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none of these were the same) all Danes, had to do, | Poor sheep-hook and plain goad, she many times and that with dominion in France, about this age;

doth sound:

(bound. wherein it is further reported, that Robert earl of Then in a buskin'd, stream, she instantly doth Paris (m), and in some sort a king 'twixt Charles Smooth as the lowly stream she softly now doth and Rodulph, gave to certain Normans that had glide:

(pride. entered the land at Loire (they first entered there And with the mountains straight contendeth in her in 853)(n) all Little Bretagne and Nants; and Now back again I turn, the land with me to tbis in 922, which agrees with that gift of the same take,

[doth make. tract to Rollo by Charles, little better than harshest from the Staffordian heaths as Stour' her course discords. And so doth that of Rollo's being aided Which Clent, from his proud top, contentedly by the English king, and in league with him against

doth view: the French, with another received truth : which But yet the aged hill, immoderately doth rue is, that Charles was (by marriage with Edgith (0) His loved Feck’nham's fall, and doth her state beof the English king's loins) son-in-law to Edward, moan; and brother-in-law to Athelstan, in whose pro- To please his amorous eye, whose like the world tection (p) here Lewis (afterward the sixth) was,

had none. while Rodulph of Burgundy held the crown. For For, from her very youth, he (then an aged hill) that unmanperly hoinage also, spoken of to the Had to that forest-nymph a special liking still: fourth song by one of Rollo's knights, it is re- The least regard of him who never seems to take, ported by Malmesbury and others, to be done by But suff'reth in herself for Salwarp's only sake; Rollo himself; and touching that Egidia, wife to And on that river doats, as much as Clent on her. Rollo, the judicious French historiographer, P. Now when the bill perceiv'd the flood she would Emilius (from whom the Italian Polydore had prefer, many odd pieces of his best context) tells clearly, All pleasure he forsakes; that at the full bagg'd that she was daughter to Lothar king of Romans,

cow,

(low, and given by his cousin Charles the Gross, to God-Or at the curl-fac'd bull, when renting he doth frey, king of the Normans, with Westrich (that is, Or at th' unhappy wags which let their cattle stray, Neustria) about 886, and imagines that the Nor- At nine-holes on the heath whilst they together man historians were deceived by equivocation of play, name, mistaking Charles the Simple for Charles He never seems to smile; nor ever taketh keep the Gross, living vear one time; as also, that they To hear the harmless swain pipe to his grazing finding Egidia a king's daughter (being indeed sheep: Lothar's) supposed her Charles the Simple's. This Nor to the carter's tune in whistling to his team: makes me think also that of Godfrey and Rollo Nor lends his list’ning ear (once) to the ambling hath been like confusion of name. But both

stream,

(rush times, reigns and persons are so disturbed in the That in the evening calm against the stones doth stories, that being insufficient to rectify the con With such a murinuring noise, as it would seem to trarieties, I leave you to the liberty of common hush report.

The silent meads asleep; but, void of all delight,

Remedilessly drown’d in sorrow day and might, (m) Frodoard. Presbyt. Annal. Franc. (n) Reicherspergens.

Nor Licky his ally and neighbour doth respect : (0) Oginia dicta P. Æmilio.

And therewith being charg'd, thus answereth in

effect : (p) Membran. vetust. Cænob. Floriacens. edit.

“ That Lickeyto bis height seem'd slowly but to a P. Pithæo.

rise,

[lies, And that in length and breadth he all extended

Nor doth like other bills to sudden sharpness POLY-OLBION.

mount, That of their kingly kind they scarce can him ac

count; Tho' by his swelling soil set in so high a place, That Malvern's mighty self he seemeth to outface."

Whilst Clent and Licky, thus, do buth express Her sundry strains the Muse to prove,

their pride,

(side, Now sings of bomely country love;

As Salwarpe slips along by Peck'nham's shady What moan th’ old hierdsınan Clent doth make, That forest him affects in wand'ring to the Wycha: For his coy wood-nymph Feckn'ham's sake; But he, himself by salts there seeking to enrich, And, how the nymphs each other greet, His Feck’nbam quite forgets; from all affection When Avon and brave Severn meet.

free.

(to be, The vale of Eusham then doth tell,

But she, that to the flood most constant means How far the vales do hills excell.

More prodigally gives her woods to those strong Ascending, next, fair Cotswold's plains,

fires

(much admires, She revels with the shepherd swains;

Which boil the source to salts. Which Clent so And sends the dainty nymphs away,

That love, and her disdain, to madness'him pro'Gainst Thame and Isis' wedding-day.

voke:

(tain spoke:

When to the wood-nymph thus the jealous mounAt length, attain'd those lands that south of Se Running by Stourbridge in Worcestershire, vern lie,

[apply, wards Severn. As to the varying earth the Muse doth ber : The salt fountain of Worcestershire.

THE FOURTEENTH SONG.

THE ARGUMENT.

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see.

".Fond nymph, thy twisted curls, on which were In sundry works and trails, now shallow, and then
all my care,

[bare
deep,

[to sweep Thou lett'st the furnace waste; that miserably Searching the spacious shores, as though it meant I hope to see thee left, which so dost me despise; Their sweets with it away, with which they are Whose beauties many a morn have blest my long replete.

(seat ing eyes :

And men, first building towns, themselves did wisely And, till the weary Sun sunk down unto the west, Still in the bounteous vale: whose burden'd pasture Thou still my object wast, thou once my only

bears best.

(pleasant springs, The most abundant swathe, whose glebe such good. The time shall quickly come, thy groves and

ly ears, Where to the mirthful merle the warbling mavis As to tie weighty sheaf with scythe or sickle cut, sings,

(to burn; When as his harden'd hand the labourer comes to The pa nful labourer's hand shall stock the roots,

put,

[wields: The branch and body spent, yet could not serve Sinks him in his own sweat, which it but hardly bis turn.

And on the corn strew'd lands, then in the stubble Which when, most wilful nymph, thy chance shall fields, be to see,

There feed the herds of neat, by them the flocks of Too late thou shalt repent thy small regard for

sheep, me."

[doth ply, Seeking the scatt'red corn upon the ridges steep : But Saltwarpe down from Wych his nimbler feet And in the furrow by (where Ceres lies much Great Severn to attend along to 'Tewksbury,

spill’d)

[ing fillid, With others to partake the joy that there is seen, Th’ unwieldy larding swine his maw then have When beauteous Avon comes unto her sovereign Lies wallowing in the mire, thence able scarce to queen.

[attend,
rise.

[despise Here down from Eusham's vale, their greatness to When as those monstrous hills so much that us Comes Swilliat sweeping in, which Cotswold down (The mountain, which forsooth the lowly valley doth send:

mocks) And Garran there arrives, the great recourse to Have nothing in the world upon their barren rocks,

[glee, But greedy clamb’ring goats, and conies, banish'd Where thus together met, with most delightful

quite The cheerful nymphs that haunt the valley rank From every fertile place as rascals, that delight and low

In base and barren plots, and at good earth repine. (Where full Pomona seems most plenteously to And though in winter we to moisture much incline, flow,

(pride) Yet those that be our own, and dwell upon our land, And with her fruitery swells by Pershore, in her When 'twixt their burly stacks and full-stuft barns Amongst the batful meads on Severn's either side, they stand, To these their confluent foods, full bowls of perry Into the softer clay as eas'ly they do sink, brought :

[fetch'd draught, Pluck up their heavy feet, with lighter spirits, to Where, to each other's health past many a deep

think

(toil, And many a sound carouse from friend to friend That autuma shall produce, to recompense their

A rich and goodly crop from that unpleasant soil. Thus whilst the mellowed earth with her own juice And from that en jous foe which secks us to dedoth tow,

prave,

[clearly have, Inflamed with excess the lusty pamper'd vale, Though much against his will this good we In praise of her great self, thus frames her glorious We still are highly prais'd, and honour'd by his tale;

[said, height, “I doubt not but some vale enough for us hath | For, who will us survey, their clear and judging To apswer them that most with baseness us up

sight

(ing'st eye, braid;

(utmost might, May see us thence at full: which else the searchThose bigh presumptuous hills, which bend their By reason that so flat and levelled we lie, l's only to deject, in their inveterate spite : Could never throughly view, ourselves nor could Put I would have them think, that I (which am

we show,

[owe, the queen

“Yet more; what lofty hills to humble vallies Of all the British vales, and so have ever been And what high grace they have which near to us Since Gomer's giant-brood inhabited this isle,

are placid,

(brau'd And that of all the rest, myself may so enstile)

In Breedon may be seen, being amorously emAgainst the bighest bill dare put myself for place,

In cincture of my arms. Who tho'he do not raunt That ever threat'ned Heaven with the austerest His head like those that look as they would Heaven face.

(they forth supplant : And for our praise, then thus : What fountain send Yet let them wisely note, in what excessive pride (That finds a river's name, though if the smallest He in my bosom sits; while him on every side worth)

With my delicious sweets and delicates I triin. But it invales itself, and on its either side

And when great Malvern looks most terrible and Doth make those fruitful meads, which with their grim, painted pride

He with a pleased brow continually doth smile.” Embroider his proud bank?, whilst in lascivious Here Breedon, having heard his praises all the gyres

while, He swiftly sallieth out, and suddenly retires

"A hill environed on every side with the sale of Severn.

Eushamn.

doth go.

owes.

Gtew insolently proud; and doth upon him take As thence upon her course she wantonly doth Such state, as he would but small account to

strain. make

Supposing then herself a sea-god by her train, Of Malvern, or of Mein. So that the wiser vale She Neptune-like doth fivat upon the bračky To his instruction turns the process of her tale.

marsh;

[and barsts, "T" avoid the greater's wrath, and shun the Where, lest she should become too cumbersome meaner's hate,"

Fair Micklewood (a nymph, long honour'd for å Quoth 'se, "take my advice, abandon idle state; chase,

(grace, And by that way I go, do thou thy course con Contending to have stood the high'st in Serern's trive:

(thrive. Of any of the Dryads there bord’ring on her shore) Give others leave to vaunt, and let us closely With her cool amorous shades, and all her syivad Whilst illy but for place the lofty mountaius toil,

store,

(powers, Let us have store of grain, and quantity of soil. To please the goodly flood employs her utmost To what end serve their tops (that seem to threat Supposing the proud nymph might like her woody the sky)

bowers.

(strong grew, But to be rent with storms? whilst we in safety lie. But Severn (on her way) so large and headTheir rocks but barren be, and thëg which rashly That she the wood-nymph scorns, and A vou doth climb,

[time.
pursue ;

[crown'd, Stand most in envy's sight, the fairest prey for A river with no less than goodly King's-wood And when the lowly vales are clad in summer's A forest and a flood by either's fame renown'd; green,

And each with other's pride and beauty much beThe grisled winter's snow upon their heads is seen.

witch'd ;

(rich'd. Of all the bills I know, let Mein thy pattern be: Besides, with Bristol's state both wond'rously enWho though his site be such as seems to equal thee, Which soon to Severo sent th' report of that fair And destitute of nought that Arden bim can yield,

road'

[load Nor of th' special grace of many a goodly field; (So burdened still with barks, as it would overNor of dear Clifford's seat (the place of bealth and Great Neptune with the weight) whose fame so sport)

far doth ring;

[ing, Wickmany a time hath been the Muses'qniet port; When as that mighty Aood, most bravely flourishYet brags not he of that, nor of himself esteeins Like Thetis' goodly self majestically glides; The more for his fair site ; but richer than he seems, l'pon her spacious breast tossing the surgeful tides, Clad in a gown of grass, so soft and wondrous warm, To have the river see the state to which she grows, As him the summer's heat, nor winter's cold can And how much to her queen the beauteous Aron

harm Of whom I well may say, as I may speak of thee; But, noble Muse, proceed immediately to tell From either of your tops, that who beholdeth me, How Eusham's fertile vale at first in liking fell Yo paradise may think a second he had found, With Cotswold, that great king of shepherds : If any like the first were ever on the ground.”

whose proud site

[delight, Her long and zealous speech thus Eusham doth When that fair vale first saw, so nourish'd her conclude:

That him she only lov'd : for wisely she behel! When straight the active Muse industriously pursu'd The beauties clean throughout that on his surface This noble country's praise, as matter still did rise. dwell'd : For Glo'ster in times past herself did highly prize, Of just and equal height two banks arising, which When in her pride of strength she nourish'd goodly Grew poor (as it should seem) to make some valley vines,

rich :

[height, 9. And oft her cares repress'd with her delicious wines. Betwixt them thrusting out an elbow of such But now, th’all-cheering Sun the colder soil de. As shrouds the lower soil; which shadowed from ceives, (southward leaves :

[day $. And us here towards the pole) still falling Shoots forth a little grove, that in the summer's So that the sullen Earth th' effect thereof doth Invites the focks, for shade that to the covert prove;

[move
stray.

(tale, According to their books, who hold that he doth A hill there holds his head, as though it told a From his first zenith's point; the cause we feel Or stooped to look down, or whisper with a vale; his want.

(plant Where little purling winds like wantons seem to But of ber vines depriv'd, now Glo'ster learns to dally,

[valley, The pear-tree every where: whose fruit she strains And skip from bank to bank, from valley trip tú for juice,

[duce Such sundry shapes of soil where nature doth deThat her purist perry is, which first she did pro

vise, From Wor’stershire, and there is common as the That she may rather seem fantastical, than wise.

(yields. To whom Sarum's plain gives place: tho'famous Which' naturally that soil in most abundance

for her flocks,

[locks, But the laborious Muse, which still new work Yet hardly doth she tithe our Coswold's wealthy assays,

[Severn plays Though Lemster bim exceed for fineness of her ore, Here sallieth through the slades, where beauteous Yet quite he puts her down for his abundant Until that river gets her Glo'ster's wished sight :

store. Where she her stream divides, that with the more A match so fit as he, contenting to her mind, delight

(ous proud : Few yales (as I suppose) like Eusham bapp'd to She might behold the town, of which she's wond'r. fiad: Then takes she in the Frome, then Cam, and next the Stroud,

: King's road.

the light,

fields;

hills,

Nor any other wold, like Cotswold ever sped, But eas'ly from her source as tsis gently dades;
So fair and rich a vale by fortuning to wed. Unto her present aid, down through the deeper
He hath the goodly wool, and she the wealthy slades,
grain :

(maintain. The nimbler-footed Churn, by Cisseter doth slide ; Through which they wisely seem their honsehold 10 And first at Grecklade gets pre-eminence to guide He hath pure wholesome air, and dainty crystal Queen Isis on ber way, ere she receive her train, springs.

Clear Coln, and lively Leech, so down from CotsTo those delights of his, she daily profit brings :

wold's plain

(support As to his large expense, she multiplies her At Leecblade linking hands, come likewise to heaps :

The mother of great Thames. When, seeing the Nor can his docks derour th' abundance that she resort,

[doth cast reaps ;

(grace. From Cotswold Windrush scours, and with herself As th' one with what it hath, the other strove to | The train to overtake, and therefore hjes her fast And now, that every thing may in the proper Through the Oxfordian fields; when (as the last place

(breed
of all

(fall, Most aptly be contriv'd, the sheep our wold doth Those foods, that into Thames out of our Cotswold (The simplest though it seem) shall our descrip. And farth’st unto the north) bright Enload forth tion need,

[doth speak :
doth bear.

[to hear And shepherd-like, the Muse thus of that kind or, though it had been long, at length she came No brown, nor sullied black the face or legs doth That Isis was to Thame in wedlock to be ty'd : streak,

And therefore she prepar'd t'attend upon the bride; Like those of Moreland, Cank, or of the Cambrian Expecting, at the feast

, past ordinary grace.

And being near of kin to that most springful That lightly laden are: bat Cotswold wisely Alls

place,

[flow, Her with the whitest kind : whose brows so woolly Where out of Blockley's banks so many fountains be,

That clean throughout his soil proud Cotswold canAs men in her fair sheep. no emptiness should see.

not show

[bills The staple deep and thick, through to the very The like: as though from far, his long and many grain,

There emptied all their veins, wherewith those Most strongly keepeth out the violentest rain :

founts he fills, A body long and large, the buttocks equal broad Which in the greatest drought so brimful still do As fit to undergo the full and weighty load.

float,

[throat, And of the fleecy face, the Aank doth nothing lack, Sent through the rifted rocks with such an open But every where is storld; the belly as the back. As though the cleves consum'd in humour; they The fair and goodly flock, the shepherd's only alone, pride,

So crystalline and cold, as hard'neth stick to stone. As white as winter's snow, when from the river's But' whilst this while we talk, the far divulged side

(ing-day,
fame

[name, He drives his new-wash'd sheep : or on the shear of this great bridal tower'd, in Phæbus mighty When as the lusty ram, with those rich spoils of Doth bid the Muse make haste, and to the brideMay

(so brave,
house speed;

(need. His crooked horns hath crown'd; the bell-wether Of her attendance there lest they should stand in As none in all the flock they like themselves would have.

(herd's king, But, Muse, return to tell how there the shepWhose flock bath chanc'd that year the earliest

ILLUSTRATIONS. lamb to bring,

SOMEWHAT returning now near the way you de: In his gay baldric sits at his low grassy board, With lawns, curds, clouted cream, and country scended from the northern parts, the Muse leads dainties stor'd :

[swain

you through that part of Worcestershire, which is And whilst the bag-pipe plays, each Justy, jocund viewing also Cotteswold, and so Gloucester. The

on this side Severn, and the neighbouring Stafford, And to their country girls, whose nosegays they fictions of this song are not so covert, nor the

allusions so difficult, but that I presume your do wear.

[bear. Some roundelays do sing : the rest, the burtben conceit, for the most part, willingly discharges my But Cotswold, be this spoke to th? only praise of thee,

[be, And of her cares represt with her delicious wines. That thou of all the rest the chosen soil should'st

In this tract of Gloucestershire (where to this Fair Isis to bring forth (the mother of great Thames) day many places are styled vineyards) was of With whose delicious brooks, by whose immortal ancient time, among other fruits of a fertile soil, streams

great store of vines, and more than in any other Her greatness is begun : so that our rivers' king,

place of the kingdom. Now in many parts of this When he his long descent shall from bis bel-sires realm we have some : but what comes of them in bring,

[by thee,

the press is scarce worth respect. Long since, the Must needs (great pastures' prince!) derive his stem From kingly Cotswold's self, sprung of the third emperor Probus (a), Et Gallis omnibus & Hispanis

ac Britannis permisit ut vites haberent vinüinque degree:

[of yore, conficerent. But Tacitus (), before that, speakAs th' old world's heroes wont, that in the times On Neptune, Jore, and Mars, themselves so highly (a) Flav. Vopiscus in ejusd. vità. bore.

(6) In Jul. Agricola. YOL. IV.

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ing of this island, commends it with Solum præter / year, abridged into near his half by Copernicu, oleam vitémque & cætera callidioribus terris oriri those consequents foretold upon the change of sueta, patiens frugum, fecundum. Long since eccentrics (g) out of one sign into another, the Probuis, England had its vineyards also and some equinoctial precession, and such like; as others store of wine, as appears by that in Domnesday, may their conversion of a planet's state into forl'nus & parcus & Vl. arpenni vineæ (that is, tunate, opprest, or combust, by measuring or between five and six acres; arpent in French sig- missing their 16 scruples of Cazimi, their orbes nifying a content of ground of a hundr d rods moities, and such curiosities. Neither can you square, every rod eighteen foot) & reddit XX. salve the effect of this declination, by the Sun's modius vini, si benè procedit, being recorded (c) much nearer approach to the Earth, upon that of a place by Raleigh, in Essex. This was under decrease of his eccentricity which Copernicus and Willian I. and since him in time of Henry I. his followers have published. For, admitting that much wine was made here in Gloucestershire (d) were true, yet judicial astrology relies more upon That now the isle enjoys not frequency of this bene aspect and beams falling on us with angles (which fit, as in old time, whether it be through the soil's are much altered by this change of obliquity in old age, and so like a woman growing sterile (as in the zodiac) than distance of every singular stat another kind Tremellius (c) many hundred years from the Earth. But indeed, upon mistaking the since thought) or by reason of the Earth's change poles' altitude, and other erruur in fobservation, of place, as upon Jifference in astronomical ob- Copernicus (h) was deceived, and in this present berrations Stadius guess'd, or that some part of age the Sun's eccentricity (in Ptolemy, being the singular intluence, «bercon astrology hangs inost, 24th of the eccentric's semidiameter, divided of inferior qualities, is altered by that slow course into 60) hath been found (i) between the 27 and (yet of great power iri alteration of fleaven's sys 28 P. which is far greater than that in Copernicus, tem) of the eighth sphere (or precession of the erroneously making it but near the 31. But this is a quinoctial) or by reason of industry wanting in too heavenly a language for the common reader; the husbandman, I leave it to others' examina and perhaps too late I leave it. tion).

(g) Cardan. ad 2. Tetrabibl. & de Varietat. - still falling southward leares.

Rer. 2. qui prophanè nimium, à motibus octava He alludes to the difference of the zodiac's ob- sphæræ, jis scilicet, qnos circa ciɔ D ccc. contrario liquity froin what it was of old. For, in Ptolemy's velut feri modo supponit sacrosanctæ religionis time, about 1460 years since the utmost declina- mutationem ineptè simul & impiè prædixit, & bution of the Sun in the first of Cancer (where she jus generis sexcenta. is nearest to our vertical point) was 23 gr. (h) Cui, hoc nomine, gravitér minitatus est and about 52 minut. Since that Albategni Jul. Scalig. exercitat. 90. sect. 2. (about Charleınain's time) observed it some (i) 'Tycho Brahe in Progymnasmo. 15 scruples less : after him near 1000 year of Christ) Arzachel found it 23 gr. 34 scr. and in this later age John of Coningsbury, and Copernicus (), brought it to 23 gr. 28 scrup.

POLY-OLBIO N. which concords also with the Prutenic accouni, and as many as thence traduce their ephemerides. So that (by this calculation) about 4+ minutes the Sun coines not so near our zenith, as it did in Plolemy's time. But in truth (for in thear things I account that truth, which is warranted by most The guests here to the bride-house bie. accurate obsorvation; and those learned mathe The goodly vale of Aylsbury maticiaus, by admitting of parallax and refrac Sets her son (Thame) forth, brave as May, tions, deceived themselves and posterity) the de I'pon the joyful wedding day : clination in this age is 23 gr. 31 scrip. and į Who, deck'd up, tow'rds his bride is gone. as that noble Dane, and most honoured restorer So lovely Isis coning on, of astronornical motions, Tycho Brahe, hath At Oxford all the Muses meet her, tanght us : which, although it be greater than And with a prothalamion greet ber. that of Copernicus and his followers; yet is much The nymphs are in the bridal bow'rs. less than what is in Ptolemy, and by two scruples Some strowing sweets, some sorting flow'rs : different from Arzachel's, so justifying the author's Where lusty Charwel bimself raises, conceit, supposing the cause of our climate's not And sings of rivers, and their praises. now producing wines, to be the Sun's declination Theu Thames his way tow'rd Windsor tends. from us, which for every scruple answers in Earth, Thus, with the song, the marriage ends. about one of our miles ; but a far more large distance in the celestial globe. I can as well maintain this high fetched cause, being upon difference of Now fame had through this isle divulg'd in every so few minutes in one of the slowest motions (and ne see that greatest effects are always attributed The loug expected day of marriage to be near, to thein, as upon the old conceit of the Platonic That Isis, Cotswold's heir, long woo'd, was lastly

won,

(tern's

son. (c) Cambd. in Trinobanti Sus.

And instantly should wed with Thame', old Chile (d) Malmorb. de Pontificum gestis 4. (r) Ap. Colunell. de re Rustic. 2. cap. 1.

Thame arises in the vale of Ayłsbury, at the (1) Cupernic. Re. 3. cap. 3.

foot of the Chiltern

TUE FIFTEENTH SONC.

THE ARGUMENT.

ear,

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