The Philosophy of Rhetoric
SIU Press, 1988 - 423 sivua
Here, after a quarter century of additional study and reflection, Bitzer presents a new critical edition of George Campbell’s classic. Bitzer provides a more complete review and assessment of Campbell’s work, giving particular emphasis to Campbell’s theological views, which he demonstrates played an important part in Campbell’s overall view of reasoning, feeling, and moral and religious truth. The Rhetoric is widely regarded as the most important statement of a theory of rhetoric produced in the 18th century. Its importance lies, in part, in the fact that the theory is informed by the leading assumptions and themes of the Scottish Enlightenment—the prevailing empiricism, the theory of the association of ideas, the effort to explain natural phenomena by reference to principles and processes of human nature. Campbell’s work engages such themes in an attempt to formulate a universal theory of human communication. Campbell attempts to develop his theory by discovering deep principles in human nature that account for all instances and kinds of human communication. He seeks to derive all communication principles and processes empirically. In addition, all statements in discourse that have to do with matters of fact and human affairs are likewise to be empirically derived. Thus, his theory of rhetoric is vastly wider than, and different from, such classical theories as those proposed by Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian, whose theories focused on discourse related to civic affairs.
Bitzer shows that, by attempting to elaborate a general theory of rhetoric through empirical procedures, Campbell’s project reveals the limitations of his method. He cannot ground all statements empirically and it is at this point that his theological position comes into play. Inspection of his religious views shows that God’s design of human nature, and God’s revelations to humankind, make moral and spiritual truths known and quite secure to human beings, although not empirically.
Vivacity is unmistakable in its effects . It commands ... The 40 Hume had made
the same point : “ The effect , then , of belief is to raise up a simple idea to an
equality with our impressions , and bestow on it a like influence on the passions .
... ideas which are similar , ideas which are contiguous in space or time , and
ideas related as causes and effects . ... and ideas that are remote in both space
and time ; and mind can conceive of any idea as a cause or effect of any other .
We know from common sense , says Campbell , that “ when there is in the effect a
manifest adjustment of the several ... This axiom would be unneeded as a
premise if we could actually see God occasionally producing effects which exhibit
However , feelings are often the effects of the properties and qualities that we
perceive in real things . The painting , having ... The scene of human misery ,
having such and such features , is the cause of my pity ( the effect ) . In this way ,
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EDITIONS OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF RHETORIC
Of Wit Humour and Ridicule
The Doctrine of the preceding Chapter defended
Of the different Sources of Evidence and
Of the Nature and Use of the scholastic
from objects or representations that excite pity
being detected both by the Writer and by
Of Vivacity as depending on the number of
of the Words
Of the Consideration which the Speaker ought
have of the Hearers as such Men in particular