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Total value domestic produce exported from Honolulu
Total domestic exports from the Hawaiian Islands....
$2,363, 866 66
16, 000 00 39, 250 00 39, 000 00 3, 500 00
2,462, 416 66
Total of all exports ......
213, 786 32 2, 363, 866 66
2,676, 202 98
.3.-PASSENGER STATISTICS, ARRIVALS AND DEPARTURES.
5.-STATEMENT SHOWING THE ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE OF MERCHANT-VESSELS.
HONOLULU, September 30, 1877. (Received December 20.) A report upon the origin, progress, and character of leprosy in Hawaii.
That I might be able to give reliable information as to this malady, I propounded a series of questions to Dr. Robert McKibbin, physician to the Queen's Hospital, and an old and experienced member of the board of health of this kingdom, relative to its history, character, &c., in these islands, which he has very kindly answered.
I subjoin the questions and answers : 1st. What is the history and character of the leprosy of the islands!
Answer. I have found it most difficult to obtain any reliable history of leprosy, now so common on these islands. As nearly as I can ascertain, there have been a few scattered cases for between thirty and forty years, but the real nature of the disease was not known, or at least very imperperfectly so, till much later. It was first called by the Hawaiians the “ Mai Alii” (chief's disease), from the fact that a chief was one of the first to succumb to it. The name now used by the natives is the “ Mai Pake" (Chinese disease). This, as nearly as I can learn, arose from an idea rather commonly accepted, that leprosy was introduced into these islands by Chinese coolies. Upon careful investigation, I believe that this is not the case, as the only coolies who have arrived here affected with it were at once sent to Molokai, and these, I think, were only two in number. I consider the true origin of this name arose from the fact that some of the early Chinese residents recognized it as a disease well known in their country, when it was unknown to other foreigners resi. dent here; hence the name. The first reliably recorded case occurred in a Hawaiian who died in 1843 of the disease; but the actual existence of leprosy, which has since proved such a terrible scourge to these islands, was not officially recognized by the government until the year 1865, when a law was passed for the segregation of all persons affected with leprosy, and a settlement for that purpose established on the island of Molokai. It is much to be regretted that the same steps had not been adopted many years earlier, and vigorously enforced. In 1868 1, as the only medical member of the board of health, urged with the strongest arguments I could use, on the president of the board and the minister of the interior the great importance of having all the lepers collected and isolated. Unfortunately I was unable to make him or the rest of the cabi. net realize the danger and see the necessity of taking immediate steps to arrest, if possible, the progress of this terrible disease. It then might easily have been done, for I do not believe there were many more than fifty lepers in the whole group. ITALY.
It is most difficult to understand or explain why leprosy should bavo in late years increased with such fearful rapidity. Bad vaccination and syphilis are undoubtedly the two principal causes, yet there is much less syphilis now than formerly. From my own observation I am inclined to believe that this disease got thoroughly implanted and started in a race and climate peculiarly adapted for its spread, and being new and unknown, the natives had no fear of it, lived, sat, slept, wore the same clotbes, smoked the same pipe, &c., with the affected. From the above it can scarcely be wondered at that leprosy has rapidly spread among the natives of these islands. The character of leprosy in its various forms as met with here is similar to that which presents itself in India and China, about which so much has been written; I therefore consider that it is unnecessary for me to describe it.
2d. Is the disease contagious or infectious ?
Answer. I believe it is, but only under peculiar circumstances and close actual contact, such as sexual intercourse, eating and sleeping together, wearing the same clothes, smoking the same pipe, particularly in persons suffering from any skin disease, or abrasions of the skin or mucous membrane. Under other circumstances I consider the disease neither contagious nor infectious.
3d. Has it any connection with syphilis? If so, what?
Answer. Yes; I believe there is a direct connection between leprosy and syphilis; for I frequently see the one disease running into the other and certainly persons laboring under constitutional syphilis are, ceteris paribus, much more likely to contract leprosy than those who are other. wise healthy. In this connection I may also add that a very large proportion of lepers have a syphilitic history.
4th. Has any medical treatment ever been adopted that has proved effectual in the care of the disease ?
Answer. Every method of treatment that has been thought of as likely to produce good results has been fairly and faithfully tried here, but I regret to say entirely without success. Under judicious treatment, hygiene, &c., the disease can often be kept for some time in check, and the unfortunates enjoy tolerably good health, but the lull is only a tem. porary one, which so frequently produces false hopes of ultimate recovery, invariably doomed to the most bitter disappointment.
5tb. Are there any circumstances or condition of the system rendering some persons more susceptible of the disease than others ?
Answer. Yes; in persons suffering from any cachexy, constitutional taint, or disease, such as syphilis, scrofula, &c. It is also frequently hereditary.
6tb. Does any person attacked by the disease ever get well?
Answer. I am inclined to think the disease is decreasing, owing to the vigorous steps taken by the governinent for the sequestration of all known lepers; but it is difficult to say exactly at what rate, as frequently the friends of persons affected will hide them away for months, or even years, before tbey can be caught by the proper authorities.
8th. What provision has the government made for the isolation and care of lepers ?
Answer. A large settlement on the island of Molokai is set apart by
the government and supported at an annual expense of about $30,000, for the complete segregation of all persons affected with leprosy.
9th. Are Anglo-Saxons and Mongolians on the islands as susceptible of the disease as Hawaiians ?
Answer. No. There bave been very few cases indeed among the Auglo-Saxon race, and these could all be easily traced to the sources from which they sprang. The same applies to the Mongolians, although a larger proportion of this race bas been affected than the former, which can be accounted for by the much more intimate connection between them and tbe Hawaiians.
Statement showing the value of the declared exports from the consular district of Cape Playtien
to the United States during the four quarters ending September 30, 1877.
10, 813 71
11, 181 01
33, 946 44
FLORENCE, June 25, 1877. (Received November 6.) The Phyllorera : A report upon its discorery, history, ravages, and means
of prevention. In view of recent advices received from America relative to the destruction of the grape-vines in California and elsewhere in the United States by the Phyllo.cera, I have thought it advisable to forward to the State Department any information that might be of value on this important subject, and in sending the following report, I take pleasure in acknowledging the valuable assistance rendered by my vice-consul, Mr.
, Huntington, and of Prof. Adolfo Tozzetti, who has addressed the Agricultural Society of Florence on the subject of the Phylloxera.
DISCOVERY AND DIFFUSION.
The Phylloxera made its first appearance in 1863, and was discovered by Mr. Penamun, director of the customs at Caen, who observed among his vines at Villeneuve Les Avignon, that many plants did not come forward as usual in the month of May, and that this state was succeeded by yellow leaves and final decay and death.
In the succeeding years other vines became infected with this illness, and it increased so rapidly as to spread into all the neighboring departments, making such rapid progress, that in 1866 it had already traversed six hundred kilometers (about three hundred and sixty miles), and was discovered in the vineyards of Bordeaux. In 1873 the disease had be. come establisbed in 97 communes; 54 others were added in 1874 to the list of those already affected, and 50 others in 1875.
At present the number of communes where the Phylloxera exists is 202 in the departinent of Gironde, and out of 40,764 hectares (101,910 acres) of cultivated vines in the neighborhood of Libourne, 9,920 are attacked. In other regions the percentage of diseased vines varies from 50 per cent. for maximum to 10 per cent. for minimum, with an average of 25 per cent. · The Phylloxera extends in the direction of the prevalent winds, as proved by its progress in France. Mountain rauges, however, have heretofore acted as barriers, as the insects that cause the Phylloxera prefer low grounds and dislike the clayey soils and cooler air of high regions.
NATURAL HISTORY OF PHYLLOXERA.
It was not until four years after this discovery of the Phylloxera that the cause of this disease of the vines was found to be an insect that infected the roots and leaves of the plants, and bred in such rapid manper as to diffuse itself in a few months over a large tract of ground. This discovery was made by Mr. Runchon in 1868, and was afterward confirmed by many others.
Controversy immediately arose whether this insect was the cause or effect of the disease, and it would be impossible to say even now that