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ness." Undoubtedly neither David, nor any other Hebrew, under the old covenant, believed in the personality of that "good" and "Holy Spirit," unless perhaps as an angel.
More particularly, it implies that light which was shed on Christ himself. Isai. xi. 2, "The Spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of council and might, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah." xlii. 1, "I have put my Spirit upon him," compared with Acts x. 38, "How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power."
It is also used to signify the spiritual gifts conferred by God on individuals, and the act of gift itself. Gen. xli. 38, "A man in whom the Spirit of God is." Numb. xi. 17, 25, 26, 29, "I will take of the Spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them." 2 Kings ii. 9, "I pray thee, let a double portion of thy Spirit be upon me." ver. 15, "The Spirit of Elijah doth rest upon Elisha.”
Nothing can be more certain than that all these passages, and many others of a similar kind in the Old Testament, were understood of the virtue and power of God the Father, inasmuch as the Holy Spirit was not yet given, nor believed in, even by those who prophesied that it should be poured forth in the latter times.
So, likewise, under the Gospel, what is called the Holy Spirit, or the Spirit of God, sometimes means the Father himself. Matt. i. 18, 20, "That which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost." Luke i. 35, "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore, also, that holy thing
which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God."
Again, it sometimes means the virtue and power of the Father. Matt. xii. 28, compared with Luke xi. 20, "I cast out devils by the Spirit" or "finger of God." Rom. i. 4, "Declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead." For thus the Scripture teaches throughout, that Christ was raised by the power of the Father, and thereby declared to be the Son of God. See particularly Acts xiii. 32, 33, quoted in the beginning of the last chapter. But the phrase, "according to the Spirit" (secundum Spiritum), seems to have the same signification as Eph. iv. 24, “Which after God (secundum Deum) is created in righteousness and true holiness"; and 1 Pet. iv. 6, "That they might live according to God (secundum Deum) in the Spirit." Isai. xlii. 1, compared with Heb. ix 14, "I have put my Spirit upon him. Who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God." Luke iv. 1, "Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost," and v. 18, compared with Isai. Ixi. 1, “The Spirit of the Lord Jehovah is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me," &c. Acts x. 38, "God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power." i. 2, "After that he through the Holy Ghost had given commandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen." It is more probable that these phrases are to be understood of the power of the Father, than of the Holy Spirit itself; for how could it be necessary that Christ should be filled with the Holy Spirit, of whom he had himself said, John
xvi. 15, "He shall take of mine"? For the same reason I am inclined to believe that the Spirit descended upon Christ at his baptism, not so much in his own name, as in virtue of a mission from the Father, and as a symbol and minister of the divine power. For what could the Spirit confer on Christ, from whom he was himself to be sent, and to receive all things? Was his purpose to bear witness to Christ? But as yet he was himself not so much as known. Was it meant that the Spirit should be then manifested for the first time to the Church? But at the time of his appearance nothing was said of him or of his office; nor did that voice from heaven bear any testimony to the Spirit, but only to the Son. The descent, therefore, and appearance of the Holy Spirit in the likeness of a dove, seems to have been nothing more than a representation of the ineffable affection of the Father for the Son, communicated by the Holy Spirit under the appropriate image of a dove, and accompanied by a voice from heaven declaratory of that affection.
Thirdly, the Spirit signifies a divine impulse, or light, or voice, or word, transmitted from above either through Christ, who is the Word of God, or by some other channel. Mark xii. 36, "David himself said by the Holy Ghost." Acts i. 6, "The Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas." xxviii. 25, “ Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet." Heb. iii. 7, "Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith, To-day if ye will hear his voice," &c. ix. 8, "The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest." x. 15, "Whereof the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us." 2 Pet. i. 21,
Holy men of God
spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." Luke ii. 25, 26, “The Holy Ghost was upon him; and it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost." It appears to me, that these and similar passages cannot be considered as referring to the express person of the Spirit, both because the Spirit was not yet given, and because *Christ alone, as has been said before, is, properly speaking, and in a primary sense, the Word of God, and the Prophet of the Church; though "God at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the Fathers by the prophets," Heb. i. 1, whence it appears that he did not speak by the Holy Spirit alone, unless the term be understood in the signification which I have proposed, and in a much wider sense than was subsequently attributed to it. Hence, 1 Pet. i. 11, "Searching what or what manner of time he Spirit of Christ which was in them " that is, in the prophets "did signify," must either be understood of Christ himself, as iii. 18, 19, "Quickened by the Spirit, by which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison," or it must be understood of the Spirit which supplied the place of Christ the Word and the Chief Prophet.
Lastly, it signifies the donation of the Spirit itself, and of its attendant gifts. John vii. 39, "But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive; for the Holy Ghost was not yet given. Matt. iii. 11, "He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire." See also Acts i. 5, and xi. 16; 1 Thess. v. 19, "Quench not the Spirit."
Who this Holy Spirit is, and whence he comes, and what are his offices, no one has taught us more explicitly
than the Son of God himself. Matt. x. 20, "It is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaketh in you." Luke xi. 13, "How much more shall your Heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him." xxiv. 49, "Behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you; but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until be endued with power from on high." John xiv." 16, 17, "I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth." ver. 26, "The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name." xv. 26, "The Comforter, whom I will send unto you from the Father, ..... which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me." xvi. 7, "I will send him unto you." ver. 8, "When he is come, he will reprove the world." ver. 13, " He shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak." ver. 14, He shall glorify me; for he shall receive of mine." ver. 15, "All things that the Father hath are mine; therefore said I that he shall take of mine." xx. 22, "When he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost." Acts ii. 2-4, 33, "Having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this —.” ver. 32, "We are his witnesses of these things, and so is also the Holy Ghost whom God hath given to them that obey him." Rom. xv. 13, "Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope through the power of the Holy Ghost." 1 Cor. xii. 3, “No man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost." Heb. ii. 4, "God also bearing them witness, both with signs