« EdellinenJatka »
She every brook receives. First, Clarwen cometh in, First planted in those parts our brave courageous With Clarwy: which to them their consort Eland
Whose natures so adher'd unto their ancient To aid their goodly Wye; which Ithon gets again : As from them sprang those priests, whose praise She Dulas draws along: and in her wat’ry train
so far did sound,
(nown'd. Clowedock hath recourse, and Comran; wbich she Through whom that spacious Gaul was after so rebrings
(springs : “ Nor could the Saxons' swords (which many a Unto their wand'ring flood from the Radnorian
ling'ring year As Edwy her attends, and Matchwy forward heaves' Them sadly did afflict, and shut us Britons here Her mistress. When, at last, the goodly W'ye "Twixt Severn and this sea) our mighty minds de perceives
[would detect, She now was in that part of Wales, of all the rest But that even they which fain'st our weakness Which (as her very waste) in breadth from east to Were forced to confess, our wildest beasts that west,
[feed, In length from north to south, ber midst is every Upon our mighty wastes, or on our mountains From Severn's bord’ring banks unto the either sea, Were far inore sooner tam'd, than here our WelchWhich she might term the heart. The ancient
men were: Britons here
[were Besides, in all the world no nation is so dear The river calls to mind, and what those British As they unto their own; that here within this isle, Whilst Britain was herself, the queen of all the west. Or else in foreign parts, yea, forced to exile, To whose old nation's praise whilst she herself The noble Briton still bis countryman relieves ; address'd,
[in, A patriot, and so true, that it to death him grieves From the Brecknokian bound when Irvon coming To hear his Wales disgrac'd : and on the Saxons' Her Dulas, with Commarch, and Wevery that doth swords win,
Oft hazardeth his life, ere with reproachful words Persuading her for them good matter to provide. His language or bis leek he'll stand to hear abus'd. The wood-nymphs so again, from the Radnorian Besides, the Briton is so naturally infus'd side,
[call With true poetic rage, that in their measures, art As Radnor, with Blethaugh, and Knuckle's forest, Doth rather seem precise, than comely; in each To Wye, and bade her now bestir her for them all :
part For, if she stuck not close in their distressed case, Their metre most exact, in verse of th' bardest kird. The Britons were in doubt to undergo disgrace. And some to rhyming be so wondrously inclin'd, That strongly thus provok'd, she for the Britons Those numbers they will hit, out of their genuine says:
[attain. " What spirit can lift you up ?, to that immortal Which many wise and learn'd can hardly e'er $. You worthily deserve? by whom first Gaul was "O memorable bards ! of unmixt blood, which taught
(wrought still Her knowledge : and for her, what nation ever Posterity shall praise for your so wondrous skill, The conquest you achiev'd? And, as you were most That in your noble songs, the long descents have dread,
kept So ye (before the rest) in so great reverence had Of your great heroes, else in Lethe that had slept, Your bards wbich sung your deeds, that when stern With theirs whose ignorant pride your labours have hosts have stood
[you gain'd! With lifted hands to strike (in their inflamed blood) How much from time, and them, how bravely have $. One bard but coming in, their murd'rous swords Musician, herald, bard, thrice may'st thou be rehath staid ; [had said, nowu’d,
[crown'd; In her most dreadful voice as thund'ring Heaven And with three several wreaths immortally be Stay, Britons !' when he spake, his words so Who, when to Pembroke call'd before the English pow'rful were.
[here, king, “ So to her native priests, the dreadless Druids And to thy powerful harp commanded there to sing, The nearest neighbouring Gaul, that wisely could Of famous Arthur toldst, and where he was interr'd; discern
[to learn, In which, those retchless times had long and blindly Th' effect their doctrine wrought, it for their good err'd, Her apt and pregnant youth sent hither year by And ignorance had brought the world to such a pass year,
As now, which scarce believes that Arthur ever was. Instructed in our rites with most religious fear. But when king Henry sent th' reported place to And afterward again, when as our ancient seat
(was true. Iller surcease could not keep, grown for her soil too He found that man of men : and what thou said'st great
“ Here then I cannot choose but bitterly exclaim (But like to casting bees, so rising up in swarms) Against those fools that all antiquity defame, 8. Our Cymbry with the Gauls, that their com Because they have found out, some credulous ages mixed arms
(mour staid ; Join'd with the German powers (those nations of Slight fictions with the truth, whilst truth on ru. the north
And that one forward time (perceiving the neglect Which overspread the world) together issued forth: A former of her had) to purchase her respect, Q. Where, with our brazen swords, we stoutly With toys then trimm'd her up, the drowsy world fought, and long;
[cure And after conquests got, residing them among, And lent her what it thought might appetite pro? Wye's speech in behalf of the Britons,
* See the fourth song.
Henry the Second
To man, whose mind doth still variety pursue ;
('Gainst their objection) seems miraculous to me, And therefore to those things whose grounds were
That yet those should be found so general as they very true,
[Dane, Though naked yet and bare (not having to content The Roman, next the Pict, the Saxon, then the The wayward curious ear) gave fictive ornament;
All landing in the isle, each like a horrid rain And fitter thought, the truth they should in Deforming her ; besides the sacrilegious wrack question call,
[and all, of many a noble book, as impious hands should Than coldly sparing that, the truth should go
sack And surely I suppose, that which this froward The centre, to extirp all knowledge, and exile time
(crime, All brave aud ancient things, for ever from this Doth scandalize her with to be her heinous
Luid sing. That her most preserr'd: for, still where wit Expressing wondrous grief, thus wand'ring Wye bath found
[ground: But back, industrious Muse; obsequiously to A thing most clearly true, it made that, fiction's bring
[doth strain Which she suppos'd might give sure colour to
Clear Severn from her source, and tell how she them both:
[grow'th, 1 Down her delicious dales; with all the goodly train, From which, as from a root, this wond'red errour | Brought forth the first of all by Brugan: which tó At which our critics gird, whose judgments are so
Her party worthy note, next, Dulas in doth take. And he the bravest man who most can contradict Moyįvadian, his much love to Severn then to show, That which decrepit age (which forced is to lean
Upon his southern side sends likewise (in a row) Upon tradition) tells ; esteeming it so mean, Bright Biga, that brings on her friend and fellow As they it quite reject, and for some trifting thing
flood; (Which time hath pinn'd to truth) they all away
Next, Dungum ; Bacho then is busily employ'd, will fling,
Tarranon, Carno, Hawes, with Becan, and the Rue, These men (for all the world) like our precisians In Severn's sovereign banks, that give attendance be,
(train, Who for some cross or saint they in the widow Thus as she swoops along, with all that goodly Will pluck down all the church : soul-blinded sots Upon her other bank by Newtown : so again
§. Comes Dulas (of whose vame so many beavers be, In dirt, and never saw the wonders of the deep. As of none others is) with Mule, prepard to see Therefore (in my conceit) most rightly serv'd are
The confluence to their queen, as ou her course they
she makes : $. That to the Roman trost (on bis report that stay) Then at Montgomery next clear Kennet in she Our truth from him to learn, as ignorant of ours
takes ; As we were then of his; except t'were of his Where little Fledding falls into her broader bank; powers:
Forkt Vurnway, bringing Tur and Tanot: growWho our wise Druids bere nnmercifully slew;
[fields; Like whom, great Nature's depths no men yet ever
She plies her towards the Pool, from the Gomerian knew,
Íspir'd; Than which in all our Wales, there is no country Nor with such dauntless spirits were ever yet in
yields Who at their proud arrive th' ambitious Romans An excellentcr horse, so full of natural fire, fir'd,
(mortal state; As one of Phæbus' steeds had been that stallion's When first they heard them preach the soul's im
[kind, And even in Rome's despite, and in contempt of which first their race begun; or of th’ Asturian fate,
5. Which some have held to be begotten by the Grasp'd hands with horrid death : which out of hate wind,
[receives, and pride
Upon the mountain mare; which strongly it They slew, who through the world were reverenced and in a little tiine her pregnant part upheaves. beside.
But, leave we this to such as after wonders long: “ To understand our state, no marvail then The Muse prepares herself unto another song. Should so to Cæsar seek, in his reports to see What anciently we were ; when in our infant war, Vaskilful of our tongue but by interpreter,
ILLUSTRATIONS. He nothing had of ours which our great bards did sing,
[bring | After Penbroke in the former song, succeeds here Except some few poor words; and those again to Cardigan , both washed by the Irish seas. But, Unto the Latin sounds, and easiness they us'd, for interinixture of rivers, and contiguity of situaBy their most filed speech, our British most abus'd. tion, the inlands of Montgomery, Radnor, and But of our forner state, beginning, our descent, Breckrock are partly infolded. The wars we had at home, the conquests where we went,
That these rivers were in Tivy frequent, anciently A people great as they, yet did they ours neglect, is testified by Sylvester Girald (r) describing the Long rear'd ere they arrivd. And where they do particulars, which the author tells you, both of object,
this, and the salmons: but that bere are no The ruios and records we show, be very small To prove ourselves so great : even this the most (a) Topograph. Hib. dist. 1. cap. 21. Itin. cap. of all
3. Cam. 2,
beavers now, as good authority of the present as much. Although, 'in particular law lerrotime (6) informs you.
ing, it might sex'in that Britain was requited, if Unto the charming harp thy future honour sung.
the satyrist (1) deceive not in that; Of the bards, their singiug, heraldship, and
Gallia causidicos docuit facunda Britannos (k). more of that nature, see to the fourth song. Ireland (c) (saith one) uses the harp and pipe, Which, with excellent Lipsius (?), 1 rather apply which he calls tympanum: Scotland the harp to the dispersion of the Latin tongue throngh Gaut tympan, and chorus: Wales the harp, pipe, and into this province, than to any other language or chorus. Althongh tympanum and chorus hære
inatter. For also in Agricola's time somewhat other significations, yet, this Girald (from whom before, it appears that matter of good literature I rouch it) using these words as received, I imagine,
was here in a far bigher degret than there, as of saint Hierome's epistle to Dardanus, according Tacitus in his life hath recorded. Thus hath our to whom, for explanation, finding them pictur'd in isle been as mistress to Gaul twice. First in this Ottomar Luscinius his Musurgy, as several kinds Druidian doctrine, next in the institution of their of pipes, the first dividing itself into two at the
now famous university of Paris; wbich was done end, the other spread in the middle, as two seg- by Charlemain, through aid and industry of our ments of a circle, but one at both ends, I guess learned Alcuin (he is called also Albin, and was them intended near the same. But I refer myself first sent ambassador to the emperor by Ofia, king to those that are more acquainted with these kind
of Mercland) seconded by those Scots, John of British fashions. For the harp his word is Mailros, Claudius Clement, and Raban Maurus(m). cithara, which (if it be the same with lyra, as
But I know great men permit it not ; nor can I some think, although urging reason and authority
see any very ancient authority for it, but infinite are to the contrary) makes the bards' music, like
of later times, so that it goes as a received opinion ; that exprest in the lyric (el):
therefore without more examination in this no more -bibam
fit passage, I commit to my reader. Sonante inistum tibiis carmen lyrå, One bard but coming in their murd'rous swords Hac Doriun, illis Barbarum.
hath staid, Apply it to the former notes, and observe with
Such strange assertion find I in story of these them, that the Pythagorears used (e), with music bards' powerful enchantments, that with the amazof the harp (which in those times, if it were Apollo's, ing sweetness of their delicious harmonies (n), not was crtainly but of seven (f ) strings) when they their own only, but withal their enemies' armies weat to sleep, to charm (as the old Scots were
have suddenly desisted from fierce encounters ; so, wont to do, and do yet in their isles, as Buchanan
as my author says, did Mars reverence the Muses. (9) affirms) and compose their troubled affections.
This exactly continues all fitness with what is Which I cite to this purpose, that in comparing before affirmed of that kind of music; 'twixt which it with the British music, and the attributes (and all other by authentic afiirmance) and the thereof before remembered out of Heracleotes and mind's affections there are certain Magagama * (0), Girald, you may see couveniency of use in both,
as in this particular example is apparent. But and worth of antiquity in ours; and as well in how agreeth this with tuat in Tacitus, which calls pipes as harp; if you remember the poetic story a musical incentive to war among the Germans, of Marsyas. "And withal forget ant that in one of Barditus? Great critics would there (p) read Barritus, the oldest coins that have been made in this king, which in Vegetius and Ammian especially, is a dom, the picture of the reverse, is Apollo having peculiar name for those stirring up alarms before his harp incircled with Cunobelin's name, then
the battle used in Roman assaults (equal in propor. chief king of the Britons; and for Belin and Apollo, tion to the Greeks' woneymos, the Irish Kerns see the eighth song.
Pharroh, and that Roland's song of the Normans, By whoun first. Gaul was taught her knowledge.
which hath had lis like also, in most nations).
But, secing Barrhitus (in this sense) is a word of Understand the knowledge of those great philoso-later time, and scarce yet, without remembrance phers, priests, and lawyers called Druids (of whom of his naturalization, allowed in the Latin ; and, to the tenth song largely). Their discipline was that this use was notable in those Northerns and first found out in this isle, and afterwards trans
(auls (9), until wars with whom, it seems Rome ferred into Gaul; whence their youth were sent had not a proper word for it (which appears by hither as to an university for instruction in their Festus Pompeius, affirming that the cry of the learned professions : Cæsar (h) himself is author of army was called Barbaricum) I should think-some
(6) Powel, & Camden.
(1) Juvenal. Satur. 15. (1) Horat. Epod. ix.
(k) “ Eloquent Gaultaught the British lawyers." (e) Plutarch. de Isid. & Osiride.
(1) De pronuntiat. rect. Lat. ling. cap. 3. v. (1) Horat. Carm. 3. od. 11. Homer in Hymn. | Virgilium ad Justin. tit. Instit. quib. non est ad Eige. Sers. Honorat. ad 4. Æneid. (ubi testu- permiss. fac. test. Circa DCC. XC. University of dinem primò trium Chordarum, quam à Mercurio Paris instituted. Caducei precio emi: se Apollinem septemque dis
(m) Balaus cent 1. crimjua vocum addidisse legimus, & videndus Dio (n) Diodor. Sicul. de gest. fabulos. antiq. lib. 6. dor. Sicul. lib. c.) unde 'Estágh wocos,‘Eztúpboryes
* [uitations. &c. dicitur Gracis.
(0) Aristot. Polit. cap. s. (8) Hist. Scot. 4. in Fethelmacho.
(p) Lips. ad Polyb. 4. Dialog. 11. (h) Comment. 6.
(8) Locus Taciti in de morib. Germ.
What confidently, that Barrhitus (as the common willingness of avoiding instruments too deadly in copies are) is the truest reading* ; yet so, that wounding; far from a styptic faculty in this, more Barditus formed by an unknowing pronunciation than in iron, the cure of what it hurts is affirmed is, and by original, was the selfsame. For, that more easy, and the metal itself, Pupuurbons (x), Lipsius mending the place, will have it from as Aristotle expresses it (y). But that our Britons Baren in Dutch, which signifies, to cry out, or
used it also it lrath been out of old monuments by from Har Har (which is as Haron in the Norman our most learned antiquary observed (2). customs and elsewhere) or from the word Beare That to the Roman trust (on his report that stay) for imitation of that beast's cry, I much wonder, seeing Tacitus makes express mention of verses For indeed many are, which the author bere harmonically celebrating valiant performers, the impagns, that dare believe nothing of our story, recital wereof hath that name Barditus, which to or antiquities of more ancient times; but only interpret we might well call singing. But-to con Julius Cæsar, and others about or since him. And join this fiery office with that quenching power, surely his ignorance of this isle was great, time of the bards, spoken of by the author, I imagine forbidding him language or conversation with the that they had also for this martial purpose skill in British. Nor was any before him of his country, that kind of music, which they call Phrygian, that knew or meddied in relation of us. The first being (as Aristotle says) Ogrlustix 116btin xad of them that once to letters committed any word 'Evé musiaTTix, as it were, madding the mind with deduced from Britain's name was a philosophical sprightful motion. For so we see that those which poet(a) (tlourishing some fifty years before Cæsar) sing the tempering and mollifying Pæans (r) to in these verses : Apollo, the rhysaan & Kardívoros after victory, did among the Greeks in another strain move with Nam quid Britannum cælum differre putamus, their Pæans to Mars, their 'Oploc, and provoking Et quod in Ægypto est, quà mundi claudicat axis? charms before the encounter; and so meets this In the somewhat later poets that lived about Aqin our bards dispersed doubtless (as the Druids) / gustus, as Catullus, Virgil, and Horace, some pasthrough Britain, Gaul, and part of Germany, sages of the name have you, but nothing that diswhich three had especially in warfare much com covers any monument of this island proper to her inmunity.
habitants. I would not reckon Cornelius Nepos (c) Our Cimbri with the Gauls
among them, to whose name is attributed, in print, National transmigrations touched to the fourth that polite poem (in whose composition Apollo seems
to have given personal aid) of the Trojan war, song give light hither. The name of Cimbri (which most of the learned in this later time have made according to Dares the Phrygian's story; where, the same with Cimmerians, Cumeriaas, Cambrians, have been with Hercules at the rape of Hesione :
by poetical liberty the Britons are supposed to all coming from Gomer Japhet's son (s), to whoin with bis posterity was this dorth-western part of whose glory the true author's name of that book
I should so, besides errour, wrong my country, to. the world divided) expressing the Welsh, calling will among the worthies of the Muses ever live. theroselves also Kumry. The author alludes here
Read but these of his verses, and then judge if he to that British army, which in our story is con
were a Roman: ducted under Brennus and Delinus (sons to Mol
-Sine remigis usu mutius) through Gaul, and thence prosecuted, what in the eighth song and my notes there more
Non nosset Memphis Romam,non Indus Hiberum, plainly.
Non Scytha Cecropidem, non Nostra Britannia
Gallum. Where, with our brazen swords-The author thus teaches you to know, that, Anl in the same book to Baldwin archbishop of
Canterbury : among the ancients, brass, not iron, was the metal of most use. In their little scythes, wherewith they
At tu dissimulis longè cui fronte serena cut their herbs for enchantments (1), their priests'
Sanguinis egregii lucrum, pacemque litatâ razors, ploughshares for describing the content of Emptam animâ Pater ille pius, suinmumque. plotted cities, their music instruments, and such like, how special this metal was, it is with good In curam venisse velit, cui cederet ipse Farrant delivered ; nor with less, how frequent in Prorsus, vel proprias lætus sociaret habenas. the making of swords, spears, and armour in the of him a little before : heroic times, as among other authorities that in the encounter of Diomedes aud Hector mani
quo præside foret
Cantia (d), & in priscas respirat libera leges. -πλάγχθη δ'από χαλκόφι καλκός +.
Briefly thus: the author was Joseph of ExcesWhich seems in them to have proceeded from a ter (afterwards archbishop of Bourdeaux) famous
* Locus. Gallice & Britannicè Cantor. Fest. & (r) Of remedial power. vide Bodin. meth. hist. cap. 9. qui Robartum (y) Problem. 6. Sect. as. Dagohartum & similia vocabula hinc (malè vero) (2) Camd, in Cornub. deducit.
See for this more in the tentlı song. (1) Soid. in IIens.
(s) Genes. 2.
(a) Lucret. de Rer. Nat. 6. (1) Sophocles, Carminius, Virgil. ap. Macro (c) Cornelius Nepos challenged to an English bium Saturnal. lib. 5. cap. 19. Pausan. in Lawit. conir. . & Arcadic. 7. Samuel. lib. 1. cap. 17. (d) Ita n. legendum, non Tantia ant Pontia, (u) Iliad. 2.
uti ineptiunt qui Josepho nostro merenti suam " Brass rebound from brass."
inviderunt coronam in Codice Typis excuso.
THE SEVENTH SONG.
in this and other kinds of good learning, under | upon the conjectures on the name of Lisbon, the Henry II and Richard I. speaking among those Elysians, and other such you have in Strabo (!). verses in this form :
But for Lisbort, which many will have from Ulysses,
ani call it Ulixbon, being commonly written Te sacræ assument acies divinaque bella.
Olisippo or Ulyssipo, in the ancients, you shall have Tunc dignuin majore tuba, tunc pectore toto Nitar, & immensum mecum spargere per orbem. Omos irtai, as it were, that the whole tract is a
better etymology, if you hence derive and make it Which must (as I think) be intended of Baldwin, seminary of horses, as a most learned man hath whose undertaking of the cross and voyage with delivered. Caur de Lion into the holy land, and death there,
(1) Geograph. a. Odoos ITTWY Ptolemeo. Iota is in our stories (e); out of which you may have large declaration of this holy father (so he calls sublato vera restat lectio Paull
. Merul. cosmog. Thomas Becket) that bought peace with price of part 2. lib. 2. cap. 26. his life ; being murdered in his house of Canterbury, through the urging grievances intolerable to
POLY-OLBION. the king and laity, his diminution of common Jaw liberties, and endeavoured derogation, for maintenance of Romish usurped supremacy. For these liberties, see. Matthew Paris before all other, and the epistles of John of Salisbury (S), but
The Muse from Cambria comes again, lately published ; and, if you please, my Janus
To view the forest of fair Dean, Anglorum, where they are restored from senseless
Sees Severn; when the Higre takes her, corruption, and are indeed more themselves than
How fever-like the sickness shakes her; in any other whatsoever in print. But thus too
Makes mighty Malvern speak his mind much of this false Cornelius. Compare with these
In honour of the mountain kind; motes what is to the first song of Britain and Albion ;
Thence wafted with a merry gale, and you shall see that in Greek writers mention of
Sees Lemster, and the Golden Vale ; our land is long before any in the Latin : for Polybius, that is the first which mentions it, was more
Sports with the nymphs, themselves that ply
At th' wedding of the Lug and Wy; than a hundred years before Lucretius. The au
Viewing the Herefordian pride thor's plainness in the rest of Wye's song to this
Along on Severn's setting side, purpose discharges my further labour.
That small Wigornian part surveys : Comes Dulas, of whose name so many rivers be. Where for a while herself she stays.
As in England the names of Avon, Ouse, Stoure, and some other ; so in Wales, before all, is Dulas, Hich matters call our Muse, inviting her to see a name very often of rivers in Radnor, Brecknock, As well the lower lands, as those wbere lately she Caermardhin, and elsewhere.
The Cambrian mountains clomb, and (looking Which some have held to be begotten of the wind. Survey'd coy Severn's course : but now to shores
(more soft In those western parts of Spain, Gallicia, Por- She shapes her prosperous sail; and in this lofty tugal, and Asturia, many classic testiinonies,
song, both poets, as Virgil, Silius Italicus, naturalists, / The Herefordian floods invites with her along, historians and geoponics, as Varro, Columel, $. That fraught from plenteous Powse, with their Pliny, Trogus and Solinus, have remembered
superfluous waste, these mares, which conceive through fervent Manure the batful March, until they be embrac'd lust of nature, by the west-wind, without copu- In Sabrin's sovereign arms: with whose tumultuous lation with the male (in such sort as the ova
(rares'; snbventanea (g) are bred in bens) but so that the $. Shut up in narrower bounds, the Higre wildly foals live not over some three years. I refer it as And frights the straggling flocks, the neighbouring an allegory (h) to the expressing only of their fertile
shores to fly, breed and swiftness in course ; which is elegantly to Afar as from the main it comes with hideous cry, this purpose, framed by him that was the father (:) | And on the angry front the curled foam doth bring, of this conceit to his admiring posterity, in The billows 'gainst the banks when fiercely it doth these lines speaking of Xanthus and Balius, two of
[brood Achilles' horses :
Huels up the slimy ooze, and makes the scaly σω άμαπνοήσι σιτίσθην
Leap madding to the land affrighted from the
flood; Τους ετικς Ζεφύρω ανέμων “Αρπυια Ποδάργη
O'erturns the toiling barge, whose steersman doth Βοσκομμένη λειμώνι παρά όσον Ωκεανοίo (h).
And thrusts the furrowing beak into her ireful Whence withal you may note, that Homer had at
As when we haply see a sickly woman fall (panch: least heard of these coasts of Spain, according as Into a fit of that which we the mother call,
When from the grieved womb she feels the pain (e) Chronicis adde & Girald. Itin. Cainb. 2. cap.14. arise, (f) Sarisburiens. Epist. 159. 210. 220. & 268.
Breaks into grievous sighs, with intermixed cries, (g) órnusja windy eggs, bred without a cock.
Bereaved of her sense; and struggling still with (h) Justin. hist. lib. 44. (i) Iliad. .
(oppose, k) These did'dy like the wind, which swift That gainst her rising pain their utmost strength Podarga foaled to their sire Zephyrus, feeding in a meadow by the ocean."
A simile expressing the boar or higre.