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But if he pays

the producers ; the other, at one end only, viz., in the consumer. This difference, however, may become vital to the national fortunes. If a London merchant pays £20,000 a-year to British shipowners and seamen, he keeps in motion at once the industry of the consumers, by whose produce the freights are ultimately paid, and the industry of the seafaring classes by whom they are earned. the £20,000 a-year not to British but foreign shipowners, the only industry put in motion, so far as we are concerned, is that which raises the produce which is to pay the freight. The other end of the chain is placed in Norway or America, and any encouragement to industry there afforded is wholly lost to England. It is just the difference between rents spent in Great Britain, and rents spent in Paris or Naples.

Doubtless they are the same thing, so far as the whole world is concerned; but are they the same thing so far as that portion of the world in which we are interested, viz., the British Islands, is concerned ? Unquestionably they are not. What the Protectionists say is, not that no British industry is encouraged when importation takes place : they know perfectly it is encouraged at their end of the line; what they say is, that it is not encouraged at the other end, because that other end rests in foreign states ; and that it is unwise to encourage industry at one end only, when it is possible to do so at both. Adam Smith saw this perfectly when he so well explained the difference between the home and foreign trade, and said the former was “worth all foreign trade put together.” But his observations on this head are as much forgotten by the majority of our legislators as those he made on the great wisdom of our Navigation Laws, as the only security for our national independence.

Mr M Gregor said, in the debate on the same subject, that “he admitted our naval strength had co-existed with the Navigation Laws, but he denied that they were cause and effect. They had about as much to do with each other as the height of the Pyramids had with the floods of the Nile.”* We agree with the honourable member for Glasgow in one part of this observation. The Navigation Laws have had as much to do with our maritime prosperity as the Pyra

* Times, June 9, 1848.

mids had with the floods of the Nile ; and we will tell the ex-secretary of the Board of Trade what the relation wasit was that of cause and effect. Mr M Gregor is too well informed not to know that there exists in Cairo a Nilometer, and that, during the period of the inundation, the spirits of the people and the animation of commerce rise and fall with the rise or fall of the prolific stream. It is no wonder they do so, for it is the source of life and prosperity to the whole community. Raised by the power of the Pharoahs from the riches produced by the inundations of former times, the Pyramids are the Nilometer of antiquity, as much as the tower of Babel and the ruins of Babylon were the monument of the opulence of the plain of Shinar ; or as Waterloo Bridge is of the wealth produced by the favourable maritime situation of London, or York Cathedral of the agricultural riches of the plains of Yorkshire. In all these causes there is a relation between the natural advantages which produce the riches and the durable monument to the construction of which they lead, and that relation is that of cause and effect.

We entirely concur with the member for Glasgow in thinking that the same connexion, and no other, subsists between the Navigation Laws and the maritime greatness of England as exists between the Pyramids of Egypt and the fertilising floods which encircle their base, and produce the wealth which raised them.

To prove that these remarks are not made at random, but that the Navigation Laws really are the foundation of the maritime greatness of England, and that, when they are repealed, it must of necessity languish and ultimately expire, we subjoin various tables, illustrating the comparative progress of our foreign and home shipping with Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Prussia, the countries with which reciprocity treaties were first concluded, from 1823 to the end of 1847, when the reciprocity system had been a quarter of a century in operation; the progress of British as compared with foreign shipping, from 1801 to 1823, when the protection of the Navigation Laws was first infringed upon by the adoption of the reciprocity system with the Baltic powers; and the general progress of British and foreign shipping during the latter period.

TABLE showing the comparative progess of British and Foreign Tonnage inwards,

from 1821 to 1847, both inclusive, with Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Prussia.

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1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847

23,005 8,508 13,855 61,342 5,312 3,96979,590 37,720 20,799 13,692 13,377 87,974 7,096 3,910 102,847 58,270 20,986 22,529 13,122 117,015

4,413 4,795 | 81,202 86,013 17,074 40,092 11,419 135,272 6,738 23,689 | 94,664 151,621 15,906 53,141 14,825 157,916 15,15850,943 189,214 182,752 11,829 16,939 13,603 90,726 22,000 56,544 119,060 120,589 11,719 21,822 13,945 | 96,420 10,825 52,456 150,718 109,184 14,877 24,700

10,826

85,771 17,464 49,293 133,753 99,195 16,536 25,046 9,985 | 86,205 24,576 53,390 125,918 127,861 12,116 | 23,158 6,459 84,585 12,210 51,420 102,758 139,646 11,450 38,689

4,518 114,865 6,552 62,190 83,908 140,532 8,335 25,755 3,789 82,155

7,268 | 35,772 62,079 89,187 10,009 29,454

5,901 98,931 6,840 38,620 41,735 108,753 15,353

35,911 6,403 98,303 5,691 53,282 32,021 118,711 12,036 35,061 2,592 95,049

6,007 49,008 25,514 124,144 10,865 42,439 1,573 125,875 2,152 51,907 42,567 174,439 7,608 42,602 1,035 | 88,004 5,357 55,961 67,566 145,742 10,425 | 38,991 1,364 110,817 3,466 57,554 86,734 175,643

8,359 49,270 2,582 109,228 5,535 106,960 111,470 229,208 11,953 53,337 3,161 114,241 6,327 103,067 112,709 237,984 13,170 46,795 977 113,045 3,368 83,009 88,198 210,254 15,296 37,218 1,385 98,979 5,499 59,837 87,202 145,499 6,435 44,184 1,814 97,248 4,148 82,940 | 70,164 163,745 12,806 59,835 1,315 125,011 7,423 123,674 108,626 220,202 15,157 89,923 1,215 129,897 4,528 84,566 49,334 256,711 12,625 80,649 3,313 113,738 9,531 105,973 63,425 270,801 7,037 | 117,918 2,318 | 128,075 20,462 116,382 88,390 303,225

-PORTER's Parl. Tables, and Parl. Report, 3d April 1848.

Thus our shipping declined under the reciprocity system of equal duties, in the countries to which that system was applied in the next twenty years, till it had dwindled to a perfect fraction : our tonnage with Sweden being, in 1847, not more than a sixteenth part of the foreign ; with Norway, a fiftieth part ; with Denmark, somewhat above a sixth ; with Prussia, somewhat under a fourth.

But then it is said these are selected states which do not give a fair average of the reciprocity system, or afford a correct criterion of its probable effects when appllied, as it is about to be by a general repeal of the Navigation Laws, to the whole world. If they are “ selected states,” we can only say they were selected by Mr Huskisson and the Freetraders themselves as likely to afford the best specimen of

the effect of their principles, and therefore as the first on which the experiment was to be made. Let us then take as the test, as we proposed, the general tonnage of the empire from 1801 to 1823, when the reciprocity system first began,—and we shall take these from the tables of the great statistical apostle of free trade, Mr Porter, to show the effect of free trade in shipping on the comparative growth of our whole tonnage, as compared with that of foreign states—and again from thence to 1847, when free trade in shipping was in full operation by the temporary suspension of the Navigation Laws, from the effect of the Orders in Council in March 1847 suspending the Navigation Laws under the pressure of the Irish famine :

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It appears from this most instructive table that, under the Protection system, from 1801 to 1823, the British shipping employed in conducting our commerce had gained so decisively on the foreign employed in the same commerce, that it had increased, from having been on an average of five years, at the commencement of the second, about two British tons to one foreign, to be, on the last five years, about four British tons to one foreign : in other words, during these twenty-two years, the proportion of British to foreign shipping had doubled.

Turn now to the contrast afforded by the comparative progress of British and foreign shipping from 1823, when the reciprocity system was introduced with certain states, to 1847, when it was made universal by the suspension of the Navigation Laws in March of that year :

Year.
Tons inward, Tons inward,

TOTAL. Year.
Tons in ward, Tons inward,

TOTAL.
British. Foreign.

British. Foreign. 1823 1,740,859 582,996 2,323,855 1836 | 2,505,473 988,899 3,494,372 1824 1,797,320 759,441 2,556,761 1837 2,617,166 1,005,940 3,623,106 1825 2,144,598 958,1323,102,730 1838 2,785,387 | 1,211,666 3,997,053 1826 1,950,630 694,116 2,644,746 1839 3,101,650 | 1,331,365 4,433,015 1827 | 2,086,898 751,864 2,839,762 1840 3,197,501 | 1,460,294 4,657,795 1828 2,094,357 634,620 2,728,977 || 1841 3,361,211 | 1,291,165 4,652,376 1829 2,184,525 710,303 2,894,828 1842 3,294,725 1,205,303 4,500,028 1830 2,180,042 758,828 2,938,870 1843 3,545,346 1,301,950 4,847,296 1831 2,367,322 874,605 3,241,927 1844 | 3,647,463 1,402,138 5,049,601 1832 2,185,980 639,979 2,825,959 1845 4,310,639 1,735,079 6,045,718 1833 | 2,183,814 762,085 2,945,899 1846 4,294,733 1,806,2826,101,015 1834 | 2,298,263 833,905 3,132,168 1847 | 4,942,094 | 2,253,939 7,196,033 1835 2,442,734 866,990 3,309,724

-PORTER's Progress of the Nation, 407, 2d edition; and Parliamentary Paper, 3d April 1848.

Thus it appears that, under the reciprocity system with some countries since 1823, and free trade in shipping with all* in 1847, the foreign shipping employed in carrying on the British trade had so rapidly grown upon the British, that, while at the commencement of the period the British stood to the foreign as 174 to 58, or 3 to 1 exactly, at the close they stood as 49 to 22, or somewhat above 2 to 1 only. And observe the vast start of foreign shipping as compared with British, since free trade was introduced by Sir R. Peel in 1846. For while the British tonnage was to the foreign in 1845 as 43 to 17, or as 24 to l; in the year 1847 it was as 49 to 22, or 23 to 1 only. So rapid has been the growth of foreign shipping over British in eighteen months of general free trade. In ten years of such a system, it is easy to see that the foreign tonnage employed in carrying on our trade will be equal to the British ; and then our national independence is gone for ever, for we have nursed

have nursed up in our harbours a body of foreign seamen equal to our own.

But we have not yet done with the parliamentary returns. From the return 3d April 1848, it appears that the total tonnage, British and foreign, employed in carrying on our trade was

Total.

7,196,033 tons. Deduct British and foreign tons employed in the colonial trade, viz.—

* Under the Order in Council repealing for that year the Navigation Laws.

British Islands.
4,942,094

Foreign. 2,253,939

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