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SWEDEN AND NORWAY.
Statement showing the imports from the United States into the consular dis
trict of Bergen during the year ending September 30, 1877.
Statement showing the value of declared export: from the consular district of Bergen, in
cluding the agencies of Drontheim and Stavanger, to the United States during the four quarters of the year ending September 30, 1877.
Statement showing the value of declared exports from Bergen, fo.-Continued.
NOTE.-10 vessels, of 4,126 tong, entered the port of Bergen, and 11 vessels, of 4,933 tons, entered the port of Stavanger, from the United States during the above year.
OCTOBER 30, 1877. (Received November 21.)
TRADE OF CHRISTIANIA WITH THE UNITED STATES.
The exports to the United States from this port during the past year ending September 30, 1877, were as follows:
$7, 614 51 2,022 63 3,118 28
754 02 1, 172 78
14, 682 22
Goods from the United States are imported here in increasing amounts, but mostly via Liverpool and Hull. Petroleum is shipped here directly from the United States ports. Of this article, which has to compete in this market with Scotch paraffine oil made of coal, Norway now imports about ten cargoes yearly. Salt pork and other meats, leather, grassseeds, agricultural machines and tools, besides other objects of American produce, bave now a large and settled market in this country. The Centennial Exbibition, which was visited by Norwegian industrials and merchants, seems to bave promoted the consumption of American goods. No American ships have reported here during the year.
The trade and commerce of this port must be considered satisfactory, though there has been much complaint of depression of business. The duties of imports sbow even an increase over those of the previous years. The staples of this port, deals and lumber, were exported in reduced quantities to the English and French markets, doubtless on account of the unsettled condition of Europe, and brought low prices. Beer destined for South America, matches for Australia and China, and wood. pulp for paper manufactures, were, as usual, exported largely.
THE FISHERIES OF NORWAY.
The important cod-fishing grounds of Loffoden and Finmark yielded last winter an unprecedented amount of fish, being estimated by the government tisbery inspectors at 55,000,000 fish. The herrings, once so abundant on the Norwegian coast, did not appear last winter either. The seal-catching fleet, which now includes many steamers, has done very well during the past season off the Jan Mayen Island. The most of them returned to Tonsberg, which lies within this consular district and where the vessels are outfitted, with valuable cargoes of oil and seal skins. One whaling steamer from the same port took thirty whales off the eastern coast of Finmark. These whales are of a different species from those caught on the coasts of Greenland. It may be noted as a result of the Philadelphia Exhibition last year that purse-seines from the United States have been introduced in the fisbing districts here and meet with general approval.
NORWEGIAN SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION.
The second scientific expedition, fitted out with much liberality by the government to explore the geography and the animal life of the seas between Iceland, Scotland, Norway, and the uninbabited islands in the Arctic Sea north of Norway, has returned with most interesting results, which will be published within a short time.
PARTICULARS OF THE MERCANTILE MARINE OF NORWAY.
At the close of 1875 the Norwegian mercantile marine pumbered, ac. cording to official statistics just publisbed, 7,814 vessels, with an aggre. gate of 1,419,308 tons and occupying 60,281 men. Of tbese the sailing. vessels were 7,596, comprising 1,375,432 tons with 57,303 men, while the steamers numbered only 218, of 43,875 tons and 9,980 horse-power, with 2,978 men, of whom 878 are engineers and firemen. The addition to the mercantile marine during 1875 was 150 vessels, of 80,446 tons, or 10,000 tons less than in 1874 and 44,000 tons less than in 1873, wbich latter year was remarkable for the large number of vessels bought abroad by ship.owners in this country. The new ships built in Norway in 1875 measured 75,600 tons, an amount bitherto unparalleled here. One hundred and fifty-six vessels, of 36,000 tons burden, were wrecked dur. ing the year. It is only the sailing.vessels which have increased so rap. idly in number, as only 2,000 tons were added to the tonnage of the steamers.
The value of the Norwegian mercantile marine, sailing vessels and steamers together, may be estimated at the close of 1875 at 192,340,000 crowns, or about $71,237,000. Of that amount the cities owned 154,665,000 crowns, and the country districts 37,675,000 crowns. The average value of a ton was about 136 crowns. Among the ports own. ing the largest capitals in vessels may be quoted : Arendal, 18,706,000 crowns; Bergen, 18,333,000 crowns; Stavanger, 11,905,000 crowns; Christiania, 11,502,000 crowns; Drammen, 9,952,000 crowns. During the year 1875 there were 11,662 arrivals of vessels from foreign ports to Norway, with a total tonnage of 1,806,000 tons. Of these 2,893, of 323,410 tons, were foreign vessels. The gross freight earned by vessels under the Norwegian flag in carrying trade in 1875 was estimated at 22,648,000 specie dollars (1 specie dollar = $1.06 gold). For the period 1866–75 the gross freights earned by Norwegian vessels in carrying trade were estimated as follows: 1366, 13,800,000 specie dollars ; 1867 and 1868 averaged about the same as 1866; 1869, 16,200,000 specie dollars; 1870, 17,850,000 specie dollars; 1871, 18,900,000 specie dollars; 1872, 21,950,000 specie dollars ; 1873, 26,039,000 specie dollars ; 1874, 26,392,000 specie dollars; 1875, 22,648,000 specie dollars.
RAILROADS OF NORWAY.
The new railroad connecting the city of Drontheim with the Lake of Mjosen was opened for travel by the King in person on the 13th instant. The line has a length of 270 miles, and besides being the longest is also the most important of all the Norwegian lipes finished up to this time. The highest point of the road, which is very picturesque and an interesting work of engineering, is 2,132 feet above the level of the sea. It has cost 15,500,000 crowns, or 77,714 crowus (1 crown = 27 cents) per English mile. It is now twenty-three years since the first railroad in this country, connecting Christiania with Eidavold, on the Lake of Mjosen, was coustructed. The lines now in operation bave a length of 504 miles, and represent a capital of 48,000,000 crowns; 470 miles, which are at present in process of construction, are calculated to cost 62,000,000 crowus.
POPULATION OF CHRISTIANIA AND OF ALL NORWAY.
The city of Christiania will at the close of this year receive an addi. tion of about twenty thousand inhabitants by the incorporation of the suburbs, and will number over 100,000 inhabitants. The average death rate within the limits of the city amounts annually to 20 per 1,000 persons. Still-born infants are not included in this rate.
The whole country bad on the 1st of January, 1876, when the last census was taken, 1,817,237 inbabitants, of whom 1,484,299 resided in the country districts and 332,938 in the towns. The annual increase of the population of the kingdom was for the period 1815–65 14 per cent., which for the decade 1865–75 fell off to per cent. The latter result was a consequence of the large emigration to the United States, which has decreased considerably during the last few years.
EMIGRATION FROM CHRISTIANIA AND FROM ALL NORWAY.
The emigration to the United States has fallen off, as only 2,002 persons have left this port for America during the first ten months of 1877. Of the said number there were 1,612 adults, 327 children, and 63 infants. The aggregate number of emigrants from the whole Kingdom of Norway was, in 1876, 5,173 persons against 6,093 in 1875.
CONSTANTINOPLE, October 28, 1877. (Received December 31.) Report on the navigation, agriculture, commerce, and finances of Turkey,
for the year 1876.
LACK OF STATISTICS.
Owing to the refusal of the Turkish authorities to furnish statistical information, and the accidental destruction of the data collected by the Austro-Hungarian Chamber of Commerce at Constantinople, it is im. possible for me to give any general view of the commerce of Turkey for the year 1876.
Entrances and clearances at Constantinople. As will be seen by the following table, the number of vessels which entered Constantinople during the year 1876 was 19,156, of 5,027,894 tops, of which 4,042, ton. nage 3,204,572, were steamers, and 15,114, tonnage 1,823,322, sailing. vessels.
The number which cleared was 19,487, tonnage 5,217,481, of which 4,052 were steamers. tonnage 3,222,973, and 15,435 were sailing.vessels, tonnage 1,994,508.
Statement showing the navigation at the port of Constantinople for the year ending June 30,