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and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will." Hence he is called the Spirit of the Father, the Spirit of God, and even the Spirit of Christ. Matt. x. 20, "It is the Spirit of your Father that speaketh in you." Rom. viii. 9, "But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you; now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his." 15, 16, "Ye have received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father; the Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the sons of God." 1 Cor. vi. 11, “By the Spirit of our God." 2 Cor. i. 21, 22, "He which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God; who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts." Gal. iv. 6," God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father." Eph. i. 13, 14, "That Holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance." iv. 30, "Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed." ii. 18, "Through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father." 1 Pet. i. 12, "The Holy Ghost sent down from heaven." From all which results the command in Matthew xxviii. 19, "Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 1 John v. 7, "There are three that bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one." The latter passage has been considered in the preceding chapter; but both will undergo a further examination in a subsequent part of the present.

If it be the divine will that a doctrine, which is to be

understood and believed as one of the primary articles of our faith, should be delivered without obscurity or confusion, and explained, as is fitting, in clear and precise terms, if it be certain that particular care ought to be taken in every thing connected with religion, lest the objection urged by Christ against the Samaritans should be applicable to us, "Ye worship ye know not what," John iv. 22, - if our Lord's saying should be held sacred wherever points of faith are in question, —“We know what we worship,”—the particulars which have been stated seem to contain all that we are capable of knowing, or are required to know respecting the Holy Spirit, inasmuch as revelation has declared nothing else expressly on the subject. The nature of these particulars is such, that although the Holy Spirit be nowhere said to have taken upon himself any mediatorial functions, as is said of Christ, nor to be engaged by the obligations of a filial relation to pay obedience to the Father, yet he must evidently be considered as inferior to both Father and Son, inasmuch as he is represented and declared to be subservient and obedient in all things; to have been promised, and sent, and given; to speak nothing of himself; and even to have been given as an earnest. There is no room here for any sophistical distinction founded on a twofold nature; all these expressions refer to the Holy Spirit, who is maintained to be the supreme God; whence it follows, that wherever similar phrases are applied to the Son of God, in which he is distinctly declared to be inferior to the Father, they ought to be understood in reference to his divine as well as to his human character. For what those, who believe in the Holy Spirit's

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coequality with the Father, deem to be not unworthy of him, cannot be considered unworthy of the Son, however exalted may be the dignity of his Godhead. Wherefore it remains now to be seen on what grounds, and by what arguments, we are constrained to believe that the Holy Spirit is God, if Scripture nowhere expressly teach the doctrine of his divinity, not even in the passages where his office is explained at large, nor in those where the unity of God is explicitly asserted, as in John xvii. 3, 1 Cor. viii. 4, &c., nor where God is either described, or introduced as sitting upon his throne; if, further, the Spirit be frequently named the Spirit of God, and the Holy Spirit of God, Eph. iv. 30, so that the Spirit of God, being actually and numerically distinct from God himself, cannot possibly be essentially one God with him whose Spirit he is (except on certain strange and absurd hypotheses, which have no foundation in Holy Scripture, but were devised by human ingenuity for the sole purpose of supporting this particular doctrine); if, wherever the Father and the Holy Spirit are mentioned together, the Father alone be called God, and the Father alone, omitting all notice of the Spirit, be acknowledged by Christ himself to be the one true God, as has been proved in the former chapter by abundant testimony; if he be God who "stablisheth us in Christ," who "hath anointed us," who "hath sealed us," and "given us the earnest of the Spirit," 2 Cor. i. 22, if that God be one God, and that one God the Father; - if, finally, "God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father," Gal. iv. 6, whence it follows that he who sent both the Spirit of his Son and the


Son himself, he on whom we are taught to call, and on whom the Spirit himself calls, is the one God and the only Father; — it seems exceedingly unreasonable, not to say dangerous, that, in a matter of so much difficulty, believers should be required to receive a doctrine, represented by its advocates as of primary importance and of undoubted certainty, on any thing less than the clearest testimony of Scripture; and that a point which is confessedly contrary to human reason should nevertheless be considered as susceptible of proof from human reason only, or rather from doubtful and obscure disputations.


First, then, it is usual to defend the divinity of the Holy Spirit on the ground, that the name of God seems to be attributed to the Spirit. Acts v. 3, 4, Why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost ? ..... Thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God." But if attention be paid to what has been stated before respecting the Holy Ghost on the authority of the Son, this passage will appear too weak for the support of so great a doctrinal mystery. For since the Spirit is expressly said to be sent by the Father, and in the name of the Son, he who lies to the Spirit must lie to God, in the same sense as he who receives an apostle receives God who sent him, Matt. x. 40. John xiii. 20. St. Paul himself removes all ground of controversy from this passage, and explains it most appositely by implication, 1 Thess. iv. 8, where his intention is evidently to express the same truth more at large; "He, therefore, that despiseth, despiseth not man, but God, who hath also given unto us his Holy Spirit." Besides, it may be doubted whether the Holy Spirit in this passage does not signify God the Father;

for Peter afterwards says, Acts v. 9, "How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord ?" that is, God the Father himself, and his divine intelligence, which no one can elude or deceive. And in v. 32, the Holy Spirit is not called God, but a witness of Christ with the apostles, "whom God hath given to them that obey him." So also Acts ii. 38, "Ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost," given, that is, by God. But how can the gift of God be himself God, much more the supreme God?

The second passage is Acts xxviii. 25, compared with Isai. vi. 8, 9, "I heard the voice of the Lord, saying,-" &c. "Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet," &c. See also Jer. xxxi. 31, compared with Heb. x. 15. But it has been shown above, that the names Lord and Jehovah are throughout the Old Testament attributed to whatever angel God may intrust with the execution of his commands; and in the New Testament the Son himself openly testifies of the Holy Spirit, John xvi. 13, that "he shall not speak of himself, but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak." It cannot therefore be inferred from this passage, any more than from the preceding, that the Holy Ghost is God.


The third place is 1 Cor. iii. 16, compared with vi. 19, and 2 Cor. vi. 16, "The temple of God ... the temple of the Holy Ghost." But neither is it here said, nor does it in any way follow from hence, that the Holy Spirit is God; for it is not because the Spirit alone, but because the Father also and the Son "make their abode with us," that we are called "the temple of God." Therefore in 1 Cor. vi. 19, where we are called "the


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