Sivut kuvina

no amortizement. At these reduced rates the Turkish Government agreed to pay the interest on the loans guaranteed by the Egyptian tribute. The annual residue would thus amount to £280,000, by which it was proposed to float a loan of £5,000,000 sterling. So far, owing to difficulties with the bondholders and with the London Stock Exchange, it has been impossible to place this loan upon the market, but a syndicate, known as Dent, Palmer & Co., although in reality the Imperial Ottoman Bank, agreed to and did make the government an advance of £1,000,000, for, it is said, 9 per cent. interest and 6 per cent. commission, with the privilege of taking the loan. In case the loan cannot be emitted, the bank can, while gaining money on the advance at the high rate of interest, easily be repaid in six years on the reliquat of £280,000 yearly.




SMYRNA, September 7, 1877. (Received December 31.)

Report upon the Cultivation of the Fig.

Climate.-The Aidin district is the only one which produces figs for exportation. The fruit will grow anywhere in the neighborhood of Smyrva, of a good quality for consumption in a green state; but the Aidin plain is unique in its climate and soil, as being favorable to the proper curing of the fig. The thermometer seldom falls below 30 or 40 under freezing-point, and in the summer seldom rises above 1300 Fahr. in the sun.

In Aidin the winters are generally wet, the dry weather commencing iu May and continuing to the end of October. Any rain the end of July or during the months of August and September, when the fruit is under the process of drying, injures its quality, by causing it to burst, hardens the skin, gives the fig a dark color, and spoils its keeping qual. ity. Heavy dews will cause the same evils. What is required during the time the fruit is coming to maturity is fine weather and dry winds.

Soil. The fig tree will grow in almost any soil. It grows very lur. uriantly, however, in a rich soil; but to produce figs that will dry well and please the merchant, the soil ought to be of a good depth and of a rich, light, sandy nature; this latter, if the weather is favorable, will produce large tigs of a white, thin skin and of the finest quality.

Preparation of the soil.-Before planting, the ground ought to be well plowed two or three times to a good depth, well pulverized, and freed from all weeds and extraneous roots.

Cultivation.—The tig is propagated from slips selected with as many fruit-buds as possible. To form a tree, two slips are planted one foot apart and then joined at the top. Trees, if planted in rich soil, should be placed about 30 feet apart, and for poor soil about 25 feet.

Planting.The cuttings are to be planted in the month of March, two in each bole, at about 9 to 12 inches apart at the root end, and gradually bring the top buds to meet and just cross them, thus, X; then tread in the earth well. The cuttings must be full of buds or eyes, and when about to plant cut the root end off at the first knot, care being taken not to leave any of the pulp showing, as it will then be liable to be attacked by worms, which will make the tree hollow and sickly. The whole of the cuttings are put into the ground to within one or two inches of the top; the process of crossiug must then take place, after. wards the ground must be well trodden in to one or two inches of the top, then cover the remainder (say the one or two inches) over with loose earth, which will protect the ends from the heat of the sun. When the trees arrive to about the height of a man, nip or cut off the tops to one uniform height, and this will cause the tree to branch out.

Growth.-During the growth of the trees the ground ought to be plowed up two or three times during the winter or spring, and the space between them may be used to cultivate cotton, sesame, or Indian corp. When the trees are large the same system of plowing and loosening the earth all around the trees ought to be continued. To make a fig. tree grow well the plowing of the garden is very essential; if this is not attended to, the fruit will be small and in every respect inferior. The first year of planting, the cuttings ought to be watered during the summer months.

Application of the male fig.—The male fruit, about the middle of June, cortains a large number of small flies, and is thrown on the female trees. These flies then get distributed over the fruit and convey the necessary amount of pollen. The system is as follows: When the female fig (first crop) is about the size of a hazel-nut, five or six of the male figs are strong on to a piece of string, and one or two of these bunches are thrown on the female tree, according to its size and amount of fruit. Repeat this operation when the second crop is about the same size. the tree grows larger, year by year, increase the number of strings; but never put more than six strings (say abont thirty male figs) over the largest tree at one time. These strings are put on the tree about one hour before sunrise, and care must be taken that the weather is fine and no wind blowing. I may mention that if the male fig is not applied the crop will not set, but the fruit will fall off, and if too many are applied the fruit will likewise fall or become very small or inferior.

Curing.–About the end of July the first figs come to maturity. The fig harvest lasts about six weeks. When the fig is ripe it will of its own accord fall from the tree only partly cured. Women and children are employed to pick up the fruit into small baskets, to be conveyed to a place in the garden well exposed to the sun, where they are spread on a bed of dry grass or matting, in single layers, not one on top of the other, and are turned every day so as to get every side of the fig exposed to the sun. After a few days of exposure to the sun, those figs which are considered , sufficiently dry are selected from the mass and divided into first, second, and third quality. Care must be taken not to dry them too much ; the skin ought to feel dry, but the inside soft. Practice alone can teach to what extent the drying ought to take place. The grower then sends the figs to Smyrna, where they are resorted and packed for shipment.



SEPTEMBER 7, 1877. (Received December 31.)

Report upon the trade and commerce of Smyrna for the years 1876 and



The returns of imports and exports for the year 1876, which accompany this report, show a marked improvement in the movements of the port of Smyrna over the previous year. The increase in imports amounts in value to $730,310, and in exports to $4,322,492.


During the year 1876, 738 steamers entered the port of Smyrna, of an aggregate tonnage of 707,520 tons, being a decrease of 62 in steamers, compared with the previous year, and in tonnage of 14,155.


The information contained in my last annual report of the trade of the United States with Smyrna was brought up to September 30. The return of imports and exports herewith transmitted is for the past 11 months. In this period 7 sailing-ships bearing the United States ilag entered from ports in the United States. These vessels brought as cargo petroleum, alcohol, rum, domestics, &c., amounting in value to $357,414, being a decrease compared with the previous year of $302,586. This decrease is attributable to shipments of petroleum for Constantinople being made direct and to the entire falling off of sugar importation.

During the same period of 11 months 284 invoices have been legalized at this consulate, having a declared value of exports of $1,861,184.92. Opium is the principal commodity exported, amounting in value to $1,203,171.41.

MANUFACTURES. Carpets and rugs.-Turkey carpets and rugs still continue to be the only articles of manufacture for exportation. This industry has been carried on for a period of more than 2,000 years by the inhabitants of three small towns situated from 100 to 175 miles distant from Smyrna. The process of manufacture has undergone no change, the work being done by hand without the aid of machinery, except a simple roller upon which the carpet is revolved as the embroidery proceeds. Owing to the increased demand for several years past for these manufactures in England, France, and the United States, there has been a great improvement in the patterns and in the blending of their colors.


The crops of all kinds have been good for the past and present years. The value of all the cereals exported is less than $1,000,000 in a district of 35,000 square miles.

During the present year more than 60,000 able-bodied men have been taken, mostly from agriculture, to fill up the ranks of the Turkish army. It is reported that in many districts there are not laborers enough left to put in the crops for the coming year. This state of things will undoubtedly greatly affect the commercial prosperity of Smyrna, especially should the present war continue. Valonea, the cup of an acorn grown upon a stunted oak tree, found mostly upon the sides of mountains, is the most valuable article exported. It is used in tanning, and the greater part shipped to England and Austria. Opium is next in importance, and more than one-half of the entire crop is shipped to the United States, where it is used principally in the manufacture of morphine.


Vessels of any size can safely enter the port of Smyrna. They ancho at from 100 to 300 yards from the quay. Alongside the quay the depth

of the water is 20 feet, and upwards in some parts. There has lately been constructed a harbor surrounded by a marine wall, inclosing about ten acres of water-surface, in which vessels of 2,000 tons can enter. Since the construction of the quay nearly all vessels discharge their cargo alongside.

Quarantine regulations.-On the arrival of a vessel, the master has to proceed to the quarantine office with his papers, and if provided with a clean bill of health is admitted to free pratique; if not, he has to proceed to the lazaretto at the island of Clazomene, wbich is about 18 miles from Smyrna, where the vessel performs her quarantine. The passengers are landed at the lazaretto, and also her cargo if of a perishing nature. The term for cholera is ten days, but the vessel during her quarantine is cleaned and disinfected. If nó case of cholera should have occurred during her voyage or while in quarantine she is allowed to take in a new cargo.

Port charges.- Pilotage, in and out, $9 to $20 according to agreement; quarantine-dues, 2.15 cents per ton up to 500 tons; light-dues, 2 cents per ton up to 500 tons; towage, $4.30 each time; lighterage, $1 to $2 per lighter per diem; stevedore charges, 70 cents to $1 per day per man according to season; ballast, $1.70 to $2.70 per boat load.


Statement showing the commerce of Smyrna for the year ending December 31, 1877.



Value en


Whence imported.

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$100.532 England, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany,

and Russia.
5,548 England.
26, 120 England, Austria-Hungary, France, and Bel-

4, 850 England.
25, 426 England and Austria-Hungary:
79, 168

Austria-Hungary, Greece, and Italy.
13, 654

Russia and Egypt. 223, 642 Russia, England, Austria-Hungary, France,

and Greece. 25, 434 | England, Austria-Hungary, and France. 32, 600 England, Egypt, and France. 330, 234 Russia, England, Austria-Hungary, France,

and Italy. 268, 920 Russia. 126, 508 Russia, England, Austria-Hungary, France,

Greece, and Italy. 593, 730

England, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany,

Italy, and Belgium. 314, 960 England and Austria-Hungary 19, 180 England, Austria-Hungary, and France. 801, 360 England, Austria-Hungary, France, and Egypt. 20, 678 | England, Austria-Hungary, France, Italy, and

Turkey. 113, 574 England, France, and Russia. 2, 398, 480 England, France, Austria-Hungary, Germany,

and United States. 174, 806 England, France, Austria-Hungary, Germany,

and Egypt. 672

Austria-Hangary and United States. 63, 868 England, France, Austria-Hungary, and United

States 236, 486

Russia, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and

Greece. 54, 008 | Egypt. 9, 840 | England, Austria-Hungary, France, Belgium,

and United States.

Holland and Belgium.
65, 510 Austria-Hungary and Belgium.
208, 570

Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Franco, and United


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