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sea, and along navigable rivers flowing into the sea, in abundance and upon very reasonable terms.

It will be seen (I recorded it as reported to me by the importers) that hatchets, hammers, and hardware were imported. I look upon this as a pioneer progress. Of what articles the hardware consisted I did not insist upon making further inquiries about, since the importers evidently did not wish to give a detailed report of the same. I was highly gratified to learn that much, and that it sold pretty well all considered, since none had ever been imported to my knowledge before. Also $35 worth of genuine American axes were imported here at Singapore. That formerly many had been imported at Penang for the tobacco plantations in Deli, Sumatra, I have stated in former reports. And how is it with this trade now? Answer: It had the same fate as a number of other prominent American articles of manufacture of superior make in every respect (shape, temper, and durability), the result of years of trial, observation, perseverance, and careful thought-it fell into the hands of pirates.

American axes took well among the plantation coolies; the demand for them increased steadily. This did not escape observation in commercial circles, and, as a result, they were imitated, copied—truly copied so far as the appearance (shape and surface) is concerned-in Europe, and are now sold as “American axes,” or another kind after the pattern of the American ax as Anglo-American axes. They retail for about the same money as the genuine used to, but they are evidently cheaper in Europe than in America, else it would not have paid to import them here. But $35 worth of the genuine have nevertheless been imported.

I have been told that American garden or corn hoes, which formerly had found great favor on the same tobacco estates, shared the same fate as the axes; that hoes are often imported from Germany. The majority of the planters being Germans accounts for this more than any. thing else.

Well, after all, this stealing of other people's thunder,” to borrow an old homely phrase, or, clothed in the proper term, committing piracy, is of frequent occurrence nowadays in various parts of the world, and when it is taken into consideration that there is not a single American merchant in this very important colony to introduce or sell American goods, and that our producers and manufacturers at home must look to Europeans of various nationalities—who are all more or less in sympathy with their own people's interests—to be American agents, those that suffer by or through the existing state of affairs in our coun: try will know exactly where the difficulties lie, and that they are not of a kind that cannot be overcome.

It will be seen that $600 worth of hams were directly imported from America, which is the largest importation in the direct way as long as I have been here. To what extent and value American hams under other names were imported no one can ascertain here, but I am inclined to think that it will not fall seriously short of being the total of hams imported during the year, when considering the heavy dense population of Europe and comparing it with the productive areas of the countries from which these hams are received at this port and at a goodly num. ber of prominent ports in the East. But it may be argued in view of any assumption that a very large portion of people in Europe don't eat ham, and in this case I cannot produce any evidence to the contrary.

The great drawback to the importation and ready sale of many use. ful and desirable articles of manufacture out here, and other parts of


the East where silver dollars and rupees are current, is the still continued great depreciation of silver, with its almost constant and occasionally startling fluctuations in the exchange market. This holds good for imports from any manufacturing country, America or Europe, since the goods are paid for in sterling exchange on London, or in drafts on banks in France or Germany, &c. This is truly a deplorable state of affairs, very injurious to commerce, affecting as it does the great majority of the people, and I fail to see that any steps are taken by the colonial governments of the East through suitable legislation by anıl with the consent and advice of the home Governments, having at home a monoinetallism of gold (the Latin Union excepted), while in the East is one of silver. . This, as it seems to me, could be so easily effected by the establishment of bimetallism in all British dominions and by fixing a trne value upon all the coins, and obliging by firm and judicious legislation all the banks, bankers, merchants, and the people at large, to receive and issue them for the value set upon them by Government. If this were done, and one and the same standard of coins, gold and silver, established for the United Kingdom and all British dominions, it would change things generally for the better and keep the rates of exchange within reasonable and proper bounds.

The exchange market, unsupervised and unchecked as it is, it may safely be said, now offers opportunities for extortions, wronging and oppressing that should not exist. If a Government has a usury law, or the power to make one, to prevent money-lenders from oppressing those who are obliged to borrow money at exorbitant rates of interest, it seems to me it also has the power of preventing those who are obliged to buy exchange for the purpose of remitting for goods purchased, or on other legitimate grounds, from being charged exorbitant and ruinous rates of exchange at the expense really and chiefly of the consumers, the people. The reasons assigned sometimes for increased rates of exchange, which means corresponding depreciation of silver, are and have been often enough so frivolous as to become ridiculous to any one who knows better. How is any citizen or subject of a country or colony to know what he is worth when the banks (with the knowledge of the Government) are allowed, unchecked, to tell him day after day, year after year, that his coins are worth so much to-day and so much more or less to-morrow—the silver dollar worth 88 cents gold to-day and 864 cents in a day or two after, or the rupee 394 cents gold to-day and 38.5 cents to-morrow?

When I first came here the silver dollar was worth its true value of 48. 20. sterling in gold or in sight-drafts on the Bank of England, and to-day, eleven years later, it is worth only about 3s. 7d. sterling. It takes about $5.50 to buy a sovereign (£1 sterling) gold, and its average value during all that time has been about 38.83d. sterling sight on London. Who had the right, in the face of the Governments which coined and issued the coins and declared them to be the legal tender for all debts, public and private, to set a different value from the lawful one upon them, to the injury of the masses and international commerce? That's the question.

A merchant, for instance, wishing to remit for goods received from Europe or America, receives to-day, say, 38.8d. sterling exchange on London for $1 of silver, and bases a value upon the goods in accordance with exchange, i. e., the difference between gold and silver, adding thereto freight aud other charges and a certain profit. Now, if exchange remains the same or experiences only trifling fluctuations, he is comparatively safe, providing he can sell soon. But may be tomorrow exchange

to 3s. 7d. or lower, and he must experience a loss if he sells, or else

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hold on and risk by waiting for a better rate of exchange. It is all a lottery. But the heaviest burden of the depreciation, so called, falls upon all those who work for stipulated wages and receive no more nor less, regardless of the state of exchange. The prices of the necessaries of life are so exceedingly enhanced through the depreciation of silver, they are deterred from buying goods of superior quality, and only buy the very cheapest, but still dear. They are forced to this if they want to live within their income. Year after year one hears trade is dull, and no wonder. The silver depreciation is the cause of it, and it keeps down enterprise generally; the merchants are afraid to invest in any. thing beyond the sphere of their sure usual business. The Monetary Conference at Paris upon bimetallism has, after all, not resulted in a change for the better, for silver is worth less now than it was at that time. All of which leaves room for great thought, reflection, and action.


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As regards exports from Penang to the United States, there was a heavy increase of $649,254.19 over last year, especially in tiu (total last year, $1,299,689.83; total this year (i. e., September 30, 1882), $1,944,950.58). To the increased tin-mining in provinces near Penang, on the peninsula of Malacca, I shall allude below, and I will only say that the commercial importance of Penang is growing steadily and getting much stronger, and promises to again become what it was many years ago, when Singapore was in its infancy, or better said, was a jungle-existed only by name. I will mention that almost all the goods, exported to the United States were shipped in foreign steamers via England, the port being very rarely visited by American sailing vessels.

As regards exports from Singapore to the United States for the year ending September 30, 1882, there was a falling off of $67,261.85 from last year's aggregate for the same period. Last year's total was $5,339,919.88, and this year's $5,272,658.03. Much less tin, pepper, and also gambier was shipped this year. There were heavy fluctuations, with an upward tendency, in these three chief articles. At the present time of writing pepper, gambier, and rattans are much higher than I have ever known them to be at any time before. Nutmegs and mace experienced no change in price of any consequence. The same may be said of gum copal, though much more of it was exported this than last year. Coffee has become much lower than I have ever known it to be, and there appears to be little or no animation to export it from here. Tapioca, as I predicted two years ago in a report, has become so cheap comparatively as to hardly prove a paying enterprise any longer, though nearly as much of it as last year was exported. Sago also became cheaper than it has been, but not at the same ratio as compared with former prices—not as tapioca.



Singapore, February 8, 1883.


Report by Acting Consul Klinck, of Manila, on the commerce and nari

gation of the Philippine Islands for the year 1882.


The principal articles of imports into these islands being ale, bacon, cheese, candles, cotton goods, fruits, flour, hemp goods, lard, liquors, mineral oil, matches, medicines, preserved provisions, silk goods, vermicelli, vegetables, woolen goods, and wines, my last report, still apply to this branch of business for 1882.


The total value of exports during the year 1881 was $24,579,006.82, and in 1880 it was $23,450,285, an increase of $1,128,721.82 in favor of the year 1881, the principal articles of export being coffee, cordage, hemp, indigo, liquid indigo, rice, sugar, and sapan-wood. The United States are among the largest consumers of Philippine produce.


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The total number of vessels entered at the port of Manila during the year 1881 was 145 steamers with 108,618 tons, and 111 sailing vessels with 94,866 tons, being 35 American sailing vessels with 34,780 tous; 44 British steamers with 31,666 tops, and 40 sailiug vessels with 31,968 tons; 80 Spanish steamers with 60,245 tons; 5 German steamers with 4,043 tons, and 26 sailing vessels with 20,485 tons; 7 Dutch steamers with 6,018 tons, and 2 sailing vessels with 1,716 tons; 2 Russian steamers with 2,803 tons; 7 Danish steamers with 3,483 tons; 5 French sailing vessels with 4,294 tons; 2 Norwegian sailing vessels with 698 tons; and 1 Italian sailing vessel with 925 tons. The total number of vessels cleared are 128 steamers with 91,874 tons, and 77 sailing vessels with 68,055 tons, being 1 American steamer with 373 tons, and 34 sailing vessels with 34,060 tons; 46 British steamers with 27,836 tons, and 20 sailing vessels with 21,814 tons; 61 Spanish steamers with 48,519 tons, and 1 sailing vessel with 674 tons; 4 Germau steamers with 2,499 tons, and 9 sailing vessels with 6,691 tons; 8 Dutch steamers with 6,972 tons, and 1 sailing vessel with 1,304 tons; 3 Russian steamers with 3,213 tons; 5 Danish steamers with 2,432 tons; 3 French sailing vessels with 2,034 tons; and 3 Norwegian sailing vessels with 1,478 tons.


The total value of the imports from the United States in 1881 as $866,591.18. Amount declared into the port of Manila was $818,356.70, and into the port of Iloilo was $18,243.48.

The total value of exports to the United States was $9,232,743.14. Amount declared at the port of Manila was $4,566,248.99; at Iloilo, $3,329,677.37; at Cebú, $1,336,816.78, the principal articles of export being sugar and hemp.


The total value of imports in 1881 was $20,777,210.97, and in 1880 it was $25,493,319, a decrease of $4,716,105.03 from that of 1880. The total value of exports in 1881 was $24,579,006.82, and in 1880 it was $23,450,285, an increase of $1,128,721.83 over the amount of 1880.

The commerce of imports of the Philippine Islands in 1881 with Spain was $1,534,451.48; with England, $5,952,666.25; with Germany, $545,805,57; with United States, $866,591.18; with Spanish Possessions, $123.84; with British Possessions, $11,183, 379.16; with China, $623,711.20; with Japan, $890.80; with French' Possessions, $574.86; with Dutch Possessions, $63,337.03 ; and with Sooloo, $5,679.60.

The commerce of exports with Spain was $1,093,628.57; with England, $9,343,207.91 ; with United States, $9,232,743.14; with British Possessions, $4,556,054.80; with China, $68,347.65 ; with Australia, $139,830.57; with Japan, $86,879.17; with French Possessions, $245.91; and with Dutch Possessions, $58,069.10.



Manila, September 7, 1882.

Statement showing the imports at Manila for the year ending December 31, 1880.




Amount of


Whence imported.

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$9, 856 83 Spain, England, United States,

Germany, and British Posses

sions. 7, 675 55 England, China, Germany, and

British Possessions.
784, 195 61 Spain, England, China, United

States, Japan, Germany, Dutch
Possessions, and British Posses.

1, 691 73 England, United States, and Brit.

ish Possessions. 9, 064 25

Do. 15, 253 97 England, United States, China,

Germany, British Possessions,

and Dutch Possessions. 5, 558 23 England, China, Germany, United

States, and British Possessions. 6,239 94 England, British Possessions, and

Dutch Possessions. 520 17 England, China, United States, and

British Possessions. 43, 199 67

England, China, United States,

Germany, British Possessions,

and Dutch Possessions. 3, 917 99 England, China, United States,

Germany, and British Posseg.

sions. 16, 972 37

Do. 951 89 England, United States, and Brit.

ish Possessions. 24, 649 60 England, China, United States,

Germany, British Possessions,

and Dutch Possessions. 1, 570 76 | England, United States, China,

and British Possessions. 22, 691 87 England, United States, China,

Japan, and British Possessions. 28,776 73 | England, China, and British Pog.

sessions. 4,734 80 5,374 40 Spain, England, United States, and

British Possessions. 699 95 England, United States, and Brit.

ish Possessions. 1, 811 61 China and British Possessions. 17, 279 88 England, United States, Germany,

Spain, China, Dutch Possessions, and British Possessions.

39, 181

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47, 348
53, 744

4, 512


18, 117 172, 800

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