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temple of the Holy Ghost," Paul has added, "which ye have of God," as if with the purpose of guarding against any error which might arise respecting the Holy Spirit in consequence of his expression. How then can it be deduced from this passage, that he whom we have of God is God himself? In what sense we are called "the temple of the Holy Ghost," the same apostle has explained more fully Eph. ii. 22, "In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit."
The next evidence which is produced for this purpose is the ascription of the divine attributes to the Spirit. And first, Omniscience; as if the Spirit were altogether of the same essence with God. 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11, "The Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God; for what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of a man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God." With regard to the tenth verse, I reply, that, in the opinion of divines, the question here is not respecting the divine omniscience, but only respecting those deep things "which God hath revealed unto us by his Spirit," the words immediately preceding. Besides, the phrase "all things" must be restricted to mean whatever it is expedient for us to know; not to mention that it would be absurd to speak of God searching God, with whom he was one in essence. Next, with regard to the eleventh verse, the essence of the Spirit is not the subject in question; for the consequences would be full of absurdity, if it were to be understood that the Spirit of God was with regard to God as the spirit of a man is with regard to man. Allusion therefore is made only to the intimate relationship and com
munion of the Spirit with God, from whom he originally proceeded. That no doubt may remain as to the truth of this interpretation, the following verse is of the same import: "We have received ..... the Spirit which is of God." That which is of God cannot be actually God, who is unity. The Son himself disallows the omniscience of the Spirit still more plainly. Matt. xi. 27, "No man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him." What then becomes of the Holy Spirit? for, according to this passage, no third person whatever knoweth either the Father or the Son, except through their medium. Mark xiii. 32, "Of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father." If not even the Son himself, who is also in heaven, then certainly not the Spirit of the Son, who receiveth all things from the Son himself; John xvi. 14.
Secondly, Omnipresence, on the ground that "the Spirit of God dwelleth in us." But even if it filled with its presence the whole circle of the earth, with all the heavens, that is, the entire fabric of this world, it would not follow that the Spirit is omnipresent. For why should not the Spirit easily fill with the influence of its power what the sun fills with its light; though it does not necessarily follow that we are to believe it infinite? If that lying spirit, 1 Kings xxii. 22, were able to fill four hundred prophets at once, how many thousands ought we not to think the Holy Spirit capable of pervading, even without the attributes of infinity or immensity?
Thirdly, Divine works. Acts ii. 4, "The Spirit gave
them utterance. xiii. 2, "The Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work." Acts xx. 28, "The Holy Ghost hath made you overseers to feed the Church of God." 2 Pet. i. 21, "Holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." A single remark will suffice for the solution of all these passages, if it be only remembered what was the language of Christ respecting the Holy Spirit, the Comforter; namely, that he was sent by the Son from the Father, that he spake not of himself, nor in his own name, and consequently that he did not act in his own name; therefore that he did not even move others to speak of his own power, but that what he gave he had himself received. Again, 1 Cor. xii. 11, the Spirit is said "to divide to every man severally as he will" In answer to this it may be observed, that the Spirit himself is also said to be divided to each according to the will of God the Father, Heb. ii. 4, and that even "the wind bloweth where it listeth," John iii. 8. With regard to the annunciation made to Joseph and Mary, that the Holy Spirit was the author of the miraculous conception, Matt. i. 18, 20, Luke i. 35, it is not to be understood with reference to his own person alone. For it is certain that, in the Old Testament, under the name of the Spirit of God, or of the Holy Spirit, either God the Father himself, or his divine power, was signified; nor had Joseph and Mary at that time heard any thing of any other Holy Spirit, inasmuch as the personality and divinity of the Holy Spirit are not acknowledged by the Jews even to the present day. Accordingly, in both the passages quoted, veuμa yiog without the customary article; or, if this be not considered
as sufficiently decisive, the angel speaks in a more circumstantial manner in St. Luke: "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God,"— that is, of the Father; unless we suppose that there are two Fathers, one Father of the Son of God, another Father of the Son of man.
Fourthly, Divine honors. Matt. xxviii. 19, "Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Here mention is undoubtedly made of three persons; but there is not a word that determines the divinity, or unity, or equality of these three. For we read, Matt. x. 41, John xiii. 20, of receiving a prophet in the name of a prophet, and a righteous man in the name of a righteous man, and of giving a cup of cold water in the name of a disciple; which evidently means nothing more, than because he is a prophet, or a righteous man, or a disciple. Thus, too, the Israelites "were baptized unto Moses," 1 Cor. x. 2, that is, unto the law or doctrine of Moses; and "unto the baptism of John " occurs in the same sense, Acts xix. 3, and "in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins," Acts ii. 38, and "into Jesus Christ," and "into his death," Rom. vi. 3, and "into one body," 1 Cor. xii. 13. To be baptized, therefore, "in their name," is to be admitted to those benefits and gifts which we have received through the Son and the Holy Spirit. Hence Paul rejoiced that no one could say he had been baptized in his name, 1 Cor. i. 13-15. It was not the imputation of making himself God that he feared, but that of affecting greater authority than was suitable
to his character. From all which it is clear, that when we are baptized in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, this is not done to impress upon our minds the inherent or relative natures of these three persons, but the benefits conferred by them in baptism on those who believe, namely, that our eternal salvation is owing to the Father, our redemption to the Son, and our sanctification to the Spirit. The power of the Father is inherent in himself, that of the Son and the Spirit is received from the Father; for it has been already proved, on the authority of the Son, that the Son does every thing in the name of the Father, and the Spirit every thing in the name of the Father and the Son; and a confirmation of the same truth may be derived from the words immediately preceding the verse under discussion; ver. 18, "All power is given unto me. . .. .. Go ye therefore, baptizing in the name," &c.; and still more plainly by 1 Cor. vi. 11, "But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." Here the same three are mentioned as in baptism, "the Son," "the Spirit," and "our God"; it follows, therefore, that the Father alone is our God, of whom are both the Son and the Spirit.
But invocation is made to the Spirit. 2 Cor. xiii. 14, The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost be with you all." This, however, is not so much an invocation as a benediction, in which the Spirit is not addressed as a person, but sought as a gift from him who alone is there called God, namely, the Father, from whom Christ himself directs us to seek the communication of the Spirit,