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uttered some pious sentences ex- up!” Through this long indispopressive of humiliation and resig- sition he was much supported
by nation to the will of God. Calling the conversation of Jonas and Buupon the Lord for a blessing on his genhagen, and at intervals was acministry, Bugenhagen could not customed to refresh himself by muhelp saying, “ Among your other sic, turnery, and gardening *. prayers, Doctor, let this be one, In the two following years he that God would yet preserve you was enabled to take an active part for the sake of us, and many once more in the cause which he others."-" To die," he replied, had at heart, and sent out some “ would be gain to me, but the useful works, particularly bis world loves idle tales; and it will greater and lesser Catechisms, and say I have recanted. Bear wit- maintained a valuable correspondness, my dear friends, that I am ence with the Elector on subjects quite convinced I have taught truly connected with magistracy, and concerning faith, charity, the cross, with other theologians on points of and the sacraments. I was led by doctrine and practice. Providence, not by self-intrusion, The state of the church now imto act the part I have in the mi- peratively called for his assistance. nistry. I have been blamed for The Emperor having been success want of moderation; yet my ear- ful in other quarters, began to nestness, I trust, in some cases exert himself in Germany more demay be defended : certainly I have cidedly in favour of the Romish innever intended harm to any one." terest. He convened a Diet at Inquiring for his infant John, and Spires, in March 1529, in order to his dearest Kate, he commended take into consideration the state of them to a gracious God. “O religion,which as usual was presided Lord, my God, I thank thee for
over by Ferdinand, and where a thy will 'in having kept me poor decree was finally passed, revoking
Possessions I have the resolution of the former Diet, none; but thou hast given me a and forbidding any innovation in rewife and children, and these I re- ligious matters till the meeting of a turn to thee. Support, instruct, Council. Alarmed at the tendency and keep them, as thou hast me of this proceeding, and offended at in time past, O Father of the fa- the duplicity of the Romanists, the therless, and Judge of the widow! Lutherans published their dissent Kate,” he added, “ you know I by a regular protest. The important have nothing to leave you but a document was drawn up on the few silver cups." This amiable 19th of April, and signed by John, woman, with a smiling countenance, Elector of Saxony; George, Marbesought him not to grieve on her grave of Brandenburg Anspach; account. She had been unwearied Ernest and Francis, Dukes of in her attentions to him, though Brunswick Lunenberg; Philip, herself in a state of pregnancy, and Landgrave of Hesse Cassel; Wolfwitnessing the effects of contagion gang, Prince of Anhalt; and fourin her own household. By foment- teen Imperial cities; and in alluation, however, and other reme- sion to this state paper, all who sedial applications, he .so far reco- parate from the Church of Rome vered as to sup that evening with have ever since been termed Prohis friends, but continued weak and testants. sickly for the remainder of the year. The reformed followed
this The next day he told Jonas, “I strong measure by a firmness which must remember yesterday I went to school-it was a trying season- * Seckendorf, p. 87, Melch. Adam, the Lord layeth low and bringeth p. 71.
astonished and irritated the Empe- restrained from attending, that he
John Ekinger, Consul of might not offend the Emperor by Memmingen; Michael Caden, Syn- his presence, endeavoured to condic of Nuremberg; and Alexius firm and animate his party by seTraventant, Secretary of Branden- veral treatises, comforted Melancburg, were deputed to carry the thon and the rest of the reforming protest into Italy, where they were divines, and exhorted the princes no sooner met by Charles, than he not to abandon those truths which put them under arrest, and ordered they had so lately asserted with its revocation. The princes imme- such laudable boldness. These diately began to form a powerful continued by union and vigilance league in defence of their civil and to defeat all artful attempts to di- religious privileges; but were pre- vide or deceive them, and were revented from proceeding to extremi- solved rather to perish than reties by a circular received from the
nounce their principles. They as· Emperor, in which he appointed sembled at Smalkalde, and afterthe meeting of a fresh Diet, and wards at Frankfort, and concluded used language of conciliation. Lu- a league for the maintenance of ther meanwhile was employed by their religion and liberties; and bethe Elector to prepare a declara- cause of the election of Ferdinand tion of the sentiments of the Re- to be King of the Romans, entered formers, which he composed under into a secret treaty with the French -seventeen articles; but these were monarch, who was anxious to afterwards enlarged by the joint avail himself of the German troulabour of himself and Ňelancthon, bles, while they received promises and gave origin to the famous creed, of support from England, Sweden, known by the name of the Confession and Denmark. In this situation, of Augsburg. This was read be- Charles desired to commence hosfore the Diet on the 25th of June tilities, ' but found his partisans 1530. At the same time the Zuin- were averse from a civil war. He glians delivered in their confession, was further embarrassed by the drawn up by Martin Bucer. Of intrigues of the King of France, these confessions, a refutation was and a powerful invasion of Hunundertaken by Faber, Eccius, and gary by the Turkish Sultan. He Cochlæus, which was also pub- saw the policy and necessity of licly read. Charles prematurely coming to a speedy accommodarequiring submission to the doc- tion with the malcontents, who retrines contained in this refutation, fused to grant succours to Austria, was steadily refused by the Pro- while the Edicts of Worms and testants, and forced to allow con- Augsburg were unrepealed. He ferences to be held by the respec- accordingly agreed to suspend the tive parties; but these were all in execution of his obnoxious decrees, vain, since the difference between and a temporary arrangement was their opinions was too considerable settled at Nuremberg, in August to admit of a reconciliation. Enraged 1532; by which treaty the Proat what he considered the obsti- testants were allowed the free exnacy of the heretics, he published a ercise of their religious worship, severe decree, by which all the
until a rule of faith was determined usages of the church were to be on; all proceedings against them tevived; married priests deprived in the Imperial Chamber were to of their benefices; suppressed con- be supended; they were to withvents to be restored; and the Im- hold their support from the Sacraperial ban denounced against all mentarians or Anabaptists, and to who opposed its execution.
furnish their proper contingents Luther, who had been purposely against the Turks. The Emperor súcceeded through their assistance required his 'subjects' to take an in expelling the invaders, and would oath not to embrace the new tenets, have renewed his offensive mea- he yet exhorted those subjects to sures against the Protestants ; but obedience in all things lawful for as they testified becoming indigna- conscience sake. Duke George tion at his ingratitude, and pre- survived but few years,
and retainpared for fresh hostilities, the more ed his bitterness to the last, ordermoderate states interfered, and the ing that if his brother Henry, who Elector of Mentz and Duke George would succeed him, attempted any of Saxony acting as inediators, the innovation, his states should deConvention of Nuremberg was con- volve to the Emperor; but this firmed, and the Protestants ac- prince boldly took possession, inknowledged Ferdinand in his new vited Luther to Leipsic, and estacapacity. Luther at the same time blished the Reformation. had the satisfaction of seeing John Paul III. ascending the Papal Frederick, the successor of the chair, sent Vergerius into GermaElector of Saxony, who was no ny to open fresh negotiations conless attached than his father to the cerning a council. Of his arrival reformed cause, invested with his at Wittenberg we have the followdominions; while Charles, meeting ing amusing particulars. On the Clement at Bologna, urged the call- evening of the sixth of November ing of a general council, but could 1535, the Nuncio entered the town not prevail on that Pontiff to agree with above twenty horse, and beto the demands of the Protestants ing received by the provincial Prethat it should be held in Germany, fect, was lodged in the citadel. and that all controversies should be The next day Luther sent for his settled by an appeal to the divine barber very early, and jocosely writings alone.
told him, “ Mind you make me The Professor rejoiced, how look very smart, that I may appear ever, in the progress of a purer syg- youthful, and frighten my enemies tem of faith, which he regarded as with the thoughts of a long life, for an answer to the earnest prayers of I am going to see a messenger from the more enlightened. He wrote, bis Holiness the Pope!” He then in 1533, a consolatory epistle to put on his best dress, and a golden some burgesses of Oschatz, who ornament on his neck, with which had been banished for their adhe- he had been presented, as is suprence to the Augsburg confession, posed, by his sovereign. This was telling them in his nervous style, so much out of his usual way, that “the devil is the host and the world the barber was quite surprised, and is his inn. Go where you will then expressed his fear that this finery in this world, you will be sure to might prove a stumbling-block. find this ugly host walking up and "I do it on purpose,” said the down in it. Some of the inhabit Professor; “ the rogues
have given ants of Leipsic also opposing a su- us stumbling-blocks enough : one perstitious ritual, after a consulta- must deal in this manner with sertion with Luther, Duke George pents and foxes.” Mounting a car lodged a regular complaint of re- in high spirits with Bugenhagen, bellion against him before the Elec- which had been sent for them from tor Jobn; at whose summons he the citadel, he wittily exclaimed, cleared himself of the charge, but “ Behold a German Pope, and a was drawn into a violent contro- Pomeranian Cardinal! I'his is the yersy with the Duke, whose injuries Lord's doing." The instant that he felt the more deeply, inasmuch his name was announced he was as while he condemned the rash- admitted to the presence of Vergeness of a sovereign, who absolutely rius, whose courtesy he returned,
but not with such grand titles as neck.". The negotiation was fruithe had formerly used to Papal re- less, as the Professor had anticipresentatives. The discourse turn- pated. He was employed, howing upon a council, he said, “The ever, by the Protestants in drawPope is not sincere in his offer : he ing up a summary of their doctrine, only wants to amuse Nor to be made use of if occasion rewould any thing be done in one, if quired, which from the place of its it were called, except some dis- composition obtained the title of putes about tonsures and garments. the Articles of Smalkalde. While Nothing of faith, and justification, engaged in this work he suffered and a unity of spirit among Chris- great agony for eleven days from a tians. These things are not thought fit of the stone, and other malaof on such occasions. I and my dies, and set out to return home, friends are assured of our faith by contrary to the advice of his friends; the Holy Ghost, and need no coun- but the motion of the carriage, cil; but others, more simple and which was expected to prove fatal miserable, whom they tyrannically to him, was the cause of his relief, oppress, and who know not what though he was left much debilitated. to believe. Call your council, bow- In 1538, the Pope deputed some ever, and by the help of God I'll cardinals and prelates to inquire attend it, though at the risk of be- into the abuses of the Roman court, ing burnt alive.”_" Where shall when many evil practices were we hold it?” demanded the Legate. brought to light, which proved of “Where you will,” replied Luther; service to the Protestant interest, at Mantua, Pavia, Florence, any- and showed still more clearly the where.” “ Will Bologna suit?” necessity of Reformation. Luther asked Vergerius.“ To whom does considered the investigation as little it belong?” said the Professor; and better than a solemn farce, and understanding that it was the pro- wrote a satire against it, in which perty of the Holy See, exclaimed, was a frontispiece, representing the “ Is it even so, that the Pope has Pope on his throne, and some Carseized this city too? However, dinals with foxes' tails at the end of
I'll go to it!'_"Perhaps, His poles brushing down cobwebs. The Holiness will come to Witten- Germanic Diet came at length to a berg," rejoined the Legate po- resolution at Ratisbon in 1541 to litely. “Let him come," said the take more effectual measures, and Reformer. “ But do you wish him by Luther's advice some articles to come with an army or without were proposed which were agreeone ?” asked Vergerius. “ We able to both parties, but they could are prepared for him in either not obtain the sanction of Contacase," answered Luther. May rini, who attended on behalf of priests be consecrated in Saxony ? Rome. The next year the Pope inquired the Legate.“ They are offered to assemble a Council at consecrated,” replied the Profes- Trent, but the Protestants objected sor; “ the Pope may refuse us con- that he encroached on the right of secration and ordination; but look, the Emperor by the summons, and there sits a Bishop (pointing to Bu- that the place itself was too near genhagen) whom we made our- Italy; but they were brought to selves!” The Italian, finding that consent at the Diet of Spires in he could not practise on the blunt 1544, in consequence of conditions Saxon, at length mounted his granted by the Emperor favourable horse, saying, "Well, see you
Well, see you to their cause. get ready for the council.”_"I'll The latter period of the Re attend it, my Lord,” replied Lu- former's life was passed in com ther, " at the hazard of this poor pleting his version of the Scriptures,
expounding and preaching, and try. Jonas and his sons used to composing tracts, in opposition at sleep in his chamber, to render one time to Papal superstitions, him any assistance which he reand at another to doctrinal or prac- quired in the night. When his tical errors amongst the Protest- pains were eased he was very ants. Notwithstanding his fre- cheerful, and frequently used to quent infirmities, he retained great pray, “ that God would order all mental vigour, and was held in things at Trent for the good of his such high esteem by the reforming church.” On the sixteenth of Feprinces and theologians, that few bruary he was advised to keep his steps were taken in the public move- room, where he walked about or ments on religious concerns with looked out of the window. He obout reference to his judgment. 'In served to Jonas and Cælius, the civil matters he seldom interfered, Isleben minister, “ I was born and but would not refuse a call from the baptized here, and why should I Counts of Mansfeld in 1545, to not stay and die here?” The next settle some difference respecting day, however, he dined with his the boundaries of their territories. friends, when bis conversation was He went accordingly to Isleben, very edifying, and his frame of his native place, with Jonas and mind devout and tranquil. Well,” Melancthon; but not being able said he, " if I can settle this diffully to accomplish his object, was ference between the Counts, I'll induced to make another visit in return home, and lay down this January 1546. He preached his body in peace, to be food for the last sermon at Wittenberg on the worms. But that evening he was seventeenth of that month, and set taken worse with inflammatory off on the twenty-third with his symptoms, yet he continued cheerthree sons, but was detained at the ful, and supped with the usual parhouse of Jonas, at Halle, three ty. After supper his pain increased, days on account of an inundation of when remedies were applied, but the Sala. On, the fourth day he he refused medical advice, and ventured to proceed, accompanied going to bed slept for two hours by his children and his host, to and a half, when he awoke in whom he observed in crossing, great agony, calling to his attend“ How pleased the devil would be ants, and saying to Jonas, “Oh, if they were all to go to the bot- oh! my dear Doctor, how. ill I tom! He reached Isleben on I feel such a constriction in the twenty-eighth, and was re- my breast, I shall indeed die at ceived by the Counts at the head of Ísleben.” “ Reverend father," 113 horse. Having omitted to take said his friend, “ God our heavenly with him a corrosive stone for keep- Father, through that Christ whom ing open an issue in his leg, he was you have preached, will help you." seized with violent pains, but by He then rose and walked a little iv fomentation and medicine was so his parlour, while his friends sent far recovered as to resolve next for two physicians, and Count Alday, with his characteristic energy, bert with his wife, who brought to apply to business. He sat with him some medicines. After which a committee labouring diligently he prayed earnestly, adding thriee, for three weeks, and though much “ Into thy hands I commend my annoyed by quibbles of lawyers, spirit!” and “God so loved the one of whom left the table on world!” Becoming very feeble, account of his rebukes, adjusted he lay down, and could only anseveral particulars; being much de- swer in monosyllables. My lighted at his meals to entertain his dearest Sir,” said Jonas, “ do you friends and family in his own coun- confess that Jesus Christ the Son of