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FOREIGN. The French have made no progress in Spain during the last month, and yet the little strength displayed by the Spanish government is rapidly melting away. The central army, certainly the most formidable, best disciplined, and best appointed, bas been reduced to a state of destitution and dispersion, by the lukewarmness or treachery of its commanders. The leading constitutional generals, Abisbal, Villacampa, Sarsfield, Morillo, and Ballasteros, have fallen off from the cause of the Cortes, and have declared it to be equally hopeless and undeserving of defence. These defections bare had the most decisive effect upon the contest; because, hy neutralizing all the various Spanish corps, one after the otber, and by dispersing the supporters of the constitution, encouragement has been given to the French to advance fearlessly and rapidly, even to the very verge of the kingdon, and to besiege the present government in Cadiz, its last place of refuge; measures upon which the Duke d'Angoulême would never have ventured, had he entertained the slightest fear of any part of the Spanish army.

There are, however, rumours afloat, which, if they offer no hope of the successful resistance of Spain, still encourage us to trust, that she may come out of the contest less substantially injured than might have been expected. Of the evils of war, indeed, she has known but little; for the war, over the greater part of the kingdom, has been merely a

But it is now said, that, in weariness of the protracted nature of the contest, the French commander is willing to grant such terms to the Spaniards as will leave them a government, comprehending as large a share of liberty as the people of France at present possess.

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Jpotices and Acknowledgments. In reply to the letter of åreyi's Baguáßa, we have no hesitation in saying, that it is his duty to call upon sinners of every description to repent and believe the Gospel ; the command of Christ is to preach the Gospel to every creature;" and that explanation which confines the term every creature to the elect, appears to us a mere sophism. As, however, the sentiment has been advanced with so much confidence as to perplex and mislead many, it may not be improper to add a few remarks.

1. The secret purposes of God are not the rule of our duty. Ministers are commanded to preach the word; to be instant in season and out of season; to reprove, rebuke, exbort, &c. : but this command is perfectly independent of any consequent success; though such success is generally promised, and will ordinarily attend the faithful discharge of ministerial duty. Thus Moses was commanded to deliver repeated messages to Pharaoh, even when expressly told that Pharaoh would not bearken. Thus Ezekiel was required to speak God's words to the people, whether they would hear or whether they would forbear : and thus St. Paul declares, “ We are unto God a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that perish. To the one we are the savour of death unto death, and to the other the savour of life unto life; which certainly appears to imply that the preaching of salvation through Christ, even to those who finally perish, is agreeable to Almighty God. In fact, it is this preaching which demonstrates his long-suffering and their determined obduracy. Rom. ii. 4, 5.

2. Believers are, by the Apostle Peter, described as being “ born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever:” and the effect of the preached Gospel, on four distinct characters, is pointed out by our Lord in the parable of the sower. But unless the Gospel is preached, unless the good seed is sown, no effect can be produced. God works by means and instruments, both in providence and in grace. The blessing is in both cases from him. To neglect using the means is presumption; to depend on those means, without referring to the divine blessing, is a species of idolatry; and both are inexcusable. We know nothing à priori who will receive or who will reject our message. While we are warning, exhorting, and entreating sinners to be reconciled unto God, to believe the Gospel, to renounce themselves, to come unto Christ, to repent and be converted, the Holy Spirit vouchsafes oftentimes effectually to apply the word, sinners are converted, and souls are consequently saved; whereas, if we warn not the sinner of the evil of his way, and he perish in his sins, his blood may be justly required at our hands; and if, having warned the sinner of the evil of his way, and having so pointed out the danger as to alarmi bis fears and excite bis apprehensions, we neglect to exhibit Christ crucified as an allsufficient Saviour; if we do not encourage him to apply to this Saviour, by proclaiming the general invitations of the Gospel, and the gracious assurances, that those who come unto Christ be will in no wise cast out, we are acting at once an unfeeling and an unfaithful part: we are not exhibiting Christ as the good and tender Sliepherd, whose love is as infinite as his power; and we are, to a certain extent, approximating to that proud and unfeeling spirit which characterized the ancient Pharisces, instead of that tender and compassionate spirit which the Saviour and his disciples exhibited, Luke, vii. 39. xviii. 11. xix. 10.

3. The examples of sacred Scripture are, in our judgment, perfectly conclusive on this point. The addresses of St. Peter, on the day of Pentecost (Acts, ii. 38), in the temple (Acts, iï. 19), and before the rulers of the Jews (Acts, iv. 10, v. 31); the discourses of St. Paul in the synagogue of Antioch (Acts, xiii. 38), at Thessalonica, Athens (Acts, xvii. 3, 30), Ephesus (Acts, xx. 21), Jerusalern, and Rome (Acts, xxvi. 20; 21 ; xxviii. 24—31), evidently prove that they called upon all men, without exception, to repent and believe the Gospel, and that some of those very persons whom they invited- showed themselves not to be of the number of the elect by contradicting, blaspheming, and persecuting.

4. But, says our Correspondent, “ there must be something of a pricking of the heart (Acts, ii. 37), before we can venture to say, Repent and believe the Gospel.” This position,' however, is not correct. John the Baptist preached generally the doctrine of repentance;' the disciples were commanded to preach “ Repent ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at band;" it was declared, that “ repentance and remission of sins should be preached to' all nations, in the Saviour's name; and we are expressly told, that the disciples “ went and preached every where that men should repent ;” God “commandeth all men, every where, to repent.”. Repentance, therefore, is every one's duty, and in like manner, it is every one's duty to believe in Christ. Repentance and faith, it is true, are the gift of God; but of them, it must still be said, ye have not because ye ask not. It must be maintained, that if we continue impenitent and unbelieving, it is OUR SIN, not our misfortune. The blame must rest with ourselves, and not with God.

5. Lastly. The plain preaching of the duty and the necessity of repentance and faith ; the pointing out the certain misery of the impenitent and the unbelieving; the exhibiting the perfect standard of the law of God; the frequent inculcating of enlarged views of Christian duty, in social and relative life; the demonstrating the readiness of God to bestow repeptance and faith, especially as evinced by the gift of his Son, Jobn, iii. 16, 17, Rom. viii. 32; and the inviting and entreating our hearers to seek, by fervent prayer, for these inestimable gifts ; are all points of the utmost importance to the faithful discharge of a Christian minister's duty: 'they have all a direct tendency to awaken the sinner from his sleep of sin, and are all, therefore, to be brought forwards continually, with every variety of illustration and argument, and enforced with those persuasions, entreaties, motives, and encouragements, of which the Scriptures give us so many striking examples. We have no hesitation in saying to the vilest of the vile, “Now then we are ambassadors for Christ: as though God did beseech you by us, we pray you, in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God. For he hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. We, then, as workers together with him, beseecb you also, that you receive not the grace of God in vain.”

Received, W. L. T.-Scriptural CardsKirton---Gulielmus C. O-d-l-AnnettePrudens-James T.

A correspondent states, with reference to the suggestion of Anti-Bartholomæus in our last, that there is a tract, No: 110, in Watkins's Sunday School Tracts, entitled, “ The Day after the Fair, well calculated to show the mischiefs of attending fairs. Two others are published by the Religious Tract Society; one, entitled, “ The Fair,” and the other, “ Beware of Thieves and Robbers."

We have not the 'remotest idea to what passage our Glasgow correspondent refers; but at all events, he ought to have had some better reason than a mere supposition that he was alluded to, for writing so testy a letter.

LITERARY NOTICE. THE Rev. W. Davy, Curate of Lustleigh, Devon, now in his eightieth year, has, during the last winter, printed with bis own hands an octavo volume (fourteen copies only), of more than 500 pages, on the Being of God, the Divinity of Christ, &c. &c.; in which the different views and arguments of Atheists, Deists, Arians, and Socinians, are considered and disproved, both from reason and from Scripture. This volume principally consists of improved extracts from Mr. Davy's own “ System of Divinity,” (in 26 vols. 8vo.); some few years ago printed by himself, with a press made also wholly by himself. This singular and extraordinary volume is now to be intrusted to the different Reviewers, for their opinion and judgment, with a view to its republication if thought advisable and necessary.

ECCLESIASTICAL APPOINTMENT. On the 28th of August, the Rev. Josiah Pratt, B.D. to the Vicarage of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, by election of the inhabitants.

THE

CHRISTIAN GUARDIAN,

AND

Church of England Magazine.

OCTOBER 1, 1823.

MEMOIRS OF THE REFORMERS.

Christianity in one age a record of DIAZIO,

similar crimes perpetrated in an“ The carnal mind is enmity other. But more especially may against God.” This is the decided we find, in this remarkable asserposition of an Apostle. Humili- tion of an inspired writer, the neating as may be the concession, if lancholy cause of those evils which we admit, as we ought, the inspi- have stained with blood even the ration of Scripture, and by conse- domestic hearth. The Messiah dequence the unerring testimony of clared to his disciples, referring to St. Paul, we must allow, that the the treatment which they must exhostility of man to divine truth is pect from an ungodly world, “ The not an accidental circumstance, brother shall deliver up the brother but an essential quality of fallen to death, and the father the child; nature.

and the children shall rise up From the concession itself, how- against their parents, and cause ever, we derive an easy solution of them to be put to death.” How the springs and causes of many strong must be that malice, which events in the history of the church, should prevail to such a degree as for whose terrific aspect and fear- even to triumph over natural affecful character it would be difficult to tion, and dissolve the very ties of account on any known principles of kindred! Yet, alas ! the annals of human 'action. It furnishes a suf- our race commence with an instance ficient reason for the similarity of of fratricide; and thus enforce on our opposition to true religion in diffe- notice the admonition of St. John: rent ages, and under every variety “ This is the message that ye of political situation. It explains, heard from the beginning, that we in a concise but satisfactory man- should love one another. Not as ner, the source of that resemblance Cain, who was of that wicked one, which is found to subsist, between and slew his brother. And wherethe features of a heathen perse- fore slew he him? Because his cutor of the first century and a own works were evil, and his bropapal inquisitor in the sixteenth. ther's righteous.' In vain should we inquire of philo- In the Memoirs of the Reformsophy, wherefore this resemblance ers, we meet with an event, the is so strong, that in many instances exact counterpart of the bloody it merely requires an alteration of deed perpetrated by the first murnames, to make the detail of cruel- derer. One of the most pious, ties exercised on the professors of amiable, and well-informed of the

OCT. 1823.

3 A

learlier Protestants, was destroyed to Pedro Malvenda, the Spanish by the malice of a brother. Juan Jesuit, a master of intrigue, and Diazio was born at Cuenca, in the papal agent in Germany, whom Spain; and, passing with credit the Emperor had invited to attend through the rudiments of educa- the conference. This ecclesiastic, tion in his native country, went to whom he had been known at to Paris to complete his stu- Paris, was both surprized and chadies, where he continued thirteen grined to find his young countryyears. For a time, he applied man, so distinguished for his eruwith diligence to the lectures at the dition and eloquence, in the train Sorbonne; but from perusing the of the Protestant divines. He deholy Scriptures, some writings of clared, that the reformed would Luther, and the works of other re- triumph more for one Spaniard forming divines, he was led to brought over to their party, than perceive the errors of the Romish for ten thousand Germans, and bechurch. This change of senti- gan in the most artful manner to ment rendering his further abode dissuade him from a continuance in the French capital inconvenient in their society. Diazio observing and unsafe, he resolved to avoid how many learned characters he the fury of the bigots both in the had met with in Germany, who court and university, and at the were attached to the new doctrines, same time to improve his know- Malvenda put on a sanctimonious ledge of a purer system of faith, look, and replied, “ Why, truly, by repairing to Geneva. Here he six months in this country might förmed an intimacy with the cele- well appear to a pious man as mabrated Calvin *.

ny years, or, I might say, as maFrom thence he went to Stras- ny ages; so distressing is it to one burgh, where he was admitted to who loves the unity and venerates the valuable friendship of Martin the authority of the Romish church. Bucer. He is said to have labored for my own part, I grow more at the newly invented art of print- grey with anxiety in Germany in ing during his residence in this six days, than I should in as many town, and with feelings of the years out of her territory.” truest patriotism to have prepared At a subsequent interview, the a Spanish version of the Bible, and disciple of Loyola renewed his some theological works, with de- practices upon the honest coadjutor sign to publish them at Newburg. of Bucer." I lately advised you, His industry and attainments, to- Diazio, to quit this new society gether with his unaffected piety, which you have been forming, and endeared him much to Bucer, who return to the obedience of the Rorequested the Senate, that he might man pontiff, and the religion of our be associated with him in a confer- fathers. I must repeat my intreaence with the champions of the ties to that effect. For I will not see of Rome, then on the point of allow myself to suppose that you being held in the city of Ratisbon.

are otherwise persuaded, than that His Holiness, meanwhile, set a all those are excommunicated by price on his head, as one who was the Pope, who knowingly and willikely to disturb the peace of the lingly associate with Lutherans; churcht.

and are indeed smitten with so terArriving at Ratisbon in Decem- rible a bolt, that none but his Hober 1545, he went to pay a visit liness himself, as vicar of Christ,

can recover them. Such excom* Verheiden, p. 54.-Sleidan, L. 17,- munication is not to be contemned, Clark, p. 179.

pronounced as it is by divine au† Seckendorf, p. 657.

Thority; since it has descended to the Pope from Christ and his sibly be of serious consequence to Apostles, with whom now resides you; but anticipate his arrival, and the power of binding and loosing, cast yourself down in his palace at and is at present actually exercised the feet of the confessor, a religious for the restraining of evil. You and prudent man, and entreat merknow, we are clearly warned in the cy and forgiveness of your acknowword of God not to eat or have ledged offence.” any fellowship with an excommuni- I must honestly confess," ancated person, but to regard him swered Diazio, “ that I have made as a gangrened member cut off up my mind, in a cause of such imfrom the body of Christ. If no mense importance as altogether afprivate regard to your own welfare, fects our salvation, to undergo any both in body and mind, be sufficient dangers rather than purity of docto deter you from this exceedingly trine should suffer injury. I should blamable course, surely a consi

even deem it an honour to lay down deration for your country, and the my life in testimony of the truth. faith of your ancestors, should have For what is the life of man, but a some weight with you. For what continued series of evils, if a knowwill other nations say, when they ledge of real religion be wanting, see you alone despising and im- which can alone minister safety and pugning the religion of that country, consolation ? Nor do I think, whose constancy, fidelity, and in- Malvenda, that I have learned so tegrity in observing the institutions little, under the teaching of the of its fathers, all other people ad- Holy Spirit, as to pay more regard mire; and who now turn their eyes to the displeasure of the world, or upon it as the bulwark of religion, the authority of man,than to the will and the grand exemplar of forti- of the everlasting God, clearly retude. In fact, it is madness, and vealed in the oracles of truth. But the very height of desperation, for this I know to be the standing you to assume that you have ac- command of the Son of God, given quired so much greater delight in from above to all generations: doctrine, than was perceptible to

" Whosoever will not confess me thousands of mortals for many ages. before men, him will not I confess But were it even so, you would before my Father which is in heanot be warranted in acting so sedi- ven.” An awful threat indeed, tious a part, and violating the esta- not proceeding from mortal tyrant, blished discipline of your country, but pronounced out of the secret for the sake of the opinion of a few. council of the Supreme? If you Wherefore, I beseech you, consult can hear it, and not tremble, I your own safety, fear the divine could scarcely think you had hujudgment, regard the clamours of man feeling, but that your breast your country, which not only com- must be made of iron or marble. plains of the injury you have done You would persuade me, on account her, but, as it were, loudly de- of worldly dangers, which, however mands a renunciation of this de- tremendous, can be but temporal, to testable error. And I not only ex- renounce a Christian profession, on hort you, in this weighty matter, which depends that salvation which with so much gentleness and friend- is eternal. Yet the very heathen ship, but I engage you shall not gave better advice, who by, the want my assistance and interest, if light of nature alone declared, that you will follow my advice, which I to suffer death for one's country, am confident is for your real good. was not only necessary but hoTherefore, if you will be guided by nourable. So I think every lover me, do not wait till the Emperor of true piety should diligently seek come to Ratisbon, which may pos

the truth of God in the Scripture,

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