The Philosophy of Rhetoric
SIU Press, 1988 - 423 sivua
Here, after a quarter century of additional study and reflection, Bitzer presents a new critical edition of George Campbell’s classic. Bitzer provides a more complete review and assessment of Campbell’s work, giving particular emphasis to Campbell’s theological views, which he demonstrates played an important part in Campbell’s overall view of reasoning, feeling, and moral and religious truth. The Rhetoric is widely regarded as the most important statement of a theory of rhetoric produced in the 18th century. Its importance lies, in part, in the fact that the theory is informed by the leading assumptions and themes of the Scottish Enlightenment—the prevailing empiricism, the theory of the association of ideas, the effort to explain natural phenomena by reference to principles and processes of human nature. Campbell’s work engages such themes in an attempt to formulate a universal theory of human communication. Campbell attempts to develop his theory by discovering deep principles in human nature that account for all instances and kinds of human communication. He seeks to derive all communication principles and processes empirically. In addition, all statements in discourse that have to do with matters of fact and human affairs are likewise to be empirically derived. Thus, his theory of rhetoric is vastly wider than, and different from, such classical theories as those proposed by Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian, whose theories focused on discourse related to civic affairs.
Bitzer shows that, by attempting to elaborate a general theory of rhetoric through empirical procedures, Campbell’s project reveals the limitations of his method. He cannot ground all statements empirically and it is at this point that his theological position comes into play. Inspection of his religious views shows that God’s design of human nature, and God’s revelations to humankind, make moral and spiritual truths known and quite secure to human beings, although not empirically.
Tulokset 1 - 5 kokonaismäärästä 83
By these definitions , any instance of written or oral discourse which aims to
inform , convince , please , arouse emotion , or persuade to action , and which
has as its or purpose is an instance of rhetorical discourse . Clearly , no kind of
The causal connection between thunder and lightning , for instance , is not itself
perceived ; " all that comes under the cognizance of our senses , in the
operations either of Nature or of Art , is the causes which precede , and the
effects which ...
The common - sense truths identified by Campbell — six in number - - are in
every instance “ axioms ” enabling the mind to reason from data to conclusions .
They are not self - evident , as are the data of pure intellection , because their
In this he is in accord with most thinkers who find ways , sometimes religious , to
protect the category of the valuable . The Analysis of Persuasion . Campbell ' s
analysis of persuasion ( 77 – 78 ) holds that in every instance persuasion
... insomuch that either , being presented to the mind , frequently introduces or
occasions the apprehension of the other . Custom , in this instance , operates
precisely in the same manner as in the formation of experience formerly
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EDITIONS OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF RHETORIC
Of Wit Humour and Ridicule
The Doctrine of the preceding Chapter defended
Of the Nature and Use of the scholastic
Of the Consideration which the Speaker ought
have of the Hearers as such Men in particular
from objects or representations that excite pity
of the Words