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PATRAS, February 10, 1877. (Received March 2.)

Report upon the trade and commerce of Greece for the year ending December

31, 1876.


From the invoices presented to this consulate and the agencies attached, it appears that the value of goods shipped from Greece to the United States during the year was as follows: From the Morea, $560,939.69; from Cephalonia, $190,159; from Zante, $42,659.47; from Piræus, $3,480; from Syra, $2,332.60; total, $799,570.76. From this amount, however, must be deducted the value of a cargo of currants, the destination of which is known to have been changed, $23,219.49, thus leaving the total value $ 776,351.27; represented by 7,804 tons currauts, valued at $705,124.66, 660,446 pound sunwashed wool, $64,163.82, and sundries, $7,062.79. The figures of the preceding year were 8,379 tons currants, valued at $711,174.44, 118,667 pounds unwashed wool, $13,470.90, and sundries, $5,270.53=$729,915.87, thus showing an increase in the total value of goods sent to the United States during 1876 of $46,435.40, but in the principal article of export (currants) a falling off of 575 tons. Two reasons may be assigned for this diminution, the depression of trade in general in the United States, and the increase in the cost of the article, for it will be seen from the above figures that whereas the average price of currants for the past year was $90.35 per ton, that of the preceding year was only $84.88 per ton.

As will be seen from the foregoing figures, the increase in the total value of exports is to be attributed principally to the increase in the quantity of wool shipped, which, during the year 1876, amounted to 660,446 pounds against 118,667 pounds during the previous year, and the enhanced value of currants.


It is very difficult, indeed almost impossible, to ascertain with any accuracy what is the value of imports into Greece from the United States. Petroleum is, however, the principal article, and I have reason to believe that the quantity imported is steadily on the increase. Sev. eral cargoes have been received direct at Corfu and half a cargo at this port.

American tonnage has been more plentiful within this consular dis. trict during the past year than for many previous years, six vessels, of a total burden of 1,976 tons, having laden for the United States, whereas for several years past there have not been more than one or two vessels in the course of each year.


Referring to the trade of Greece in general, I may say that the export trade has been much favored during the past year by a very large crop of currants, which has been sold at high prices on account of the small stocks of old fruit that remained in the markets of consumption when the new crop became ready, and the failure of the crops of fresh fruit in England.

The total crop of currants produced last year is estimated at 85,000 tons, and this estimate may be taken as correct, as very little now remains for shipment. So far, the crop has been distributed as follows:

To the United States
To the United Kingdom
To Canada........
To Trieste
To north of Europe..
To Russia...
To Marseilles.....
Held for shipment, about


7, 299 63,536

906 3,144 8,025 659 82

1, 359



against 72,500 tons in 1875 and 76,300 tons in 1874.

The average price for finest was 258., for second quality was 218. 6d., for third quality was 178. per cwt., free on board ship, against, respectively, 218. 6d., 188. 3d., and 168. 98. in 1875, and 258., 208., and 168. in 1874. The

crop of currants last year was the largest that has ever been pro. duced, but we may look forward to much larger crops; for, in consequence of a law passed in the year 1871, granting favorable conditions to the purchasers of national land, it is reckoned that no less than 100,000 acres of land have been bought since that date, a great portion of which has been and is being planted with currant vines. The prop: erty bought from government has to be valued by a committee appointed for that purpose; the land must be cultivated with vines, grain, or other produce, and is classified in first, second, and third categories. On assignment of land to the purchaser there must be paid a sum of about $1.50 per acre for irrigable land and half that amount for second quality, and subsequently yearly payments, extending for a period of twenty-six years, of about $1 per acre for first quality of land, 62 cents for second, and 37 cents for third. Unfortunately there are very large arrears ow. ing to the Greek Government, say over $12,000,000, which prevents the opening out of internal communication, and it is of serious injury to the country, and it is to be feared, after paying some of the rates of the property lately purchased, the same system of arrears will be attempted.

OLIVE OIL. The crop of olive oil in Greece is very abundant and reckoned at about 12,500 tuns, of which about 10,000 tuns will be for export, valued at £38 to £40 per tun, free on board.

VALONIA. The crop of valonia is short, reaching only about 4,500 tons, against about 10,000 tons produced last year. The prices paid have been about $77.50 per ton free on board for mixed, $87 for Calamata, and $102 for Camatina, and none remains unsold. It is shipping principally to Eng. land, Italy, and Trieste.

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The export of wine from Greece to Europe last year was very trifling, reaching only the value of about $15,000.


The produce of tobacco last year was fairly up to the average, but a comparatively small portion is exported.


The produce of figs at Calamata, where alone in Greece this fruit is produced for export, was rather below the average, being only about 6,000 tons, valued at about $70 per ton. It was almost all shipped to Trieste and Russia.


The produce of cotton, grain, and other produce not previously men. tioned I take to have been average, not having heard anything to the contrary and being unable to obtain any particulars regarding them.

No returns have yet been issued regarding imports, shipping, and such like, and indeed when they are supplied they are very imperfect. I may say, however, that the import trade of the past year has been an improvement on that of the previous year, which had considerably declined.

Nothing has been done during the past year toward making railways or roads in Greece.



HONOLULU, September 30, 1877. (Received December 29.) A report upon the trade and commerce of the Hawaiian Islands for the

year ending September 30, 1877.


The principal productions of the islands are sugar, molasses, rice, taro, coffee, bananas, cattle, sheep, and goats.


Manufactories in the islands are limited. There are two ship building and repairing establishments, one machine-shop, and two rice-mills, all on the island

of Oahu. Each sugar-plantation has machinery for grinding cane, boiling the juice, and granulating the sugar.


There is a system of contract for laborers on these islands, authorized by law, called “ shipping.” Under this system laborers indentare them. selves to labor for their employers for a given number of years at a stipulated price. I believe all the laborers on the sugar and rice planta. tions are engaged in this way for term of three or four years. The law provides for the imprisonment of the laborer if he fails to fulfill bis contract. Laborers receive on the plantation from $8 to $12 per month, and found in lodging and board. There are engaged now about fire thousand laborers operating the sugar and rice plantations. The laborers are principally Chinese, natives, Japanese, and Portuguese. Many more laborers will be required to operate the plantations being opened, extended, and in prospect. Agents are now in foreign countries trying to procure laborers. China, Japan, India, and the Fiji Islands, I beliere, are the objective points.

POPULATION. The census which is to be taken next year will show, as I am assured by persons best informed on the subject, a population in the islands of about 55,600, constituted as follows: Native Hawaiians, 46,000; halfcastes, 2,510; Chinese, 4,000; Americans, 950; British, 620; Portuguese, 300; Germans, 320; French, 100; other nationalities, 400; Hawaiians born of foreign parentage, 400; total, 55,600.

In the last eighteen months there have been brought into these islands, as laborers on the sugar and rice plantations, some 1,600 or 1,800 Chinese. This makes up to some extent in the aggregate popula. tion for the decrease in the native population.

The population, as appeared in 1872 by the census then taken, was as follows: Native Hawaiians, 49,044; half-castes, 2,487; Chinese, 1,938; Americans, 889; British, 619; Portuguese, 395; German, 224; French,

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89; other nationalities, 364 ; Hawaiians born of foreign parentage, 849; total population, 1872, 56,897; total population, 1877, 55,600; decrease in five years, 1,297. I am informed by the national school superintendent that on account of better care being taken by their parents native children have not died in the same ratio in the last five years as before; and he hopes the time is at hand when the gradual wasting away of the Hawaiian people will cease.

EFFECTS OF THE RECIPROCITY TREATY. The reciprocity treaty between the United States and this kingdom has been in operation over a year, and its effects are being sensibly felt in the prosperity of the islands. The price of real estate has advanced largely. In 1875 the assessed value of real property in the kingdom was $6,490,600. In 1876, in anticipation of the ratification of the treaty, it went up to $7,624,061. This year the returns of the assessment, which are nearly all in, will show its value to have gone up to over $8,500,000. This increase is mostly in sugar and rice lands. One-half interest in the Lahaina sugar-plantation sold a few months ago for $500,000; the whole of which could not have been sold before the treaty passed for that amount. Interests in other sugar and rice plantations have sold recently at the same advanced prices.

Many new sugar and rice plantations are being opened and old ones enlarged. The King has opened a new sugar-plantation on the island of Kanai and superintends its operation personally. Some of the native Hawaiians are following his example and are planting small pieces of ground owned by them.

OWNERS OF PLANTATIONS. The rice-plantations are mostly owned or leased by Chinese and operated by them. The sugar-plantations are owned by Americans, Hawaiians, Germans, English, and French. A very large proportion of the capital invested belongs to Americans, or those who have been Americans and are now Hawaiian citizens by naturalization.

EXPORTS OF PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS. The total exports of sugar, molasses, rice, and paddy from this country in the year ending June 30, 1877, will be seen by the following statement. as compared with exports of the preceding year:

Sugar.-Year ending June 30, 1877, 34,773,728 pounds; year ending June 30, 1876, 20,616,403 pounds; increase, 14,157,325 pounds.

Molasses.-Year ending June 30, 1877, 187,873 gallons; year ending June 30, 1876, 84,100 gallons; increase, 103,773 gallons.

Rice and paddy.--Year ending June 30, 1877, 4,064,391 pounds; year ending June 30, 1876, 2,262,722 pounds; increase, 1,801,669 pounds.

The following statement shows the amounts of the above exports shipped to other countries than the United States and sold in the Hawaiian harbors to vessels for consumption, in the year ending June 30, 1877, compared with the preceding year:

Sugar.-Year ending June 30, 1877, 64,079 pounds; year ending June 30, 1876, 1,343,386 pounds; decrease, 1,279,307 pounds.

Molasses.-Year ending June 30, 1877, 23,254 gallons; year ending June 30, 1876, 28,374 gallons; decrease, 5,021 gallons.

Rice. —Year ending June 30, 1877, 50,345 pounds; year ending June 30, 1876, 105,132 pounds; decrease, 55,787 pounds.

No paddy has been exported for many years to any other country tban the United States.

The increased exportations of sugar, molasses, rice, and paddy in the

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