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Statement showing the imports at Ceylon for the year ending Decembey 31, 1882—Continued.




Amount of


Whence imported.

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Saddlery and harness..tons.. Salt, refined

.do.. Saltpeter Silk

.do.. Soap

.do.. Specie Spirits: Brandy

do.. Gio

do.. Rum

.do. Whisky Liqueurs Sugar: Refined.

.do.. Unrefined Juggery.

.do.. Tobacco Cigars.

.do.. Snutr. Manufactured

Unmanufactured Tortoise-shells

.do.. Wines : Australian French...

do.. Italian German Madeira, port, and Span. ish

....... tons.. Timber... Woolens

.do.. All other goods


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11, 200 India, Singapore, and Europe.
7, 310 | India and China.
2, 680

India and Maldive Islands. 5, 300

Great Britain, colonies, and China. 13 Great Britain. 6, 890

United States via Great Britain and

India. 2, 140

760 India and Maldive Islands.

113 Australia
8, 280 Great Britain and France.

200 Great Britain. 5, 650

Do. India. 1, 800 Great Britain and India. 56, 420

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1, 340, 745

* Small quantities American. † Largely American. Statement of the total value of imports to Ceylon, and the countries from which directly im

ported, in 1882.

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British India
Cape of Good Hope.
Straits Settlements..

1, 141 154, 005 15, 602, 435



Dutch India
French India.
Maldive Islands
Portuguese Africa.
Portuguese India.


190 28, 852

104 70, 506

992 2, 001 23, 142

302 705, 038 49, 399

115 9, 800

452 204, 079 1, 798

25 70

555 111, 159

23, 311, 813

Statement of exports from Ceylon for the year ending December 31, 1882.


Arcca nuts

.tons.. Arrack

.do.. Arrupo

.do.. Bees-wax

.do.. Bêche de mer Birds' feathers

.do.. Birds' nests

do.. Bricks and tiles

.do.. Cardamoms Cinchona bark

.do. Choya root (madder) .do.. Chanks

do.. Cinnamon

.do.. Cocoanuts

do.. Cocoa

.do.. Coffee

.do.. Coir: Fiber

.do.. Rope

do.. Yarn

do.. Mats

.do.. Copperas

do.. Cotton goods, including thread, twist, and wool,

tons.. Cowries and shells Dyewood Fiber: Kitool

do.. Aloe

do.. Fish, dried and salted Gallnuts

.do.. Hides and skins

.do.. Horns

.do: Elephants Oil : Cinnamon

.do.. Citronella

.do.. Essential

.do.. Cocoanut

do.. Lemon grass

do.. Cinnamon leaf

do.. Orchilla weed

do.. Punal and Bomba nuts .do.. Plumbago

do. Poonac

do.. Salt

do.. Shark fins

do.. Spices

do.. Specie

do.. Tea

do.. Timber: Ebony

do.. Sapan

do.. Satin

do.. All other sorts

do.. Tobacco

do.. Valem bark

do.. Other goods

do. Total.

7,000 $500,000 India and Maldive Islands.
1,000 108, 700 India.
1, 213


5 Italy.
40 7, 643 India and China.

2, 230
2, 420

Do. 100

780 India and Maldive Islands. 15 20, 200 Great Britain. 2, 350 1, 924, 580 Europe and United States. 1

60 India. 1,000 51, 000 India, Anstralia, and Europe. 1,000 498, 150 Europe and United States. 6,000 52, 700 Europe, India, and Egypt.

45 23, 240 Great Britain. 24, 000 9,000,000 Europe, Australia, and United States.

430 31, 400 Great Britain, Australia, and United States.

370 46, 320 India, Australia, and Europe. 4,000

210, 000 India, Australia, Europe, and United States. 30

India, Australia, and Europe.
5,000 358, 200 India
2,000 663, 450 India, Australia, and Maldive Islands.
200 7, 200 India.

430 Great Britain and Australia.
200 20, 600 Great Britain.

Do. 1,000 48, 700 India. 300

23, 900 Great Britain and India.
1,500 80, 000 India and Great Britain.
200 39,000 Great Britain.
25 5,000 India and Europe.

6, 700 Great Britain.
600 120, 200 Europe and United States.

3, 300 Do.
11,000 1, 312, 600 Europe, India, and United States.

20 2, 700 Europe and United States.
3, 660

50 10, 930 Great Britain.

1, 500

India. 13, 200 1, 302, 330 United States and Great Britain. 450

6, 640 Great Britain and India. 2,000

32, 630 Dutch India.

4,000 India and Straits Settlements.
27 8, 600 Great Britain and India.
22, 797

350 295, 900 Europe, Australia, and United States.
700 32, 720 Europe, India, China, and United States.
550 27, 400 Europe and India.
300 21, 300

Do. 3, 000 118, 400 India and Europe. 500 593, 880 India. 10 100

Do. 15, 000 532, 270 Various countries. 105, 714 18, 192, 718

Statement of the total value of the exports from Ceylon and the countries to which exported di

rect in 1882.

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Hong Kong
Straits Settlements

2, 834, 018

30, 873 11, 473

6, 121 395, 595 71, 192

Statement of the total value of the exports from Ceylon and the countries to which exported

direct in 1882–Continued.

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Statement showing the exports between Ceylon and the United States for the year 1882.

(No direct imports.]

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Statement showing the navigation at the island of Ceylon for the year ending December 31,


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Statement showing the navigation at the island of Ceylon, &c.—Continned.

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NOTE.—The proportion of steamers to sailing vessels is about 1,670 steamers, aggregating 2,682, 861 tons, to 5,000 sailing vessels, aggregating 529,457 tons.


Report by Consul Studer on the commerce of Singapore for the year 1882.


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In former annual reports I stated that there were firms willing to introduce American articles of manufacture and production and to give them a fair trial; that I found a deeper interest was manifesting itself; that certain importations were increasing ; expressing the hope that they would largely increase over former years, and I am very glad to be able to report now that I was not disappointed. I watched things closely, making diligent inquiries from time to time; and while I had anticipated larger importations of certain articles which previously had found favor and of importations of new articles from our country and was disappointed, I found on the whole, and in contrast with former years, I had reason to be satisfied, all the more as the prospects were and are still getting brighter. And when considering that all these importations, besides petroleum, were made by foreign merchants; that there was not and is not now a single American firm in the colony; that the majority of the importers have never been in the United States, I thought we had still more reason to congratulate ourselves.

I feel fully convinced, too, that had my advice, repeatedly given in annual reports, been more generally acted upon by our manufacturers and exporting agents, viz, to send small consignments of the goods they wished to introduce here (after consulting me by letter if they wished) to good firms, the result would have been still better. I am aware that many have an aversion to consigning at their own risk, and that the great distance from the United States and high freights also tend to deter and discourage; that so long as they find ready cash sales at home and have orders ahead, they naturally do not see the necessity of consigoing “ for trial” imports thonsands of miles away. This appears natural, but I question whether it is a wise policy. The true

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old saying is, “In time of peace prepare for war," and without risking a little in business sometimes success is not always certain. In sending a small consignment, after correspondence and consultation with his consul or a good merchant, to a prominent Eastern market, one does not risk much, I am sure, unless the goods are of a very expensive character. If the sender does not make a profit or much profit on the same at first, he may make it subsequently, when those that bought them get to understand the value or the superiority of the same over like goods imported from other countries for a higher, the same, or a lower price. It is queer how such things will work sometimes. The consignees here, perhaps, may write, “ Your goods sold slowly and at a less figure than mentioned in your price-current, and we regret that there is no further demand for this or that,” &c. Now, it may happen that before the consignee's letter reaches the manufacturer in America a demand may spring up for those very goods, at price current rates. “Trade is a queer article, we all agree; and also that on a small consignment one cannot lose much, if there is any loss at all. It will interest inany men of business in our country, not familiar with this part of the world and the modes and manners observed in carrying on and creating trade, how this is done, and where all the traders, merchants, and consumers that buy in the market of Singapore come from; (1) that great distances are traveled to come here; (2) the mode of traveling for a large portion of traders, very important ones among thein, is by native craft called “prahu "; (3) that the latter, owing to the monsoons prevailing at certain times from certain quarters and the native mariners not understanding the science of navigation, can only come here before or with the wind, when the monsoon is favorable, and have to lie here until it is favorable for their return; (4) that, as a consequence, “ time” is a great factor in successful trade.

Let any one taking an interest in commerce and navigation, and in the extension of American trade, take a large-sized geographical wall-map (instead of a little book-atlas) of Sonthern Asia or Oceanica, one that will embrace the whole Indo-Malayan Archipelago, a great mass of islands appearing like ink dots, large and tiny, scattered over a large piece of paper, and then study the scale upon which the map was made, the degrees of latitude and longitude. By measuring and figuring one will feel astonished at the great distances between certain points and the area of islands appearing so small on the map. Look at Java, for instance; how close it appears to Singapore. Who would think that the average time required to go there by an average-speed steamer is three days, and that with an unfavorable monsoon it may take a wellmanaged sailing vessel fiom two to four weeks to go there; and who would further think that Java is over 600 miles long and 50 miles broad, and inhabited, comparatively, by so large a population of now over 17,000,000 of people (the great majority are Malays, natives of the soil), as I have been reliably informed ; further, that Sumatra is larger than France, and that Borneo's area exceeds that of Great Britain and Ireland, with all the adjacent islands thrownin! And so on ad infinitum. Why, thousands of islands, of which a large portion have an area equal to or more than a square mile, and very nearly all inbabited, are not marked on maps at all, and only on sea or "Admiralty charts," so called, and have no other names than those used by the natives.

It requires much time and study, even right here, to find out about the resources, population, wants by the latter, stages of civilization and progress, chances of communication with them, the time of the year when the trading prahus from certain islands arrive, what products they

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