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to sell their land in lots generally enter into an agreement with the laboring men by which the former furnish land and implements of agriculture in return for the manual labor of the latter, the product being divided between the owners and the tillers of the land. The British consul at Buenos Aires, in a report of November 20, 1892, says:

The question of Jewish immigration is one of great interest, and is entirely a new question, which first attracted attention in 1891 from Baron Hirsch's benevolent scheme for settling European Jews on colonies in foreign lands. This Republic has been selected as the field for this new enterprise, and large tracts of land have been bought, on which Jewish families are being gradually settled by Lieut.-Col. Goldsmid, now Baron Hirsch's representative in this country. At first, the Jewish colonization scheme raised great discussion as to the advisability of permitting this Jewish immigration on political and social grounds; but at present, it has been left entirely free, the Government having, it is stated, the right by special legislation to stop such immigration should it consider it necessary. The progress of this colonization scheme should be one of great interest to those European nations whose populations emigrate to the Argentine Republic. The Jewish colonist starts here with great advantages, and is subsidized until such time as his crops enable him to pay back a portion of his debt to the Jewish Colonization Association. It seems doubtful if the Jews can be successful agriculturists. A large portion of the arrivals here were not agricultural laborers, but often small trades people. Many of them, unfit for colonization, have been sent back to Europe; others, finding that hard manual work was expected of them, returned there voluntarily. To offer an opinion on the probability of their success is impossible at present, as the colonies are only just getting into working order.

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Mr. Fliess, who is an authority on such matters, has compiled the following tables, from which can be gathered a very fair estimate of the crops of the Argentine Republic for 1892:

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Mr. Fliess gives the area under cultivation in the several Provinces as follows:

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It appears, therefore, that Argentina comes next after Russia for acreage of grain crops compared with the number of inhabitants.

Mr. Fliess states the area and product of the principal crops in a number of Provinces thus:

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Chapter IX.

MANUFACTURES AND OTHER INDUSTRIES.

La Prensa, a newspaper of Buenos Aires, supplies its readers at the end of every year with an exhaustive political and economic review, in which are recorded the progress of the country and all the events of the year. The number of January 1, 1893, contains an industrial review, the author of which is Señor Helguera, member of the firm of Goyoaga & Co., brokers of national products. From this review, most of the information which will be given in this chapter has been taken.

Señor Helguera says:

The increase in the production of the country during the last three years has been so great that it demonstrates beyond a doubt the great economic capacity of this country, destined to become, in the near future, a powerful nation. Its extensive territory permits the coming of people from every clime, counting, as it does, every zone, from the cold or semifrozen to the tropical zone. It can be said, without hesitation, that within the frontiers of the Argentine Republic, can be obtained all the products of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, while the products of the mineral kingdom are not less valuable. The truth of the assertion can be gathered from statements showing the production of the country, which are published below.

Without belittling the progress made by the pastoral industry, which for the last thirty years has been considered the most important source of production of the country, the agricultural industry deserves also to be especially mentioned, as it has furnished abundant raw material, thus permitting the manufacturing industry to acquire extraordinary proportions.

In fact, is there any other country which, in the short space of fifteen years, has witnessed the transformation obtained in this country? It is only necessary

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to look at the statistics of international commerce for the years 1875 to 1892 to obtain the proof of this remarkable transformation. Thus we see that the exports of 1875 were limited to hides, wool, grease, jerked beef, and other minor products of the pastoral industry, while the imports comprised even the most rudimentary articles belonging to the manufacturing industry, plainly showing the incapacity of this country to produce, at that time, anything beyond the products of the pastoral industry.

The statistics for the year 1892 show a very different state of affairs. In the column of exports, appear a great many articles which before were in the column of imports, while from the latter, have disappeared a great many articles which before figured conspicuously in it. All this eloquently shows the progress made by the country in the short space above cited. Of the importance of the products, their class, quality, and variety, the reader can form an idea by studying with care the long list of products now manufactured in this country, which is given below. It will be seem that few are the branches of human activity which are not represented in this new period of industrial progress.

From the moment the first symptoms of the crisis began to make themselves felt, in 1889, we were the first to proclaim, in the pages of La Prensa, the advent of an industrial period, which would, in the end, save the country from the disastrous effects of the crisis. The great number of manufacturing establishments which have been founded since then has demonstrated the truth of our prediction. In fact, statistics show that the industrial production is worth more now than the production of the agricultural and grazing industries, a result which must surprise all those who consider this country as a mere raw-materialproducing country.

Within the limits of the city of Buenos Aires alone, there are 986 establishments for the working of metals, 1,210 for preparing hides, 1,178 for timber, 748 for cereals, 1,657 spinning establishments, 289 establishments for the manufacture of articles of glass and wax, 51 for the manufacture of chemical products, 26 for manufacturing grocery products, 168 distilleries, 268 cigar and cigarette manufactories, and 1,044 other kinds of manufactories; making in all, a total of 7,619 industrial establishments where the raw material is benefited.

In the course of a short description of the different industries, an idea will be given of the number of industrial establishments in some Provinces.

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