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won,

" And when that tyrant Joha haul our subver Into the Irish sea then all those rills that ran, sion vow'd,

In Snowdon's praise to speak immediately began ; 4. To his unbridled will our necks we never bow'd: Lewenny, Lynan next, then Gwelly gave it out, Nor to his mighty son; whose host we did enforce And Kerriog her compeer, soon told it all about : (His succours cutting off) to eat their warlike So did their sister nyınphs, that into Mena strain; horse.

The flood that doth divide Mou from the Cambrian Until all-ruling Heaven would have us to

main. resign:

It Gorway greatly prais'd and Seint it loudly sung. When that brave prince, the last of all the British So, mighty Snowdon's speech was through Caernarline,

von rung: Levellin; Griffith's son, unluckily was slain, That scarcely such a noise to Mon from Mena 9. As fate had spar'd our fall till Edward Long

came,

(same, shank's reign.

When with his puissant troops for conquest of the Yet to the stock of Brute so true we ever were, On bridges made of boats, the Roman powers her We would permit no prince, unless a native here. sought, Which, that most prudent king perceiving, wisely Or Edward to her sack his English armies brought: thought

That Mona strangely stirr'd great Snowdou's praise To satisfy our wills, and to Caernarvon brought

to hear, His queen being great with child, ev'n ready down Although the stock of Troy to her was ever dear; to lie,

I apply. Yet (from her proper worth) as she before all other Then to his purpos'd end doth all his powers §. Was call'd (in former times) her country Cam“ Through every part of Wales he to the nobles bria's mother, sent,

Persuaded was thereby her praises to pursue, That they unto his court should come incontinent, Or hy neglect, to lose what to herself was die, Of things that much concern'd the country to A sign to Neptune sent, bis boist'rous rage to slake; debate:

Which suddainly becalm’d, thus of herself she But now behold the power of unavoided fate !

spake;

(long “ When thus unto his will he fitly them had “ What one of all the isles to Cambria doth be

[son. (To Britain, I might say, and yet not do her At her expected hour the queen brought forth a

wrong) And to this great design, all happ'ning as he Doth equal me in soil, so good for grass and grain? would,

[could) As should my Wales (where still Brute's offspring He (his intended course that clerkly manage doth remain) Thas quaintly trains us on: since he perceiv'd us That mighty store of men, yet more of beasts doth prone

breed, Here only to be ruld by princes of our own, By famine or by war constrained be to need, Our naturalness therein he greatly did approve; And England's neighbouring shires their succour And publicly protests, that for the ancient love

woull deny ; He ever bare to Wales, they all should plainly see, My only self her wants could plenteously supply. That he had found out one, their sovereign lord “ What island is there found upon the Irish to be ; (born) coast,

(most, Com'n of the race of kings, and (in their country In which that kingdom seems to be delighted Could not one English word: of which he durst be And seck you all along the rouglı Vergivian shore,

Where the encount'ring tides outrageously do roar) Besides, his upright heart, and innocence was That bows not at my beck, as they to me did owe such,

(touch Theduty subjects should unto their sovereign show;
As that (he was assurd) black envy could not $. So that th’ Eubonian Man, a kingdom long time
His spotless life in aught. Poor we (that not espy known,
His subtilty herein) in plain simplicity, [refuse: Which wisely hath been ruld by princes of her own,
Soon bound ourselves by oath, his choice not to In my alliance joys, as in th' Albanian seas
When as that crafty king, his little child doth chuse, The Arrans", and by them the scatter'd Eubides's
Young Edward, born in Wales, and of Caernarvon Rejoice even at my name; and put on mirthful
call'd:

[thrall'u.
cheer,

[hear. Thus by the English craft, we Britons were en Whep of my good estate they hy the sea-nymphs “ Yet in thine own behalf, dear country, dare to “Sometimes within my shades, in many an ansay, (way. cient wood,

(stood, Thou long as powerful wer't as England every Whose often-twined tops great Phoebus' fires withAnd if she overmuch should seek thee to imbase, §. 'The fearless British priests, under an aged oak, Tell her, thou art the nurse of all the British race Taking a milk-white bull, unstrained with the And he that was by Heaven appointed to unite

yoke,

stree (After that tedious war) the red rose and the white; And with an ax of gold, from that Jove-sacred A Tudor was of thine, and native of thy Mon, The misleto cut down; then with a bended knee From whom descends that king now sitting on her On th’ unhew'd altar laid, put to the hallow.d throne.” [please fires :

Texpires, This speech, by Snowdon made, so lucky was to And whilst in the sharp flane the trembling Oesh Both parties, and them both with such content As their strong fury mov'd (when all the rest t'appease ;

adore) That as before they strove for sovereignty and Pronouncing their desires the sacrifice before, place,

(grace. They only now contend, which most should other " Isles upon the west of Scotland. VOL. IV.

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sworn.

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Dark;

draw;

lip to th' eternal Heaven their bloodied hands did | thus pretending title, got also possession of Merio

(with fear, neth, from Gruffith ap Conan, prince of NorthAnd, whilst the murmuring woods even shudder'd as Wales : but he soon recovered it, and thence left Preach'd to the beardless youth the soul's immortalit continued in his posterity, until Lhewellin ap state;

Gruffith, under Edward the First, lost it himself, To other bodies still how it should transmigrate, and all his dominion. Whereas other parts of That to contempt of death them strongly might South and West-Wales especially) had before subexcite.

[delight, jected themselves to the English crown; this “To dwell in my black shades the wood-gods did through frequency of cragsy mountains, accessible Untrodden with resort that long so gloomy were, with too much difficulty, being the last strong As when the Roman came, it strook him sad with refuge until that period of fatal conquest.

fear To look upon my face, which then was call'd the

Of those two noble arms into the land that bear.

In the confines of Merioneth and Cardigan, Until in after-time, the English for a mark

where these rivers jointly pour themselves into the Gave me this hateful name, which I must ever Irish ocean, are these two arms or creeks of the bear,

sea, famous, as be saith, through Guinetbia (that And Anglesey from them am called every where. is one of the old titles of this North-Wales) by their

My brooks (to whose sweet brims the Sylvans names Traeth Mawr and Traeth Bachan, i. e, as did resort,

[court, it were, the great haven and the little haven; In gliding through my shades to mighty Neptune's traeth (6), in British, signifying a tract of sand Of their huge oaks bereft) to Heaven so open lie, whereon the sea flows, and the ebb discovers. That now there's not a root discern'd by any eye: My Drent, a pretty beck, attending Mena's mouth, Into that spacious lake where Dee unmixt dotb With those her sister rills that bear upon the south,

flow. Guint, forth along with her Lewenny that doth

That is, Lhin-tegid (otherwise call'd by the En.

glish, Pemelsmere) through wbich Deer rising in And next to them again, the fat and moory Fraw; this part, runs whole and unmixt, neither lake

nor §. Which with my prince's court I sometime pleas'd river communicating to each other water or fish;

to grace, As those that to the west directly run their race.

as the author anon tells you. In the ancients (c), Smooth Allo in her fall, that Lynon in doth take; ning uomixt, and (as it were) over the lake of

is remembered specially the like of the Rhosne runMathanon, that amain doth tow'rds Moylroniad make,

Geneva ; as, for a greater wonder, the most

(shore, learned 'Casaubon (d) hath delivered also of Arva, The exa-calves to hehold that bleach them on her, running whole through Rhosne ; and divers other Which Gweger to her gets, as to increase her store.

such like are in Pliny's collectiou of Nature's most Then Dulas to the north that straineth, as to see The isle that breedeth mice: whose store so loth

strange effects in waters. some be,

[hide." | The muititude of wolves that long this land That she in Neptune's brack her bluish head doth

annoy'd. When now the wearied Muse her barthen having

Our excellent Edgar (having first enlarged his ply'd, Horselt ahile betakes to bathe her in the Sound;

naine with diligent and religious performance of

charitable magnificence among his English, and And quitting in her course the goodly Monian

confirmed the far-spread opinion of his greatness, ground,

(throw Assays the Penmenmaur, and her clear eyes doth | by receipt of homage at Chester from eight kings; On Conway, tow'rds the east, to England back to

as you shall see in and to the next song) for increase

of his benefits towards the isle, joined with preservago:

[sight, Where finding Denbigh fair, and Flint not ont of tion of his crown-duties, converted the tribute of Cries yet afresh for Wales, and for Brute's ancient the author shows; the king that paid it;

the Welsh into three hnndred wolves a year, as right.

Thre yer he huld is term-rent, ac the vorthe was behind;

(vinde. ILLUSTRATIONS.

Nor he send e the king word that he migty ne mo

As, according to the story my old rhymer delivers More western are you carried into Merioneth, lit. whom you are to account for this Ludwal king Caernarvon, Anglesey, and those maritime coasts of of Wales in the Welsh history, except Howel ap North-wales.

Jevaf, that made war against his uncle Jago, The last her genuine laws which stoutly did retain. delivered his father, and took on himself the whole Under William Rufis, the Norman-English know not. But this was not an utter destruction of

principality towards the later years of Edgar, I (animated by the good success which Robert Fitz

them; for, since that time (e), the manor of hamon bad first ä сainst Rees ap Tiddour, prince Piddlesly in Leicester-shire was held by one of South Wales, and afterward against Jestin, lord of Glamoryan) being very desirous of the Welsh

(1) Girald. Itinerar. 2. cap 6. territories ; Ilugb.() surnamed Wolf, eari of Ches

(c) Ammian. Marcelhist. 15. Pomp. Mel. lib. ter, did homage to the king for Tegengleand Ryvo. 2. Plin. Hist. Nat. 2. cap. 103. mioc, with all the land by the sea unto Conway. And

(d) Ad Strabon. lib. d.

(e) Itin. Leicest. 27. ann. Hen. 3. in Archiv, (a) Powel. ad Caradoc Lhancarv. & Camd,

Turr. Lond.

Henry of Angage, per serjeantiam capiendi lupos, / was used for the name of Gauls, strangers, and as the inquisition delivers it.

barbarous, perhaps in such kind as in this kingdom

the name of Frenchman (1), hath by inclusion comSt. Helen's wondrous way

prehended all kind of aliens. By Festeneog in the confines of Caernarvon and Meriòneth is this bigh-way of note; so called by

Was little Britain call'dthe British, and supposed made by that Helen, See a touch of this in the passage of the virgins mother to Constantine (among her other good to the eighth song. Others affirm, that under Condeeds) of whom to the last song before.

stantine (m), of our Britons colonies were there

placed ; and from some of these the name of that As level as the lake until the general flood.

now dukedom, to have had its beginning. There So is the opinion of some divines (S), that, until be also that will justify the British name to have after the flood, were no mountains, but that by been in that tract long before (n), and for proof cite congestion of sand, earth, and such stuff as we now Dionysius Afer (o), and Pliny (p); but for the first, see bills strangely fraughted with, in the waters they it is not likely that he ever meant that continent, were first cast up. But in that true secretary of but this of ours, as the learned tell you; and for divinity and nature, Selomoh (g) speaking as in Pliny, seeing he reckons his Britons of Gaul in the the person of Wisdom, you read ; “ Before the confines of the now France, and lower Germany, mountains were founded, and before the hills I it is as unlikely that betwixt them and little Brewas formed," that is, before the world's beginning ; tagne should be any such habitude. You want not and in holy writ (h) elsewhere, “the mountains authority, affirming that our Britons from them (9), ascend, and the valleys descend to the place where before they from ours, had deduction of this thou didst found them;" good authorities to justify national title; but my belief admits it not. The mountains before the food. The same question surer opinion is to refer the name unto those hath been of isles, but I will peremptorily determine Britons, which (being expelled the island at the neither.

entry of the Saxous) got them new habitation in

this maritime part, as beside other authority an And with stern Eolus' blasts, like Thetis waxing

express assertion is in an old fragment of a French rank.

history (r), which you may join with most worthy The south-west wind constrained between two Camden's treatise on this matter; whither (for a hills on both sides of the lake, sometimes so learned declaration of it) I send you. violently fills the river out of the lake's store, that both have been affirmed (but somewhat against Forewarned was in dreams that of the Britons' reign. truth) never to be disturbed, or overflow, but upon Cadwallader, driven to forsake this land, espetempestuous blasts, whereas indeed (as Powel cially by reason of plague and famine tyrannising delivers) they are overfilled with rain and land- among his subjects, joined with continual erup. floods, as well as other waters; but most of all tions of the English, retired himself into little Bre. moved by that impetuous wind.

tagne, to his cozen Alan, there king: where in a

dream he was admonished by an angel (1 justify it Still Delos like, wherein a wandering isle doth

but by the story) that a period of the British empire float.

was now come, and until time of Merlin's prophecy, of this isle in the water on top of Snowdon, given to king Arthur, his country or posterity and on one side eels, trouts, and perches, in should have no restitution; and farther, that be another lake there, Girald is witness. Let him should take his journey to Rome, where, for a perforın his word; I will not be his surety for it. transitory, he might receive an eternal kingdom. The author alludes to that state of Delos, which is Alan, upon report of this vision, compares it with feigned (i) before it was with pillars fastened in the

the eagle's prophecies, the Sibyl's verses, and sea for Latona's child birth.

Merlin; nor found he but all were concording in That with the term of Welsh the English now

prediction of this ceasing of the British monarchy,

Through his advice, therefore, and a prepared imbase.

affection, Cadwallauer takes voyage to Rome , reFor this name of Welsh is unknown to the British ceived of P.P. Sergius, with holy tincture, the themselves, and imposed on them, as an ancient

name of Peter, and within very short time there and common opinion is, by the Saxons, calling Kied; his body very lately under pope Gregory them Walsh, i. e. strangers. Others fabulously the XIII. was found buried by S. Peter's tomb (s), have talk of Wallo and Wandolena, whence it

where it yet remains; and White of Basingstoke should be derived. But you shall come nearer

says, he had a piece of his raiment, of a chesnut truth, if, upon the community of name, customs, colour, taken up (with the corpse) uncorrupted; and original, 'twixt the Gauls and Britons, you conjecture them called Walsh, as it were Gualsh

(1) Bract. lib. 3. tract. 2. cap. 15. Leg. Gul. (the W. oftentimes being instead of the Gu.) which Conquest. & D. Coke in Cas. Calvin. expresses them to be Gauls rather than strangers;

(m) Malmesb. de gest. reg. 1. although in the Saxon (which is (k) observed) it

(n) Paul Merul. Cosmog, part 2. I. 3. c. 31.

(0) Vid. Eustath. ad eundem. (5) His post alios refragatur B. Pererius ad (p) Hist. Nat. lib. 4. cap. 17. quem super LiGenes. 1. quæst. 101.

gerim Britannos hos sitos dixisse, iniror P. Me. (8) Prov. 8.

rulam tain constanter affirmåsse. (h) Ps. 104.

(9) Bed. lib. 1. cap. 3. quem secutus P. Merula. (0) Pindar, ap. Strabon. lib. 10.

() Ex Ms. Cænob. Floriac. edit. per P. Pithæum. (4) Bucbapan, Scotic. Ilist...

(s) Anton. Major. ap. Basinstocht, lib. 9. not. **

which he acco“ints, as a Romish pupil, no slight This shows also his short life afterward, and agters miracle. It was added among British traditions, fully with the English story. His honourable that, when Cadwallader's bones were brought into affection to religion, before his cleansing mark of this isle (1), then should the posterity of their regeneration, is seen in that kind respect given by princes have restitution : concerning that, you have him to Wilfrid, first bishop of selesey, in Sussex ; enough to the second song. Observing concurrence where the episcopal see of Chichester (hither was of time and difference of relation in the story of it translated from Selesey, under William the this prince, I know not well how to give myself or Conqueror) acknowledges in public monunients, the reader satisfaction. In Monmouth, Robert of rather bim founder than Edilwalch, the first Glocester, Florilegiis, and their followers, Cad-Christian king of that province, from whom wallader is made the son of Cadwallo, king of the Cedwalla violently took both life and kingdom : Britons before hun, but so, that he descended also nor doth it less appear, in that his paying tenths from English - Saxon blood; his mother being of such spoils, as by war's fortune acerued to his daughter to Penda, king of Merckland. Our greatness: which notwithstanding, although done mouks call him king of West-Saxons, successor by one theu not received into the church of either of Kentwine, and son to Kenbrith. And where testament, is not without many examples among Caradoc Lhancarvan tells you of wars betwixt Ine the aucjent Gentiles, who therein imitating the or Ivor (successor to Cadwallader) and Kentwine, Hebrews, tithed much of their possessions, and it appears in our chronographers, that Kent wine acquired substance to such deities as unhallowed must be dead above three years before. But how religion taught them to adore; which, w bether soever these things might be reconcileable, I think they did upon mystery in the number, or there in clearly that Cadwallader (u) in the British, and as paying first fruits (for the word omg whick Cedwalla, king of West-Saxons in Bede, Maldies was for Abel's offerings, and wpw for Melchisebury, Florence, Huntingdon, and other stories of dech's tithes, according to that less calculation in the English, are not the same, as Geffrey, and, Cabalistic (y) concordance of identities in differout of Girald, Randal of Chester, and others ent words, are of equal number, and by consequent since erroneously have affirmed. But strongly of like interpretation) I leave to my reader. Speakyou may hold, that Cadwallo, or Caswallo, living ing of this, I cannot but wonder at that very about the year DCXL. slain by Oswald, king of wonder of learning, Joseph Scaliger (r); affirmNorthumberland, was the same with Bede's first ing, tithes among those ancients only payable to Cedwalla, whom he calls king of Britons, and that Hercules; whereas by express witness of an old by misconceit of his two Cedwals, (the other being, inscripti'n at Delphos (n), and the common report almost fifty years after, king of West-Saxons) and of Camillus, it is justified, that both Greeks and by communicating of each other's attributes upon Romans did the like to Apollo, and no less among indistinct names, without observation of their them and others together, was to Mars (6), several times, these discordant relations of them, Jupiter (c), Juno (d), and the number of gods in which in story are too palpable, had their first general, to whom the Athenians dedicated the being. But to satisfy you in present, I keep my. tenth part of Lesbos (~). He which the author, self to the course of our ordinary stories, by reason after the British, calls here Ivor, is affirmed the of difficulty in finding an exact truth in all. Touch same with Ine, king of West-sex, in our monkish ing his going to Rome, thus : some will, that he chronicles, although there be scarce any congruity was Christian before, and received of Sergius only betwixt them in his descent. What follows is but confirmation; others, that he had there his first historical and continued succession of their princes. baptism, and lived not above a month aster; which time (to make all dissonant) is extended to

More excellent than those which our good Howel

here. eight years in Lhancarvan. That one king Cedwal went to nome, is plain by all, with his new For Howel Dha, first prince of South-Wales and imposed name and burial there : for his baptism Powis, after upon death of his cousin Edwal Voel, before, I have no direct authority but in Poly- of North-Wales also, by mature advice, in a full chronicon; many arguments proving him indeed a council of barons and bishops, made divers universal well willer to Christianity, but as one that had constitutions. By these, Wales (until Edward L.) not yet received its holy testimony. The very was ruled. So some say ; bat the truth is, that phrase in most of our historians is plain that he was baptised ; and so also his epitaph then made died, Anno Christi DC.LXXXVIII. Judicious conat Rome, in part bere ioserted.

jecture cannot but attribute all this to the West

Saxon Cedwal, and not the British. See to the Percipiénsque alacer relivivæ præmia vitæ,

Barbaricam rabiem, nomen & inde suum, (y) Řatio cabalistica minor, secundum quam è Conversus convertit ovans, Petrúmque vocari, centenario quolibet & denario unitatem accipiunt, Sergius antistes, jussit ut ipsc pater

reliquos numeros in utroque vocabulo retinentes Fonte renascentis quem Christi gratia purgans uti Archangel. Burgonovens. in Dog. CabaProtinùs ablatuin vexit in arce Poli(.x). listicis.

(2) Ad Festum, verb. Decuma. (1) Ranulph. Higden. lib. 5. cap. 20.

la) Clemens Alexand. Strom. a. & Steph. storom

Toa. in Abogryin tantundem: præter alios quam(u) Cedwalla Rex Britonum Bed. Hist. Eccles. 3.

plurimos. cap. 1. Cæterum v. Nennium ap. Camd. in Ottadinis pag. 664. & 665. & Bed. lib. 5. cap. 7.

(6) Lucian. sigi o'xhoww. & Varro ap. Macrob. 3. cap. 1.

(c) Herodot. ". (1) Bed. eccles. hist. lib. 5. c. 7. Englished in (d) Samji apud. Herodot, . ibstance, if you say, He was baptized, and soon (e) Thucydid. hist. y.

XI song

before Edward I. conquered Waies, and, as it of Reding, where the combat was performed. I seems, from XXVIII. but especially, XXXV. of remember a great clerk (l) of those times says, Henry III. his edupire enlarged ainong them, the that Montfort spent a whole night of devotion to En iish king's writ did run there. For when St. Denis, (so I understand him, although his copy Elward I. sent commission to Reginald of Grey (1), seem corrupted) which could make champions Thomas bishop of St. Dewy's, and Walter of invincible; whereto he refers the success. That Hopton, to inquire of their customs, and by what it was usual for combatants to pray over night to laws they wise ruled, divers cases were upon oath several saints, it is plain by our law-annals(m). returned, which by, and according to, the kiog's law, if it were between lords or the princes them

Or any ear had heard the sound of Florida. selves, had been determined; if between tenants, About the year cıy. C. LXX. Madoc, brother to then by the lord's seizing it into his hands, until | David ap Owen, prince of Wales, made this sea discovery of the title in his court; but also that voyage; and, by probability, those names of Capo Done were decided by the laws of Howel Dha. Of de Breton, in Norumbeg, and Penguin, in part them, in Lhuyd's annotations to the Welsh of the northern America, for a wbite rock and a chronicle, you have some particulars, and in the white-healed bird, according to the British, were roll which hath aided me. Touching those other relics of this discovery. So that the Welsh may of Molmutius and Martia, somewhat to the uinth challenge priority of finding that new world, before song.

the Spaniard, Genoway, and all other mentioned t's to subjection stoop, or make us Britons bear

in Lopez, Marinæus, Cortez, and the rest of that

kind. Th' unwieldy Norman yoke

Snowdon properly speaks all for the glory of his And with that Crogen's name let th’ English us country, and follows suppositions of the British disgrace. story, discording herein with ours. For in Matthew The first cause of this name, take thus: In one Paris, and Florilegus, under the year ciɔ. LXXVIII. of Henry the second's expeditions into Wales, I read that the Conqueror subdued Wales, and divers of his camp sent to assay a passage over took honage aud bostages of the princes; so of Offa's dike, at Crogen castle were entertained with Henry I. ciɔ. c. XII. Henry 11. in cio. c lun. and prevention by British forces, most of them there other times : Of this Henry II bath been under- slain, and, to present view, yet lying buried. stood that prophecy of Merlin, “ When the freckle- Afterward, this word Crogen (n), the English used faced prince (so was the king) passes over Rhyd to the Welsh, but as remembering cause of rePencarn (g), then should the Welsh forces be venge for such a slaughter, although time bath weakened.” For he, in this expedition against Rees made it usual in ignorant mouths for a disgraceful ap Gryffith into South - Wales, corning mounted attribute. near tbat ford in Glamorgan, his sto d madded with sudden sound of trumpets, on the bank

To his unbridled will our necks we never bow'd. violently, out of the purposed way, carries him Sufficiently justifiable is this of king Jolin, althrough the ford: which compared with that of though our monks therein not much discording Merliu, gave to the British army no small dis- from British relation, deliver, that he subdued all comture; as a Cainbro-Briton(k), then living, Wales; especially this northern part unto Soowhath delivered. But, that their stories and ours don(o), and received XX. hostages for surety of are so different in these thinus, it can be no marvel future obedience. For, at first, Lhewelinap to any that knows how often it is used among Jorwerth, prince of North-Wales, had by force historians (i), to flatter their own nation, and joined with stratagem the better hand, and comwrong the honour of their enemies. See the first pelled the English camp to victual themselves with note here for Rufus his time.

horseflesh ; but afterward indeed, upon a second

road made into Wales, king John had the conquest. And from the English power th' imperial standard

This compared with those changes ensuing upon took.

the pope's wrongful oncrowning him, his barons' Henry of Essex, at this time standard-bearer to rebellion, and advantages in the meantime taken Henry II. in a strait at Counsyltlı, near Flint, by the Welsh, proves only, that his winnings here cast down the standard, thereby animating the were little better than imaginary, as on a tragic Welsh, and disco:psiting the Fuglish, adding much stage. The stories may, but it fits not me, to danger to the dishonour. He was afterward ac. inform you of large particulars. cused, by Robert of Montfort, of a traitorons design in the action. To clear bimself, he challenges As fate had spar'd our fall till Edward Longshank's the cornbat: they both, with the royal assent and

reign. judicial course by law of arms, enter the lists; But withal observe the truth of story in the where Montfort had the victory, and Essex meantime. Of all our kings until John, somepardoned for his life; but forfeiting all his sub- what you have already. After him, Henry III. atance(k), entered religion and profess'd in the abbey had wars with Lheweliu ap Jorwerth ; who a most

(1) Rot. Claus. de ann. 9. Ed. 1. in Archiv. (1) Joann. Sarisburiens. Ep. 159, Tur. Londin.

(m) 30 Ed. 3 fol. 20. (g) The ford at the rock's head.

(n) Gutyn Owen in Lhewelin ap Jorwerth. (h) Girald. Itinerar. 1. cap. 6.

(0) Note that North Wales was the chief princii) De quo, si placet, videas compendiosè apud pality, and to it South-Wales and Powis paid a Alberic. Gentil. de Arm. Rom. 1. cap. 1.

tribute, as out of the laws of Howel Dha is noted (k) Guil. de Novo Burgo. lib. 2. c. 5,

by doctor Powel.

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