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Council of Lateran, held by Innocent III. reign- | That hji(0) ssold of londe wende and neu est ing our king John; and the law of lapse in bene hor (p) frend y se, fices had so its ground from that council of La- And some to lese hor maidenhod wives vor to be. teran, in the year eleven hundred seventy-nine, Tho bii were in ssipes ydo, and in the se ver were under Alexander the third, wbitber, for our part, So gret teinpest ther come that drof hein here and were sent Hugh bishop of Durham, John bishop

there. of Norwich, Robert bishop of Hereford, and Rain. So that the niestedel (9) adreined were in the se. old bishop of Bath, with divers abbots, where and to other londs some ydrive, that ne conne the canon was made for presentation within six never age (r). months (h), and title of lapse given to the bishop A king there was of Hungry, Guaine was his name, in case the chapter were patron, from the bishop And Melga, K. Picardy (s) that couthe inou of to them if he were patron : which although, in fame, that, it be not law with us, nor also their differ- The waters vor so soki aboute the se hii were ence between a lay and ecclesiastic patron (i), for A company of this maydens so that hii met there number of the months, allowing the layman but To hor folie hii wolde honie pime (1) and bor men four, yet shows itself certainly to be the original also

[thereto of that custom anciently, and now used in the At the maydens wold rather die than concenty ordinary's collation. And hither Henry of Brac- Thó wende vorth the luther(u) men and the maidens ton refers it expressly (k); by whom you may slow echone,

[none. amend John le Briton, and read Lateran instead so that to the lasse Brutaine there ne come alive of Lions, about this same matter. Your conceit, truly joining these things, cannot but perceive Some lay all this wickedness absurdly (for time that canons, and constitutions in popes' councils, endures it not) to Attila's charge (x), who reigned absolutely never bound us in other form than, king of Huns about four hundred fifty (about sixty fitting them by the square of English law and years after Gratian) and affirm their suffering of policy, our reverend sages and baronage allowed this (as they call it) martyrdom at Cologne, whiand interpreted them (l), who in their formal ther, in at the mouth of Rhine, they were carried; writs (m), would mention them as law and custom others also particularly tell you that there were of the kingdom, and not otherwise.

four companions to Ursula, in greatness and

honour, their namnes being Pynnosa (u), Cordula, Eleven thousand majds sent those our friends | Eleuthéria, Florentia, and that under these were again.

to every of the eleven thousand one president, Our common story affirms, that in time of Gra- lotan, Benigna, Clementia, Sapientia, Carpophora, tian, the emperor, Conan, king of Armoric Britain Columba, Benedicta, Odilia, Celyndris, Sibylla (which was Glled with a colony of this isle by this and Lucia: and that, custom at Cologne hath exConan and Maximus, otherwise Maximian, that slew cluded all other bodies from the place of their Gratian) having war with the neighbouring Cauls, burial. The strange multitude of seventy one thoudesired of Dinoth, regent of Cornual, or (if you said virgins thus to be transported, with the diffewill) of our Britain (by nearness of blood so to rence of cine (the most excellent note to examine establish and continue love in the posterity of both truth of history by) may make you doubt of the countries) that he might himself match with whole report. I will not justify it, but only Dinoth's daughter Ursula, and with her a com admonish thus, that those our old stories are in petent multitude of virgins might be sent over to this followed by that great historian Baronius, furnish his unwived batchelors : whereupon were allowed by Francis de Bar, White of Basingstoke, eleven thousand of the nobler blood with Ursula, and before any of them, by that learned abbot and sixty thonsand of meaner rank (selected out Tritemius, beside the martyrologies, which to the of divers parts of the kingdom) shipt at London honour of the eleven thousand have dedicated the for satisfaction of this request. In the coast of eleventh day of our October. But indeed how they Gaul, they were by tempest disperst; can stand with what in some copies of Nennius we ravished by the ocran; others for chaste denial read (z), I cannot see: it is reported, that those

of their maidenheads to Guaine and Melga, kings Britons which went thither with Maximus (the I of Hans and Picts (whom Gratian had animated saine man and time with the former) took them

against Maximus, as nisurping title of the British Gaulish wives, and cut out their tongues, lest monarchy) were miserably put to the sword on they should possess their cbildren of Gaulish lansome German coast, whither misfortune carried guage; whence our Welsh called them afterward them. But because the author slips it over with Lehit-widion (a), because they spake confusedly. a touch, you shall have it in such old verse as 1 I see that yet there is great affinity betwixt have (n).

the British Armoric, and the Welsh, the first (le This maidens were ygadred and to London come, Mani were glad ther of and well sorri soine

() They.
(1) Their.

(9) Most part, (7) Again.

(s) of the Picts. (h) G. Nubr. (cujus edit. nuperam & Jo. Pi

(1) Them take.

(11) Lewd. cardi annotationes consulas) 1. 3. & Hovedenus

(r) Hector. Boet. Scotic. 7. cx antiquioribus, habent ipsas, quæ sunt Constit.

verùm falsi reis. (i) Extrav. Concess. præb. c. 2.

(y) Usuard. Martyrolog. 2. c. Octob. (k) 6 Decret. tit. jure patronat. §. Verum cùm

(2) Sunt enini antiqui codices quibus hoc meunic.

ritò deest, nec n. ut glossema illud non irreptåsse, (1) Lib. 4. tract. 2. cap. 6.

sentire sum potis, (m) D. Ed. Coke lib. de jure Regis ecclesiastic.

() Half silent, Regist. Orig. f. 42. (n) Rob. Glocestrens.

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give you a taste) saying, Hon tad pehunii sou en The rivers for them showing there
efaou, the other En tad yr hwn ydwit yn y nefoedd, The wonders of their Pimble-mere.
for"Our Father whish art in Heaven"; but I suspect Proud Snowdon gloriously proceeds
extremely that fabulous tongue-cutting, and would With Cambria's native princes' deeds.
lave you, of the two, believe rather the virgins, The Muse then through Caernarvon makes,
were it not for the exorbitant number, and that, And Mon (now Anglesey) awakes
against infallible credit, our historians mix with it To tell her ancient Druids' guise,
Gratiau's surviving Maximus (6), a kind of fault And manner of their sacrifice.
that makes often the very truth doubtful.

Her rillets she together calis;

Then back ior Flint and Denbigh falls.
That from the Scythian poor, whence they them-

selves derive.
He means the Saxons, whose name, after learned Or all the Cambrian sbires their heads that bear
men, is to the fourth song derived from a Scythian so high,
nation. It pleases the Muse in this passage to and farth’st survey their soils with an ainbiti-
speak of that original, as mean and unworthy of Mervinia' for her bills, as for their matchless
comparison with the Trojan British, drawn out of crowds,

[clouds, Jupiter's blood by Venus, Anchises, and Æneas; The nearest that are said to kiss the wand'ring ! justify her phrase, for that the Scythian was in Especial audience crares, offended with the throng, deed poor, yet voluntarily, not through want, That she of all the rest neglected was so long : living commonly in field-tents; and (as our Ger- Alledging for herself; when through the Saxons' mans in Tacitus) so stoical, as not to care for the pride, future, having provision for the present, from na- The godlike race of Brute to Severn's setting side ture's liberality But, if it were worth examining, Were crnelly inforc'd, her mountains did relieve you might find the Scythian as noble and worthy Those, whomn devouring war else every-where did a nation as any read of ; and such a one as the grieve.

[might) English and others might be as proud to derive And when all Wales beside (hy fortune or by themselves from, as any which do search for their Unto her ancient foe resigu'd her ancient right, ancestors' glory in Trojan ashes. If you believe a constant maiden still she only did remain, the old report of themselves (c), then can you not S. The last her genuine laws which stoutly did make them less than descended by Targitaus from

retain.

[things; Jupiter and Borysthenes ; if what the Greeks, who, And as each one is prais'd for her peculiar as afterward the Romans, accounted and styled So only she is rich, in mountains, meres, and all barbarous, except themselves; then you must springs, draw their pedigree through Agathyrsus, Gelonus, And holds herself as great in her superfluous and Scytha, from Hercules; neither of this have,

waste,

[grac'd. in this kind, their superior. If among them you As others by their towns, and fruitful tillage desire learning, remember Zamolxis, Diceneus, And therefore, to recount her rivers, from their and Anacharsis, before the rest. For although

lins? to soine of these, other patronymics are given, yet Abridging all delays, Mervinia thus begins ; know that anciently (which for the present matter Though Dovy, which doth far her neighbourobserve seriously) as all, southward, were called ing floods surmount

[account) Æthiopians, all eastward, Indians, all west, Celts, (Whose course for hers alone Montgomery doth So ali northerns were styled Scythians; Hath Angel' for her own, and Keriog she doth Ephorus is autbor (d). I could add the honoura

clear, ble allegories, of those their golden yoke, plough, With Towin, Gwedal then, and Dulas, all as dear, hatchet, and cup, sent from Heaven, wittily Those tributary streams she is maintain'd withal : enough delivered by Goropius (e), with other con- Yet, boldly may I say, her rising and her fall jectural testimonies of their worth. But I abstain My country calleth hers, with many another from such digression.

brook,

(look.

That with their crystal eyes on the Vergivian (6) Paul. Merul. Cosmog. part. 2. lib. 3. To Dovy next, of which Desunny sea-ward cap 15.

drives, (c) Herodot. Melpom. d.

Lingorril goes alone: but plenteous Avon strives (d) Apud Strab. I. a.

The first to be at sea; and faster her to hie, (e) Amazon. Becceselan. 8.

Clear Kessilgum comes in, with Hergum by and by.

(Cain, So Derry, Moothy draws, and Moothy calleth

Which in one channel meet, in going to the POLY-OL BION.

main,

(aius;
As to their utmost power to lend her all their
So Atro by the arm Laubeder kindly leads.
And Velenrid the like, observing th' other's law,
Calls Cunnel; she again, fair Drurid forth doth

draw,
The Mase here Merioneth vaunts,

1 Merionethshire, And ber proud mountains highly chants.

2 Meres or pools, from whence rivers spring. The hills and brooks, to bravery bent,

? The rivers as in order they fall into the Stand for precedence from descent :

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as

THE NINTH SONG.

THS ARGUMENT.

Irish scan

lin;

That from their mother earth, the rough Mervinia, “ Where, from these lofty hills which spacious pay

Heaven do threat, Their mixed plenteous springs, unto the lesser bay Yet of as equal height, as thick by nature set, $. Of those two noble arnis into the land that bear, We talk how we are stor'd, or what we greatly Which through Gwinethia * be so fainous every

need,

[feed, where,

[mound, Or how our flocks do fare, and how our herds do On my Caernarvon side by nature made my When else the hanging rocks, and vallies dark and As Dovy doth divide the Cardiganian ground.

deep,

(keep. The pearly Conway's head, as that of holy Dee, The suminer's longest day would us from meeting Repowned rivers both, their rising have in me: “Ye Cambrian shepherds then, whom these our So, Lavern and the Lue, themselves that head

mountains please, long throw

[doth flow. And ye our fellow nymphs, ye light Oreades, $. Into the spacious lake, where Dee unmix'd $. Saint Helen's wondrous way, and Herbert's let Trowerrin takes his stream, here from a native

us go,

[lloth win, And our divided rocks with admiration show." Which, out of Pimble-mere when Dee himself Not meaning there to end, but speaking as Along with him his lord full courteously Joth they were, glide :

A suddain fearful noise surprised every ear. So Rudock riseth here, and Cletor that do guide The water-nymphs (not far) Lin-teged that freHim in his rugged path, and make his greatness

quent,

(dew besprent, way,

With brows besmear'd with ooze, their locks witla Their Dee into the bounds of Denbigh to convey." Inhabiting the lake, in sedgy bow'rs below,

The lofty hills, this while attentively that stood, Their inward grounded grief that only sought to As to survey the course of every several flood,

show

(did take, Sent forth such echoing shouts (which every way Against the mountain kind, which much on them so shrill,

Above their wat’ry brood, thus proudly them beWith the reverberate sound the spacious air did fill) spake;

(threat That tbey were eas'ly heard through the Vergirian “ Tell us, ye haughty hills, why vainly thus you main

[constrain Esteeming us so mean, compar'd to you so great? To Neptune's inward court; and beating there, To make you know yourselves, you this must unThat mighty god of sea t'awake : 'who full of

derstand, dread,

[head, That our great Maker laid the surface of the land Thrice threw his three-fork'd mace about his griesly As level as the lake until the general food, And thrice above the rocks his forehead rais'd, to When over all so long the troubled waters stood:

[be. Which, hurried with the blasts from angry Heaven Amongst the bigh-topt hills what tumult it should

that blew,

(threw: So that with very sweat Cadoridric did drop, l'p on huge massy heaps the loosen'd gravel And mighty Raran shook his proud sky-kissing | From hence we would ye know, your first beginning top,

{enrage;
came;

(tains name. Amongst the furious rout whom madness did Which since, in tract of time, yourselves diu mounUntil the mountain-nymphs, the tumult to as So that the Earth, by you (to check her mirthfit! suage,

cheer)

(poured were Upon a modest sign of silence to the throng, May always see (from Heaven) those plagues that Cousorting thus, in praise of their Mervinia, sung; Upon the former world; as 'twere by scars to “ Thrice famous Saxon king, on whom time show

[blow: ne'er shall prey,

That still she must remain disfigur'd with the O Edgar; who compell’dst our Ludwal hence to And by th' infectious slime that doomful deluge pay

(thee.

left, Three hundred wolves a year for tribute unto Nature herself hath since of purity been reft; And for that tribute paid, as famous may'st thou And by the seeds corrupt, the life of mortal man be,

[destroy'd Was shorten'd. With these plagues ye mountains O conquerid British king, by whom was first

first began. $. The multitude of wolves, that long this land “ But, ceasing you to shame; what mountain is annoy'd;

[Hocks,

there found Regardless of their rape, that now our harmless In all your moustrous kind (seek ye the island Securely here may sit upon the aged rocks ;

round) Or wand'ring from their walks, and straggling here That truly of himself such wonders 6 can report, and there

· As can this spacious Lin, the place of our resort? Amongst the scatter'd cliffs, the lamb needs nerer That when Dee in his course fain in her lap would fear;

(creep
lie,

(deny, But from the threat'ning storm to save itself may Commixtion with her store, his stream she doth Into that darksome cave where once his foe did By his complexion prov'd, as he through her dotke keep:

[having fed, glide. That now the clamb’ring goat all day which Her wealth again from his, she likewise doth And climbing up to see the Sun go down to bed,

divide.

(abound, Is not at all in doubt her little kid to lose,

Those white-fish that in her do wond'rously Which grazing in the vale, secure and safe she Are never seen in him; nor are his salmons found knows.

Nymphs of the mountains.
North-wales.

The wonders of Linteged, or Pemblemere.

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At any time in her : but as she him disdains; For succour hither came; where that unmixed race So he again, from her, as wilfully abstains. Remains unto this day, yet owners of this place : Down from the neighbouring hills, those plenteous Of whom no flood nor hill peculiarly hath song. springs that fall,

These, then, shall be my there : lest time too Nor land-foods after rain, her never move at all.

much should wrong

[been; And as in summer's heat, so always is she one, Such princes as were ours, since sever'd we have Resembling that great lake which seems to care for And as themselves, their fame be limited between none :

[rank, The Severn and our sea, long pent within this $. And with stern Æolus' blasts, like Thetis waxing place,

[now embase She only over-swells the surface of her bank." s. Till with the term of Welsh, the English But, whilst these nymphs report these wonders of The nobler Britons' nane, that well-near was their lake, [brake; destroy'd

(annoy'd; 'Their farther cause of speech the mighty Snowdon With pestilence and war, which this great isle Lest, if their watry kind should suffer'd be too Cadwallader that drave to the Armoric sbore : long,

(ains wrong.

To which, dread Conan, lord of Denbigh, long The licence that they took, might do the mount

before, Por quickly he had found that straiten'd point of His countrymen from hence auspiciously convey'd: land,

Whose noble feats in war, and never-failing aid, Into the Irish sea which puts his powerful hand, Got Maximus (at length) the victory in Ganl, Puft with their wat'ry praise,grew insolently proud, upon the Roman powers. Where, after Gratian's And needs would have his rills for rivers be allow'd:

fall, Short Darent, near'st unto the utmost point of all Armorica to them the valiant victor gave : That th'isle of Gelin greets, and Bardsey in her Where Conan their great lord, as full of courage, fall;

[May,
drave

(supply And next to her, the Saw, the Gir, the Er, the The Celts out of their seats, and did their room Must rivers be at least, should all the world gain- §. With people still from hence; which of our say : (wide, colony

[king, And those, whereas the land lies eastward, amply Was Little Britain call'd. Where that distressed That goodly Conway grace upon the other side, Cadwallader, himself awhile recomforting Born near upon her banks, each from her proper With hope of Alan's aid (which there did bim de. lin, (mistress in. tain)

(reign Soon from their mothers out, soon with their $. Forewarned was in dreams, that of the Britons' As ledder, her ally, and neighbour Legwy; then | A sempiternal end the angry pow'rs decreed, Goes Purloyd, Castel next, with Giffin, that agen A recluse life in Rome injoiving him to lead. Observe fair Conway's course: and though their The king resigning all, his son young Edwa) left race be short,

(resort, With Alan: who, much griev'd the prince should Yet they their sovereign food enrich with their

be bereft

[fieet; And Soowilou, more than this, his proper mere

Of Britain's ancient right, rigg'd bis unconquer'd did note

(toat) And as the generals then, for such an army meet, (ş. Still Delos like, wherein a wand'ring isle doth His nephew Ivor chose, and Hiner for his pheer; Was peremptory grown upon his higher ground; Two most indaunted spirits. These valiant Britons That pool, in which (besides) the one-ey'd fish are

(war, found,

The first who West-sex awon. But by the ling'ring As of her wonder proud, did with the floods partake. When they those Saxons found t'have succour stili So, when great Snowdon saw, a faction they

from far,

[shore: would make

They took them to their friends on Serern's setting Against his general kind; both parties to appease, Where finding Edwal dead, they purpos'd to reHe purposeth to sing their native princes' praise.

(pursu'd: For Snowdony, a hill, imperial in his seat,

His son young Roderic, whom the Saxon pow'rs Is from his mighty foot, unto his head so great, But he, who at his home here scorn'd to be subdlu'd, That were his Wales distrest, or of bis help had With Aldred (that on Wales his strong invasion need,

[feed.
brought)

[fought He all her flocks and herds for many months could Garthmalac, and Pencoyd (those famous battles) Therefore to do sometbing were worthy of his name, That North and South-wales sing, on the WestBoth tending to his strength, and to the Britons'

Sexians won.

Thad done, fame,

Scarce this victorious task his bloody'd sword His country to content, a signal having made, But at Mount Carno' met the Mercians, and with By this oration thinks both parties to persuade :

wounds “Whilst here this general isle the ancient Britons Made Ethelbald to feel his trespass on our ow'd,

[show'd :
bounds;

(niew; The valiant deeds before by Severn have been Prevail'd against the Pict, before our force that But since our furious foe, these powerful Saxon ånd in a valiant fight tveir king Dalargan slew. swarms,

“Nor Conau's courage less, nor less prevail'd in (As merciless jn spoil, as well approv'd in arms)

ought

[fought Here called to our aid, Loëgria us bereft,

Renowned Roderic's heir, who with the English Those poor and scatter'd few of Brute's high lineage left,

8 The West-Saxons' country, comprehending

Devonshire, Somerset, Wiltshire, and their ad. The most famous mountain of all Wales, in jacents. Caernarvooshire.

? A bill near Aber-gavenny in Monmouth.

were

store

The Herefordian field; as Ruthland's red with Took from those tyrants here, what treach'rously gore:

(shore,
they got,

(allot) Who, to transfer the war from this his native (To the perfidious French which th’angry Heavens March'd through the Mercian towns with his re Ne'er could that conqueror's sword (which roughly vengeful blade:

did decide And on the English therr such mighty havoc made, His right in England here, and prostrated her pride) That Offa (when he saw his countries go to wrack) Us to subjection stoop, or make us Britons bear From bick'ring with his folk, to keep us Britons Th'unwieldy Norman yoke: por basely could we back,

lleugth
fear

(rage) 01118 Cast up that mighty mound 10 of eighty miles in His conquest, ent'ring Wales; but (with stout cou. Athwart from sea to sea, Which of the Mercians' Dety'd him to his face, with all his English pow'rs. strength

And when in his revenge, proud Rufus hither A witness tho it stand, and Offa's name does bear,

came,

[shame, Opr courage was the cause why first he cut it With vows us to subvert; with slaughter and with there:

O'er Severn hiin we sent, to gather stronger aid. As that most dreadful day at Gavelford can tell, “ So, when to England's power, Albania hers Where under cither's sword so many thousands

had lay'd,

(wit, fell

[own; By Henry Beauclark brought (for all his dev'lish With intermixed blood, that neither knew their By wbich he raught the wreath) be not prevail'd Nor which went victor thence, uuto this day is

a whit:

(press'd, known.

[show'd, and through our rugged straits when he so rudely Nor Kettle's conflict then less martial courage Had not his proved mail sat surely to his breast, Where valiant Mervin met the Mercians and be A skilful British band bis life had him bereft, stow'd

(Hight. As his stern brother's heart, by Tirill's hand, was His nobler British blood on Burtbred's recreant

cleft. As Rodoric his great son, his father following “And let the English thus, which vilify our right,

name, Bare not the Saxons' scorns, his Britons to out If it their greatness please, report unto our brave;

shame, At Gwythen, but again to Burthred battle gave; The foil our Gwyneth gare at Flint's so deadly Twice driving out the Dane when he invasion

fight,

(Aight: brought.

To Maud the empress' son, that there he put to Whose no less valiant son, again at Conway fought $. And from the English power th' imperial ensiga With Danes and Mercians mix'd, and on their

took: hateful head

(murthered. About his plamed head which valiant Owen shook. Down-show'r'd their dire revenge whom they had As wheu that king again, his fortune to advance “ And, wer't not that of us the English would | Above his former foil, procur'd fresh pow'rs from report

France, (Abusing of our tongue in most malicious sort A surely levell’d shaft if Sent-clear had not seen, As often-times they do) that more than any, we And in the very loose, not thrust bimself between (The Welsh, as they us term) love glorify'd to be, His sovereign and the shaft, he onr revenge had Here could I else recount the slaughter'd Saxons' try'd: gore,

(shore, Thus, to preserve the king, the noble subject dy'd. Our swords at Crossford spilton Severn's wanıl’ring “ As Madoc his brave son, may come the rest And Griffith here produce, Lewellin's valiant son

among;

(grandsires sprung, (May we believe our bards) who five pitcht battles Who like the godlike race, from which his won ;

[wrought, Whilst here his brothers tir'd in sad domestic strife, And to revenge the wrongs the envious English On their unnatural breasts bent either's murtherous His well train'd martial troops into the Marches

knife; brought

This brave adventurous youth, in bot pursuit of
As far as Worster walls : nor thence did he retire, fame,
Till Powse lay well-near spent in our revengeful With such as his great spirit did with high deeds
fire ;

(soils,
inflame,

[groupd, As Hereford laid waste: and from their plenteous Put forth his well rigg'd fleet to seek him foreign Brought back with him to Walts his prisoners and And sailed west so long, until that world he found his spoils.

To Christians then unknown (save this advent'rous “ Thus as we valiant were, when valour might

crew) us steed :

Long ere Columbus liv'd, or it Vespucius knew, With those so much that dar'd, we had them that And put the now nam’d Welsh on India's parched decreed.

face, For, what Mulmutian laws, or Martian, ever were Unto the endless praise of Brute's renowned race, More excellent than those which our good Howel Ere the Iberian powers had toucht her long-sought here

[main. bay, Ordain'd to govern Wales? which still with us re- $. Or any car had heard the sound of Florida. “And when all-powerful fate had brought to “ S. And with that Croggen's name let th’English pass again,

us disgrace; That as the Saxons erst did from the Britons win; When there are to be seen, yet, in that ancient Upon them so (at last) the Normans coming in,

place

(grandsires graves:

From whence that name they fetch, their conquer'd ** Offa's Ditch.

For which each ignorant sot, unjustly us depraves.

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