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discarded the rites of the law. For as the only probability is, that the privileges of the Ælian colony, an hereditary attachment to the soil of Jerusalem, and the inconveniences attendant on emigration, would induce numbers to continue on the site of the old city; the only probability is, that on the appointment of a new bishop, they would abandon their indifferent ceremonies, and conform to the ordinances of the church. But as it is equally probable, that the attachment of many to their paternal customs would prevail even over these considerations; we further conceive it to be a fact, that besides this Church of Gentile and Hebrew converts, there was a Synagogue of Nazarenes, or orthodox Hebrew believers, settled at AElia, who, according to Origen's notion, had not discarded the rites of the Mosaic law. This fact we rest on the authority of St. Epiphanius and St. Jerome; the former of whom states that a Synagogue certainly existed at Jerusalem; while the latter evinces that it consisted of Nazarenes, whose places of worship were, in his own age, prevalent in many parts of the East. Under both these views of the question, as well as that taken by Bishop Bull, the offensive and defensive operations of Dr. Priestley and his advocates seem to be reduced to the same desperate case: and Mr. Belsham's oil and ink expended to no purpose, in vindicating the claims of his departed friend,

(To be concluded in our next.)

Art. VI. Memoirs of Lady Hamilton, with illustrative Anec

dotes of many of her most particular Friends, and distinguished Contemporaries. 1815.

WE took up the book before us with two impressions on our
mind, that we should find it offensive to decency, and injurious
to the character of Lord Nelsom. In the first we acknowledge
that we were in error; the book is as dull and prosing as any .
that we ever laboured through (a bold word for a committee of
reviewers), but it is not immoral or licentious; but we were not
deceived by our second impression, and on this account we
shall bestow a little time, and space on so wretched a pro-
When will the shade of our great and beloved warrior be
allowed to rest in peace? When will a world of malicious wri-
ters, and wanton readers suffer his human frailties to be for-
gotten amidst the crowd of his overpowering merits? His o:
- - slas

has been singular and cruel; in his life-time, uone so high, and so fondly loved; high for no one dared deny him the first place in that profession, on which we then reposed, all our hopes of security, and raised nearly all our speculations of glory; loved—

for it was impossible not to love him, whose matchless skill and courage were yet exceeded by his affectionate gentleness to all,

and his ardent tenderness, “passing the love of woman,” for

those who had the happiness to be within his more intimate. circle. He died, as his biographer has well remarked, not till

his mission was accomplished, and every Englishman, when he

heard the news, felt as if he had lost some dear familiar friend. A few years have passed, and in consequence of his victories.

the warlike exertions of the country have necessarily taken allother direction; our success in the new lime has been equally decisive, in it has arisen another Nelson, (we cannot pay even Wellington a higher compliment); but as a natural consequence zeal for naval exploits has languished, and wantonness, malice, or spleen, watching the opportunity, have busied themselves to expose the infirmities and errors of the departed hero. Is it too much to say, that the publick has lent itself to the ungenerous attempt; we have observed his faults, set them in our note-books,

conned, and learned them by rote with a curiosity wanton and

ungrateful in the extreme. - - - !

This is not the first time, that we have been called upon to reprehend such shameful publications; in going into the following remarks on the question which they involve, we feel that we are liable to some misrepresentation, but it is too important to be declined on any personal considerations. Let it not then be supposed, that we would justify or excuse the errors of Nelson. Whatever love, or veneration we have for his memory (and greater no one can have), we should think it an unwise and unworthy testimony of them to become the apologists of vice. Whenever his moral faults are mentioned, let them be visited with the censure which they deserve, let it distinctly appear, to serve as a guard to youthful and indiscreet admirers, that no talent, quality, or virtue, no success or glory can take away, or at all diminish the inseparable ugliness of sin. In this point of view we can conceive it a useful lesson to shew how all the unhappiness of Nelson's life, and all the tarnish on his posthumous memory have flowed as legitimate consequences from the breach of that moral obligation, from which no splendour of exploit, or height of situation had power to release him. -

But unless, according to the case supposed, morality enjoined the disclosure, or the important claims of history make it'desirable, we can see no reason, why his frailties should ever be

at all mentioned. The best, and greatest -heroes, o ti). *. whose

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whose wisdom, valour, and patriotism, as ministers of the mer-
cies of Providence, mations owe the chief and the most nume-
rous blessings which they enjoy, are still but men; and of all
men, if the liability to fall be estimated by the force of tempta-
tion, the most exposed to error. Placed “ on high among the
people,” the rapturous and always excessive people, whirled
round and round upon their dizzy eminence, even to giddiness,
by indiscreet or designing adulation ; by mature too in general of
strong passions and ardent temperament, every thing from
within and from without conspires to their seduction. If they
fall, it behoves mankind in gratitude for what they owe, and
out of filial affection, each individual to his own country, (as her
character happens to be implicated), not surely to pardon or ap-
prove errors so lamentable (for guilt is guilt by whomsoever in-
curred), but to bury them in oblivion, or at least in silence,
wherever no weighty matter summons them up to solemn judg-
ment. Perhaps their follies or failings were mixed up with the
great scenes of history in which they moved, and were, in
some way or other, operative upon the public events in” which
they were principal agents; perhaps, as we said before, the mo-
ralist desires to exhibit to us, as a warming, our weakness even
in our strength, our nature's inconsistency, its misty spots even,
in its solar effulgence; if so, let the curtain be slowly and re-
luctantly, yet entirely withdrawn; in the one case important
truth, in the other important morality demands the sacrifice.
But it should be considered a sacrifice; the task should, and
to a generous mind would be a very painful one, not to be per-
formed for any but such weighty motives—to do so for lucre, for
transient currency with the worthless herd of readers, to pamper
general curiosity, or private rancour, to do so lightly, or with
any but the saddest feelings; this is indeed shocking, and to be
compared in point of spirit only to the jesting of an amato-
mist in his lecture room over the mournful spectacle of morta-
lity before him. - - -
In recommending the distinction, which we have endeavoured
to draw, we are not aware, that we plead for the vices of the
great, or seduce them with hopes of impunity. We would abo-
lish the libel and the pillory indeed of the literary mob ; but it
is (in the spirit of our excellent laws) to substitute a temperate,
and authorized prosecution, a fair examination, a regular trial,
and a solemn punishment. ".
We express ourselves with some earnestness on this subject;
but, we hope and trust, with no more than its importance de-
mands. The evil, great and deadly as it is, generated, subsist-
ing, and nourished only in, and by the corruption of all right,
decent, or generous feelings, is daily increasing. To this may,
- - in

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in some measure, though not entirely, be attributed that growing scepticism, which pervades all ages equally with all ranks, as to the goodness and integrity of distinguished publick men. There is not a more fearful sign of these fearful times than this; and it behoves cvery well-wisher of his country to oppose strenuously whatever in any degree contributes to nourish it. In place of the entire undoubting ardour with which in former times our youth venerated the great names of English history, we have now substituted a cold and measured applause, paid rather to the success, than the motives of their actions. The Earl of Chatham had not so learned ; whenever that great practical philosopher spoke of those who were prime agents in the memorable aeras of our history, he used no measured language; not that he knew less of that history, but that he knew mole of political wisdom and human nature. If he mentioned the Great Charter, he did not describe its framers as imperious and turbulent barons, selfishly actuated, desirous of preserving their own power from royal encroachment, and doing good to the commonalty only by unintentional consequence; but he spoke of them as men, -

“Whose virtues were rude and uncultivated, but great and sincere. Their understandings,” said he, “were as little polished as their manners, but they had hearts to distinguish right from wrong, they had heads to distinguish truth from falsehood, they under

stood the rights of humanity, and they had spirit to maintain

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There is more of real wisdom in this mode of interpretation, than may at first sight appear (nor does it, if the obvious distinction above laid down be attended to, involve any pious fraud); for it is of the last importance to propose pure models to those who are entering life; at that time imitation is ardent and indiscriminating, minds are fearless and zealous:... with pure models before him, the candidate for glory advances upon principle, and consistently; to be great he knows is impossible without being good; he connects the motive inseparably with the action, and

bestows neither censure nor blame on the latter (considered on

the score of glory), till he has scrutinized the former; all his progress is then regular and worthy of the end proposed. Principles in this way become deeply rooted, and judgment at the same time strengthening, and the powers of discrimination improving, he may be safely trusted with the information which would probably have disgusted him before; when he examines the inconsistencies of character, which the sober page of history will shew him, he will now be ready to make allowance for the inseparable frailties of our nature, and to diminish, without

wholly denying, applause. ---- ying, al . The

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The present system is grounded on opposite principles, and must produce opposite effects; instead of attempting to carry on the simplicity and ardour of the child into the man, it seems to be our object to dwarf the child with the doubtfulness and timidity of the man. We are to be credulous of evil, incredulous of good : where an action is of an ambiguous nature, it is to be condemned by presumption; where it is confessedly wise and useful, we are to look for a bad, or unworthy motive; is the unexceptionable motive too strongly marked to admit of imputation, we shall be presented with some degrading inconsistency on a similar occasion. In this way we are stripped by degrees of all objects, and almost of all capability of humble and imitative admiration; we grow to be out of charity with our own nature, and out of heart in our pursuit of virtue, for the former seems so corrupt, that the latter may well be considered an unattainable abstraction; if we pursue our course under all these hindrances,

it is rather for worldly honours and profits, or the breath of

opularity, than to purchase an enduring name; principle ceases to operate, and the ascent to fame comes to be considered an affair of twists and starts, of shifts and expedients. It is not to be doubted, that the effects of such an education must be visible in the individual character in after life, and, by consequence, in that of the nation. The pursuit of these thoughts has led us astray from our subject, nor can we return to it, till we have ventured on a few

words to the public, who encourage the trash, which is one

mean of producing the bad effects we deplore. It is certainly no apology for a wanton scribbler, that he will never be without readers; but if the public, whose neglect would soon put an

end to the race, encourage and maintain them by credulous ap

probation, and a willing audience, it must be content to bear an
equal share of the guilt. “There are not only slanderous
throats, but slanderous ears also,” says an old and most eloquent
Divine, “not only wicked inventions, which ingender and brood
lies, but wicked assents, which hatch and foster them.”
We have heard of an infamous book, a disgrace indeed to our

- language, in the last paragraph of which, its author triumphantly

congratulates himself on having erected a temple to Virtue and Modesty. In something of the same spirit the author of the work before us “utterly disclaims the malignant intention of dragging sailings to the light,” and makes most liberal professions of the purity of his motives. We will not be so rude as to tell him, that we disbelieve these professions; but we will venture to ask him two questions, to which we find no satisfactory answer in his book; what objects important to history or morality could be answered by the biography of such a po aS

. . * - Lady

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