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dedicated to Salust, to have lived here, but rabbins. In other matters, private and public indeed upon no such warrant as I dare trust. (50 is Carsar's assertion (u)) they used Greck Our Geffrey Monmouth first our Brutus to devise. letters, which hath made some think that they
wrote Greek. But be not easily thereto persuaded. It was so laid to Geffrey's charge (he was bishop Perhaps they might use Greek characters, seeing of Saint Asaph, under king Stephen) by John that those which the Greeks then bad, and now of Whethansted, abbot of Saint Alban's, Wil use, were at first reccived from strangers (y), and liam Petit, called William of New borough, and as likely from the Druids as from any other, for it some other; but plainly (let the rest of his story, is sufficiently jastifiable out of old coins, inscripand the particulars of Brute be as they can) the tions, and express assertion (?), that the ancient name of Brute was long before him in Welsh (out character ainong the Greeks was almost the same of which his story was partly translated) and Latin with that which is now the Latins'. But thence testimonies of the Britons, as I have, for the to collect that therefore they wrote or spake Greek, author, more largely spoken, to the first song. is as if you should affirm the Syriac testament to And (a little to continue my first justification, for be Hebrew, because published in Hebrew letters; this time) why way not we as well think that many or soine Latin treatises, Saxon, because in that stories and relations, anciently written here, have character; or that the Saxons wrote Irish, becanse been by the Picts, Scots, Romans, Danes, Saxons they used the Irish forin of writing (a); or that and Normans, devoured up from posterity, which those books which are published in Dutch by soine perhaps, had they been left to us, would have Jews, in a special kind of Hebrew letters, should ended this controversy? Shall we doubt of what also be of the same tongue. Observe but this Livy, Polybius, Halicarnassens, Plutarch, Strabo, passage in Cæsar: He sends by a Gaul (allured to and many others have had out of Fabius, Antias, this use against his country by large rewards) a Chereas, Solylus, Ephorus, Theopompus, Cato, letter to Q. Cicero, being then besieged about Quadrigarius, with intinite other, now lost writers, where now is Tournay (b), & Græcis conscripsit because we see not the self authors ? No, time literis, ne, interceptâ epistolâ, nostra (said he him. hath ransackt irure precious things, and even those selt) ab hostibus consilia cognoscantur(c). To super-excellent books, wherein that inconiparable wbat purpose did be thus, if the Gauls, or their Solomon wrote from the cedar to the hyssop, were
statesmen the Druids understood Greek ? I know (upon fear of the facile multitude's too much re what he writes (d) of those tables of account found specting natural causes in them divinely handled) , in the pow Swisserland, but shall not soon believe by king Ezechias supprest from succeeding ages, that they had much more Greek iu them than the if my authority (r) deceive not. So that the loss character. If you object Strabo his affirmance (e), in this, and all kinds, to the common-wealth of that the Gauls (for as long as I speak of thein in letters, bath been so grievirus and irreparable, that general in this kind, I will include our Druids, as we may well imagine, how errour of conceit in sufficient reason is elsewhere given) were grown some, envy in others, and hostile invasion hath such lovers of that tongue, nors rai Tà suy Béa ere bereft us of inany monuments most precious in all 'Eadsvori ygépu. (f). It is soon answered, that sorts of literature, if we now enjoyed their instruct- i he speaks only of those about Marseilles, which ing use: and to conclude, the antiquities of these was, and is well known to all men, to bave been original ages are like those of Rome, between it a colony of Phocians, out of the now Natolia built and burnt by the Gauls; Cum vetustate (which were Greeks) by appointinent of fate arrir. nimiâ obscuræ, velut quæ (s) (as Livy says, (0)) / ing at the mouth of the Rhosne, about the time magno ex intervallo loci vix cernuntur: tum quod of Tarquin the Proud ; where Protis, one of their perraræ, per eadem tempora literæ fuêre, una chief leaders, entertained by Namus king of that custodia fidelis memoriæ rerum gestarum; &, coast, was chosen (according to their custom) in quod etiam, si quæ in comiaentariis pontificum a banquet by Gyptis the king's daughter for her aliisque publicis privatisque erant monumentis, husband ; hereto success grew so fortunate, that incensa urbe, pleraque interiere. But all this honourable respect on both sides, joined with in effect the Muse tells you in the sixth canto.
imitation of Greek civility (after this city built
near their arrive) it seemed, as my author says (g), To letters never would their mysteries commit.
as if Gaul had been turned into Greece, rather What they taught their scholars for matter of than Greece to have travelled into Gaul. Wonder law, heathenish religion, and such learning as they here were presidents of, was delivered only by
(u) Cæsar. de Bell. Gallic. lib. 6. word of mouth; and, lest memory unused might
(y) Varro de ling. Lat. 7. so fail, they permitted not commission of their
(z) Plin. Hist. Nat. 7. cap. 58. &, si placet, lectures and instructions to the custody of writing, videas Annianos illo", Archiloch. de Temporib.& but delivered all in a multitude of verses and Pytha- Xenoph. in Æquivocis. gorean precepts, exactly imitating the Cabalists; (a) Camd. in Hibernia, &, pet Græcas literas which, until of late time, wrote not, but taught in arå Ulyssis in confinio Rhetiæ & Germaniæ, and learned by mouth and diligent hearing of their apud. Tacitum, Lipsius characteres solummodo
(6) Nervii de bello Gall. 5. (r) In Zerror Hammon. apud Munst. ad
(c) “ Wrote it in Greek, lest the enemy might, Exod. 15. “ Worn away by devouring time, and the by intercepting the letters, discover his design.",
(d) De Bell. Gallic. 1. (e) Geogr. a. enemies ransacking the city," &c.
(f) “That they wrote their instruments of con(1) Dec. 1. lib. 6. Of the Druids see fully to
tract in Greek.” the IX. song
(g) Trog. Pomp. Hist. 43,
not then why, abont Marseilles, Greek was so Weever, the great devotion sings respected, nor why in the Romaunt French now Of the religious Saxon kings; such Hellenisms are : here you see apparent
Those riverets doth together call, original of it; yet conclude, upon the former That into him and Mersey fall. reasons, that the Druids and Gauls used a peculiar Thence bearing to the side of Peak, tongue, and very likely the same with the now This zealous canto off doth break. Welsh, as most learned Camden bath even demonstrated ; although I know some great scholars there are, which still suspend their judgment, and make it a doubt, as ever things of such antiquity With as unwearied wings, and in as high a gait will be. But if you will) add hereto that of the
As when we first set forth, observing every state, famous and great lawyer Hotoman (h), who pre- The Muse from Cambria comes, with pinions sumes that the word Græcis in Cæsar's text is
summ'd and sound: crept in by ignorance of transcribers, as he well
And having put herself upon the English ground, might, seeing those commentaries, titled with
First seizeth in her course the noblest Cestrian name of J. Cæsar, commonly published, and in
(yore, divers MSS. with J. Celsus, are very unperfect, $. Of our great English bloods as careful here of now and then abrupt, different in style, and so
As Cambria of her Brute's now is, or could be variable in their own form, that it hath been much
[of men. feared by that great critic Lipsius (k), lest some
For which, our proverb calls her, Cheshire, chief more impolite hand hath sowed many patches of S. And of our counties, place of palatine doth base cloth into that more rich web, as his own
And thereto mctaphor expresses it. And if those characters
ath her high regalities enroll’d: which are in the pillars at Y-Voellas, in Denbigh- Besides, in many fields since conquering William shire, are of the Druids, as some imagine (vet Her people she hath prov'd, to her eternal fame. seeming very strange and uncouth) then might you more confidently concur in opinion with Hoto- All, children of her own, the leader and the led, man. In sum, I know that Græcis literis may be The mightiest, men of bone, in her full bosom bred: taken as well for the language (as in Justin (i), I
And neither of them such as cold penurious need remember, and elsewhere) as for the character : / Spurs to each rash attempt; but such as soundly but here I can never think it to be understood in
(they return any but the last sense, although you admit Cæsar's Clad in warm English cloth; and maim'd should copy to be therein not interpolated. It is very (Whom this false ruthless world else from their justifiable which the author here implies, by slight
doors would spurn) ing Cæsar's authority in Briti h originals, in re
Have livelihood of their own, their ages to sustain.
Nor did the tenant's pay the landlord's charge spect that he never came farther into the isle than
maintain : a little beyond Thames towarris Berkshire (m); although some of ours idly talk of his making the
But as abroad in war, he spent of his estate; Bath, and being at Chester, as the Scotish his
Returning to his home, his hospitable gate torians most senselessly of their Julis Hoff' built by The richer and the pror stood open to receive. bim, which others refer to Vespasian(n), some
They, of all England, most to ancient customs affirm it a temple of the god Terminus (o);
cleave, whereas it seems expressly to be built by Carausius, Their yeomanry and still endeavour'd to uphold. in time of Dioclesian, if Nennius deceive us not.
For rightly whilst herself brave England was of oll, But, this out my way.
And our courageous kings us forth to conquests led,
(so dread) (h) Franco-Gall. cap. 2. quem v. etiam ad
Our armies in those times (near through the world Cæsar. Com.
Of our tall yeomen were, and foot-men for the
most; (k) Elect. 2. cap. 7. Epistolic. quæst. 2. cap. 2.
[boast, (1) Hist. lib. 20. in extrema.
Who (with their bills and bows) may confidently (m) Cæsarem si legas, tibi ipsi satisfacias, verùm 5. Our leopards they so long and bravely did
advance & ita Leland ad Cyg. Cant. in Balı.
Above the fleur de lis, even in the heart of (n) Veremund. ap. Hect. Boet. hist. 3. (0) Buchanan. hist. 4. in Donaldo.
O! thou thrice happy shire, confined so to be 'Twixt two so famous floods, as Mersey is, and Dee !
[divide: Thy Dee upon the west from Wales doth thee
Thy Mersey on the north, from the Lancastrian POLY-OLBION.
side, Thy natural sister-shire; and link'd unto thee so, That Lancashire along with Cheshire still doth go. As tow'rds the Derbian Peak, and Moreland, (which do draw
More mountainous and wild) the high-crown'd The Muse, her native earth to see,
And Molcop be thy mounds, with these proud hills
whence rove Returns to England over Dee; Visits stout Cheshire, and there shows The lovely sister brooks, the silvery Dane and To her and hers, what England owes ,
[the west, And of the nymphets sporting there
Clear Dove, that makes to Trent; the other to In Wyrral, and in Delamere,
But, in that famous town, most happy of the rest, VOL. IV,
THE ELEVENTH SONG.
(From which thou tak’st thy name) fair Chester, | She sends up stocks of trees, that on the top do callà of old
[did hold, $. Carlegion; whilst proud Rome her conquests here By which the world her first did for a wonder note. Of those her legions known the faithful station His bandmaid Howty next to Weever holds ber then,
[apace So stoutly held to tack by those near North When Peever, with the help of Pickmere, makes Yet by her own right name had rather called be, To put in with those streams his sacred steps that . As her the Britons term'd, the fortress upon
Into the mighty waste of Mersey him to lead. Than vainly she would seem a miracle to stand, Where, when the rivers meet, with all their stately Th'imaginary work of some buge giant's hand :
train, Which if such ever were, tradition tells pot who. Proud Mersey is so great in ent’ring of the main, But back a while, my Muse: to Weever let As he would make a show for empery to stand, us go,
[doth scorn; And wrest the three-forkt mace from out grim Which (with himself compar'd) each British flood Neptune's hand; His fountain and his fall, both Chester's rightly To Cheshire highly bound for that his wat'ry store,
(doth divide, As to the grosser loughs' on the Lancastrian shore. The country in his course, that clean through From hence he getteth Goyt down from her Cut in two equal shares upon his either side:
peakish spring, And, what the famous flood far more than that Avd Bollen, that along doth nimbler Birkin bring enriches,
(Wyches, From Maxfield's mighty wilds, of whose shagg'd The bracky fountains are, those two renowned
Sylvans she The Nant-wych, and the North ; whose either Hath in the rocks been woo'd, their paramour to briny well,
[long, For store and sorts of salts, make Weever to excel. Who in the darksome holes and caverns kept her Besides their general use, not had by bim in vain, And that proud forest made a party to her wrong.
. But in himself thereby doth holiness retain Yet could not all entreat the pretty brook to stay ; Above his fellow foods: whose healthful virtues Which to her stream, sweet Bollen, creeps away. taught,
[sought, To whom upon their road she pleasantly reports Hath of the sea-gods oft caus'd Weever to be The many mirthful jests, and wanton woodish For physic in their need: and Thetis oft hath
[been In Maxfield they have had; as of that forest's fate: When by their wanton sports her Ner'ides have Until they come at length, where Mersey for more So sick, that Glaucus' self bath failed in their
Assuining broader banks, himself so proudly bears, Yet Weever, by his salts, recovery durst assure. That at his stern approach, extended Wyrral fears, And Amphitrite oft this wizard river led
That (what betwixt his floods of Mersey, and the Into her secret waiks (the depths profound and
In very little time devoured he might be: Of him (suppos'd so wise) the hid events to know Out of the foaming surge till Hilbre lifts his head, Of things that were to come, as things done long To let the foreland see how richly he had sped.
Which Mersey cheers so much, that with a smilIn which he had been prov'd most exquisite to be; ing brow
[that throw And bare his fame so far, that oft 'twixt him and He fawns on both those floods; their amorous arms Dee
[skill. About bis goodly neck, and bar'd their swelling Much strife there hath arose in their prophetic
[he rests, But to conclude his praise, our Weever here On wbich whilst lull'd with ease, his pleased cheek doth will
The steers: The Naiads, sitting near upon the aged rocks, The Muse his source to sing; as how his course Are busied with their combs, to braid his verdant Who from his nat'ral spring, as from his neighb'r
locks, ing meres
Whilst in their crystal eyes he doth for Cupids Sufficiently supply'd, shoots forth his silver breast,
look : As though he meant to take directly tow'rd the But Delamere from them his fancy quickly took, east;
Who sbows herself all drest in most delicious Until at length it proves he loit'ret! but to play,
(bowers Till Aslbrook and the Lee o'ertake him on the way, And sitting like a queen, sees from her shady Whicli to his journey's end him earnestly do haste: The wanton wood-nymphs mixt with her lightTill having got to Wych, he taking there a taste
footed fauns, Of her most savory salt, is, by the sacred touch, To lead the rural routs about the goodly lawns, Fored faster in his course, his motion quicken'd | As over bolt? and heath, as thorough frith 'and Inuch
fell; To North-trych : and at last, as be approacheth | And oft at barly-break, and prison-base to tell Dane, Whelock draws, then Crock, from that black (In carrolds as they course) each other all the joys, ominous mere
The passages, deceits, the sleights, the amorous Accounted one of those that England's wonders
[Brereton's lake; Of neighbours, Blackmere nam'd, of strangers, Meres or standing lakes. Whose property seems far from reason's way to ? A wood growing on a hill or knole. stand:
3 High wood. near before his death that's owner of the land,
* Low coppice.
The subtle sea-nymphs had, their Wyrral's love to Them at the last on Dansk their ling'ring fortune win.
(vare. But Weever now again to warn them doth begin Where Holst unto their troops sufficient hai bour To leave these trivial toys, which inly he did hate, These with the Saxons went, and fortunately wan: That neither them beseem'd,nor stood with his estate Whose captain, Hengist, first a kingdom here (Being one that gave himself industriously to know began
(rose What monuments our kings erected long ago : In Kent; where his great heirs, ere other princes To which, the flood himself so wholly did apply, Of Saxouy's descent, their fulness to oppose, As though upon his skill, the rest should all rely) With swelling Humber's side their empire did con-' And bent himself to show, that yet the Britons
And of the rest, not least renowned of their line, Whom the laborions Muse so highly had extoll's, $. Good Ethelbert of Keni, th’ first christ'ned EnThose later Saxon kings excell'd not in their deeds, glish king,
(bring And therefore with their praise thus zealously To preach the faith of Christ, was first did hither proceeds;
Wise Augustine the monk, from holo Gregory sent. “Whilst the celestial powers th' arrived time This most religious king, with most devout intent, attend,
[end, That mighty fane to Paul, in London did erect, When o'er this general isle the Britons' reign should And privileges gave, this temple to protect. And for the spoiling Pict here prosp'rously had " His equal then in zeal, came Ercombert again, wrought,
Prom that first christ'ned king, the second in that Into th'afflicted land which strong invasion brought,
reign. And to that proud attempt, what yet his power The gluttony then us'd severely to suppress, might want,
[supplant, And make inen fit to prayer (inuch hinder'd by The ill-disposed Heavens, Brute's offspring to
excess) Their angry plagues down pour’d, insatiate in their S. That abstinence from flesh for forty days be an,
(struction haste.) Which by the name of Lent is known to every (Needs must they fall, whom Heaven doth to de
[ilone, And that which lastly came to consummate the “ As mighty Hengist here, by force of arms had rest,
(press'd $. So Ella coming in, soon from the Britons won Those prouder Saxon powers (which liberally they. The countries neighb'ring Kent; which lying from Against th’invading Pict, of purpose hired in)
the main From those which paid them wage, the island soon Directly to the south, did properly obtain did win;
The Southern Saxons' name; and not the last And sooner overspread, being masters of the field; thereby
[archy: Those, first for whom they fought, too impotent Amongst the other reigns which made the heptto wield
So in the high descent of that Sonth-Saxon king,
(receiv'd And some upon that point of Cornwal forth s. Saint Wilfrid (sent from York) into this realm Yet forced were they there their stations to defend. (Whom the Northumbrian folk had of his see be“ Nor could our men permit the Britons to
(as high, | And on the south of Thames, a seat did him afford, From Jove or Mars alone; but brought their blood By whom that people first receiv'd the saving words $. From Woden, by which name they styled Mer “ As likewise from the loins of Erchinwin (who cury.
[be prais'd : Nor were the race of Brute, which ruled here be Th' East-Saxons' kingdom first) brave Sebert nay More zealous to the gods they brought unto this Which, as that king of Kent, had with spich cost shore,
and state Than Hengist's noble heirs ; their idols that to Built Paul's; bis greatness so (this king to imitate) raise,
[days. Began the goodly church of Westminster to rear; S. Here put their German names upon our weekly The primer English kings so truly zealous were. “These noble Saxons were a nation hard and “ Then Sebba • of his seed, that did them al strong,
surpass, On sundry lands and seas in warfare nuzzled long; Who fitter for a shrine than for a scepter was, AMictioa throughly knew; and in proud fortune's (Above the power of flesh, his appetite to starve spite,
[might: That his desired Christ be strictly might observe) Even in the jaws of death had dar'd her ntmost Even in his height of life, in health, in body strony, Who under Hengist first, and Horsa, their brave Persuaded with his queen, a lady fair and voung, chiefs,
To separate themselves, and in a sole estate, From Germany arriv'd, and with the strong reliefs After religious sort themselves to dedicate. Of th’Angles and the Jutes, them ready to supply, " Whose nephew Uffa next, in dam'd with his Which anciently had been of their affinity,
high praise By Scythia first sent out, wbich could not give (Enriching that proud fane his grandsire first did them meat,
(seat. raise) Were forc'd to seek a soil wherein themselves to Abandoned the world he found so full of strife,
And after liv'd in Rome a strict religious life. * See, concerning their coming, to the 1st, 4th, and 8th songs.
Sebba, a monk in Paul's.
“ Nor these our princes here, of that pure Saxon | Ordaining godly laws for governing this land, strain,
(reign. Of all the Saxon kings the Solon he shall stand. Which took unto themselves each one their several “ From Otta * (born with him who did this isle For their so goodly deeds deserved greater fame,
invade) Than th’Angles their allies, that hitber with them and had a conquest first of the Northumbrians came;
made, Who sharing out themselves a kingdom in the And tributary long of mightier Hengist held, east,
(vest, Till Ida (after born) the Kentish power expell’d, With th’Eastern Angles' name their circuit did in- And absolutely sat on the Dierian seat, By Cffa in that part so happily begun : (won But afterward resign'd to Ethelfrid the Great ; Whose successors the crown for martyrdom bave An army into Wales who for invasion led, From all before or since that ever suffer'd here; At Chester and in fight their forces vanquished ; 9. Redwald's religious sons: who for their Saviour Into their utter spoil, then public way to make, dear,
The long religious house of goodly Bangor brake, By cruel heathenish hands unmercifully slain, 9. And slew a thousand monks, as they devoutly Amongst us evermore remember'd shall remain,
pray'd. And in the roll of saints must have a special room, For which his cruel spoil upon the Christians made Where Derwald to all times with Erpenwald shall (Though with the just consent of Christian Saxons (succeeds, slain)
[distain “ When in that way they went, next Sebert them His blood, the heathenish hands of Redwald did Scarce seconded again for sanctimonious deeds: That murderer's issue next, this kingdom were Who for a private life when he his rule resign'd,
(mild And to his cloyster long had strictly bim confiu'd, And Edwin took the rule; a prince as just and A corslet for his cowl was glad again to take, As th’ other faithless were: nor could time ever His country to defend (for his religion's sake)
bring Against proud Penda, com'n with all his Pagan in all the seven-fold rule an absoluter king; power,
And more t advance the faith, his utmost power Those christ'ned Angles then of purpose to devour: that lent: And suff'ring with his folk, by Penda's heathenish . Who re-ordained York a bishop's government; pride,
And so much lov'd the poor, that in the ways of As he a saint had liv'd, a constant martyr dy'd.
trade, “ When, after it fell out, that Offa had not Where fountains fitly were, he iron dishes made, long
[wrong, And fastned them with chains the way-farer to Held that by cruel force, which Penda got by
[pease. $. Adopting for his heir young Edmond, brought And the poor pilgrim's thirst, there resting, to aphim in,
[win: “As Mercia, 'mongst the rest, sought not the Even at what time the Danes this island sought to
least to raise
(praise. Who christ'ned soon became, and as religious grown The saving Christian faith, nor merits humbler As those most heathenish were who set him on his $. Nor those that from the stem of Saxon Creda
throne, Did expiate in that place his predecessors' guilt, (The Britons who expulst) were any whit in fame, Which so much Christian blood so cruelly bad spilt. For piety and zeal, behind the others best ; For, taken by the Danes, who did all tortues try, Though heath'nish Penda long and proudly did His Saviour Jesus Christ to force bim to deny;
(all to bow; First beating him with bats, but no advantage got, The christ'ned neighbouring kings, and forc'd them His body full of shafts then cruelly they shot; Till Oswy made to God a most religious vow, The constant martyr'd king, a saint thus justly Of bis abundant grace would he be pleas'd to grant, crown'd.
That he this Paynim prince in battle might supplant To whoin even in that place, that monument re A recluse he would give his daughter and delight, nown'd
Sweet Alfed then in youth, and as the morning, Those after-ages built to his eternal fame.
bright: What English hath not heard Saint Edmond And having his request, he gave as he obtain'd; Bury's 'name?
Though his unnatural hands succeeding Wulpber “ As of those Angles here, so from their loins
(Sexian reign, | In his own children's blood, whom their dear mother Whose hands hew'd out their way to the West s. Confirm'd in Christ's belief, by that most re(From Kenrick, or that claim from Cerdick to de
verend Chad: scend)
Yet to embrace the faith when after he began A partnership in fame great Ina might pretend (For the unnatural'st deed that e'er was done by With any king since first the Saxons came to shore.
man) Of all those christ'ned here, who highlier did adore | If possible it were to täpiate his guilt, The Godhead, than that man? or more that did Here many a goodly house to holy uses built : apply
And she (to purge his crime on her dear children His power t’ advance the church in true sincerity? done) Great Glastonbury then so wondrously decay'd, A crowned queen, for him, became a veiled nun. Whose old foundation first the ancient Britons laid, “What age a godlier prince than Etheldred could He gloriously rebuilt, enriching it with plate,
bring? And many a sumptuous cope, to uses consecrate:Or than our Kinred here, a more religious king? : In Suffolk.
Otta, brother to Hengist.