved so favorable for sheep and cattle that it was all taken up in two years by settlers, being now as thickly stocked as the older island. It may be said there is no more land available on either of the islands. The dividing channel, the Carlisle Straits, varies from 6 to 10 miles across. The northern districts in both islands are mountainous. Mount Adam is 2,315 feet above sea level, and Mount Viale about 2,000, the latter being called after an Italian passenger of the ill-fated steamer America (December, 1871), who gave his life belt to save Madame Marco del Pont, and perished. The coasts are much indented, and contain numerous excellent harbors, the best of which are Port Egmont in the eastern, and Berkeley Sound in the western island. Both are spacious, deep enough for the largest vessels, and have good anchoring ground.

sufficing to produce a gallon of

The best soil for agriculture is along the base of the mountains, where there is black vegetable mold 8 inches deep. Wheat and flax have been produced, but vegetables thrive better, especially potatoes and cabbage. Game is plentiful, and wild geese or ducks are easily tamed. There are many foxes, with thick heads and a coarse fur. Black whale are sometimes caught, as also seals, but penguins are more profitable. They stand until the sailors knock them on the head, ten of them oil. The average slaughter is 1,300,000, and the product of oil, 130,000 gallons. The best fish is a kind resembling salmon and mullet, abundant in the spring. Trees do not grow, but vegetation is very rapid. Snow disappears in a few hours, except on the mountains, and ice is rarely seen an inch thick. Fogs are frequent in spring and autumn, but they clear off at noon. The range of the thermometer is between 26° and 50° F. in winter, and from 50° to 75° in summer.

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South Georgia is uninhabited, probably because of its great distance, being 800 miles east-southeast of Stanley. It may some day prove as well suited for sheep-farming as West Falkland.

Wool is the chief product of the island, and few climates seem better suited for sheep, the grass having such fattening properties that a wether seldom weighs less than 70 pounds dressed for market, often rising to 100 pounds. The wool is coarse and sells at 10 to 11 pence per pound, being much used at Bradford for combing. The clip averages 2,000,000 pounds of wool, valued at £80,000 sterling.

The increase of trade has been as follows:

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As has already been stated, treating of the territory of Santa Cruz, many farmers from the Falkland Islands have emigrated, with their flocks, to the former territory, which affords cheaper and equally good land for farming purposes.

Chapter V.


The city of Buenos Aires is situated on the right bank of the Rio de la Plata, which is 24 miles wide at this point. Its latitude south is 34° 36′ 24.4′′ and its longitude 58° 21′ 33.3" west from the meridian of Greenwich, according to the calculations of the American astronomer, Gould.

The city was first founded in 1535 by Don Pedro de Mendoza. It was destroyed by the Querandies Indians two years later, and having been rebuilt, had to be abandoned two years afterwards, in 1539.

Its definite foundation took place on the 11th of June, 1580, and Don Juan de Garay, who was accompanied by only 60 Spanish soldiers, was the founder. Garay divided the town into one hundred and forty-four blocks, separated by sixteen streets running from east to west, and by nine streets running from north to south. The laws of Spain specified every detail regarding the establishment of new cities. They were to be modeled after the Spanish cities, with narrow streets running in the direction adopted by the founder of Buenos Aires and of every other Latin-American city. It has been found necessary to widen some streets and open new avenues, so as to improve as much as possible the legacy left by the Spaniards.

A European writer says:

Of all the South American cities, Buenos Aires is the one which has lost, to a greater extent than any other, the Spanish aspect, which had characterized it for three centuries.

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