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When once their sevenfold rule the Saxons came So many goodly shires of Mersey, Mercia height) to rear,

Their mightier empire, there, the middle English And yet with half this isle sufficed scarcely were,


(not end : Though from the inland part the Britons they bad Which farthest though it raught, yet there it did chasid,

(plac'd. But Offa, kjug thereof, it after did extend Then understand how here themselves the Sasons Beyond the bank of Dee; and by a ditch he cut Where in great Britain's state four people of her Through Wales from north to south, into wide

Mercia put

[there, Were by the several names of their abodes well Well near the half thereof, and from three peoples (As, in that horn which juts into the sea so far, To whom three special parts divided justly were Wherein our Devonshire and farthest Cornwall (The Ordovices, now which North-Wales people are,

be, The old Danmonii dwelt: so hard again at hand, From Cheshire which of old divided was by Dee: The Durotriges sat on the Dorsetian sand :

And from our Marchers now, that were Demetæ. And where from sea to sea the Belgæ forth were


[men) let,

[Somerset, And those Silures call'd, by us the South-Wales Even from Southampton's shore, through Wilt and Beyond the Severn, much the English Offa took, The Atrebates in Bark unto the bank of Thames, To shut the Britons up within a little nook. Betwixt the Celtic sleeve and the Sabrinian streams) (From whence, by Mersey's banks, the rest a kingThe Saxons there set down one kingdom: which

dom made :

(sway'd ; install’d,

(call'd, Where in the Britons' rule (before) the Brigants And being west, they it their 8 western kingdom The powerful English there establish'd were to So eastward where by Thames the Trinobants were


[Northuinberland; set,

[debt, Which, north from Humber set, they terin'd To Trinovant their town, for that their name in Two kingdoms which had been with several thrones That London now we term, the Saxons did possess, enstall'd : And their east kingdom call'd, as Essex' doth ex Bernitia hight the one; Diera th' other call'd. press;

[rear; The first from Humber stretch'd unto the bank of The greatest part thereof, and still their name doth Tine : Though Middlesex therein, and part of Hartford Which river and the Frith the other did confine. were ;

Diera beareth through the spacious Yorkish bounds, From Coln upon the west, upon the east to Stour*, | From Durham down along to the Lancastrian Where mighty Thames himself doth into Neptune

sounds 10 pour.

[lean, With Mersey and clear Tine continuiog to their As to our farthest rise, where forth those fore-lands fall, Which bear their chalky brows into the German To England-ward within the Picts' renowned wall, main,

And did the greater part of Cumberland" contain: The Angles, which arose out of the Saxon race, With whom the Britons' name for ever shall reAllured with delights and fitness of that place,

main ;

[long, Where the Iceni liv'd did set their kingdom down, Who there amongst the rocks and mountains lived Fruin where the wallowing seas those queachy When they Loëgria left, enforc'd through powerful washes drown

Bernitia over Tine into Albania lay, (wrong. That Ely do inisle, to martyrd Edmond's ditch, To where the Frith 12 falls out into the German Till those Norfolcian shores vast Neptune doth enrich :

This said, the aged street sagg'd sarlly on alone: Which (fartbest to the east of this divided isle) And Ver upon his course, now hasted to be gone Th' East-Angles' kingdom, then, those English did T' accompany bis Coln: which as she gently glides, instile.

(mouth, Doth kindly him embrace: whom soon this hap “ And Sussex seemeth still, as with an open

betides; Those Saxons' rule to show, that of the utmost As Colo come on along, and chanc'd to cast her eye sonth

Upon that neighbouring hill where Harrow stands The name to them assum'd, who rigorously expellid so high,

(of wheat, The Kentish Britons thence, and those rough wood- She Peryvale" perceir'd prank'd up with wreaths lands held

[doth sweep,

And with exulting terms thus glorying in her seat; From where the goodly Thames the Surryan grounds Why should not I be coy, and of my beauties Until the smiling downs salute the Celtie deep.


[price? “ Where the Dobuni dwelt, their neighbouring Since this my goodly grain is held of greatest Cateuchlani,

No manchet can so well the courtly palate please, Cornavii more remote, and where the Coritani, As that made of the meal fetch'd from my fertile Where Dee and Mersey shoot into the Irish sea;

leaze. (Which well-near o'er this part, now called Their finest of that kind, compared with my wheat, England, lay,

(plain, for whiteness of the bread doth look like cownion From Severn to the ditch that cuts New-market

cheat. Aod from the banks of Thames to Humber, which contain

10 Sea-depths near the shores.

" The Cyanbries' land, . For a more plain division of the English king A river running by Edenborough into the doms see to the XI. song. 9 So call'd, of the East-Saxons.

!! Peryvale, or Pure-vale, yieldeth the finest * A river upon the confines of Suffolk and Essex. / meal of England,


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What barley is there found, whose fair and bearded | But I, distressed Lee, whose course doth plainly tell,

(beer? That wbat of Colu is said, of me none could refell, Makes stouter English ale or stronger English Whom Alfred "s but too wise (poor river!) I may The oat, the bean, and pease, with me but pulses

say, are ;

(and tare. (When he the cruel Danes did cunningly betray, The coarse and browner rye, no more than fitch Which Hartford then besieg'd, whose navy there What seed doth any soil in England bring, that I

abode, Beyond her most increase yet cannot multiply? And on my spacious breast before the castle rode). Besides, my sure abode next goodly London is, By 'vantage of my soil, he did divide my stream; To veat my fruitful store, that me doth never miss. That they might ne'er return to Neptune's wat'ry And those poor baser things, they cannot put away, realm. Howe'er i set my price, ne'er on my chapmen And since, distressed Lee, I have been left forlorn, stay.

A by-word to each brook, and to the world a scorn." When presently the hill that maketh her a vale, When Sturt, a nymph of her's, (whose faith she With things he had in hand did interrupt her tale, oft had prov'd, With Hampstead being fall'o and High-gate at And whom, of all her train, Lee most entirely lov'd) debate;

[state, Lest so excessive grief her mistress might invade, As one before them both that would advance his Tinus (by fair gentle speech) to patience doth per. From either for his height to bear away the praise, suade :

[fore, Besides that he alone rich Peryvale surveys.

Though you be not so great to others as beBut Hampstead pleads, himself in simples to have yet not a jot for that dislike yourself the more. · skill,

Your case is not alone, nor is (at all) so strange ; And therefore by desert to be the noblest bill; Sith every thing on Earth subjects itself to change. As one, that on his worth and knowledge doth rely Where rivers sometiine ran, is firm and certain la learned physic's usı, and skilful surgery ;


(are found. And challengetdi, from them, the worthiest place And where before were hills, now standing lakes her own,

[known. And that which most you urge, your beauty to Since that old Watling once, o'er him to pass was

despoil, Then High-gate boasts his way, which men do Doth recompense your bank with quantity of soil, most frequent;

[scent; | Beset with ranks of swans; that, in their wonted His long-continued fame, his high and great de


(side, Appointed for a gate of London to have been, Do prune their snowy plumes upon your pleasant When first the mighty Brute that city did begin. And Walthain wooes you still, and smiles with wontAnd that he is the hill, next Endfield which hath ed cheer:

[dear." place,

And Thames as at the first, so still doth hold you A forest for her pride, though titled but a chase. To much-beloved Lee, this scarcely Sturt had Her purlieus, and her parks, her circuit full as spoke,

(broke; large,

[charge. But goodly London's sight their farther purpose As some (perhaps) whose state requires a greater When Thames his either banks adorn'd with buildWhose holts 24 that view the east, do wistly stand ings fair, to look

The city to salute doth bij the Muse prepare ; Upon the winding course of Lee's delightful brook. Whose turrets, fanes, and spires, when wistly she Where Mimer coming in, invites her sister Bean,

beholds, Amongst the chalky banks t' increase their mis Her wonder at the site thus strangely she unfolds: tress' train;

At thy great builder's wit, who's he but wonder Whom by the dainty hand obsequiously they lead (By Hartford gliding on, through many a pleasant Nay, of his wisdom thus ensuing times shall say: mead.

O more than mortal mao, that did this town begin! And coming in her course to cross the common fare, Whose knowledge found the plot, so fit to set it in. For kindness she doth kiss that hospitable Ware.) What goul, or heavenly power, was harbour'd in Yet scarcely comfort Lee (alas!) so woe begun,

ihy breast,

[be blest? Complaining in her course, thus to herself alone; From whom with such success thy labours should “ How should my beauty now give Waltham such Built on a rising bank, within a vale to stand, delight,

And for thy healthful soil, chose gravel mix'd with Or 1, poor silly brook, take pleasure in her sight? sand.

(casts, Antiquity (for that it stands so far from view, And where fair Thames his course into a crescent And would her doating dreams should be believ'd (That, forced by his tides, as still by her he hastes, for true)

He might his surging waves into her bosom send) Dare loudly lie for Coln, that sometimes ships did Because too far in length his town should not ex. pass, (was; tend."

(reach, To Ver’lam by her stream, when Ver'lam famous " And to the north and south, upon an equal But, by the later times, suspected but to feign, Two bills their even banks do somewhat seem to She planks and anchors shows, her errour to main

stretch, tain;

[to row Those two extremer winds from hurting it to let ; Which were, indeed, of boats, for pleasure there And only level lies upon the rise and set. Upon her, (then a lake) the Roman pomp to show, Of all this goodiy isle, where breathes most cheer. When Rome her forces here did every year supply, ful air,

(fair ; And at old Ver'lam kept a warlike colony. And every way thereto the ways most smooth and. High woody banks.

See to the 12th song,

may ?

As in the fittest place by man that could be thought, , this a municipal city (5), called expressly, in To which, by land or sea, provision might be catalogue at the end of Nennius, Caer-Municip. brought.

(mands, Out of Agelijus 11 I thus note to you its nature : And such a road for ships scarce all the world com Municipes sunt cives Romani ex municipiis suo As is the goodly Thames, near where Brute's city jure & legibus suis utentes, muneris tantum cum stands.

pop. Rom. honorarii participes, a quo munere Nor any haven lies to which is more resort, capessendo appeilati videntur ; nullis aliis ne. Commodities to bring, as also to transport: cessitatibus neque uila pop. Rom. lege astricti, Our kingdom that enrich'd (through which we quuin nunquam pop. Rom. eorum fundus factus flourish'd long)

esset It ditlered from a colony, most of all in that Fre idle gentry up in such abundance sprung, a colony was a progeny of the city, and this of such Now pest'ring all this isle: whose disproportion as were received into state-lavour and friendship draws

by the Roman), Per onating the genius of Ver'lam, The public wealth so dry, and only is the cause that ever-famous Spenser (c) sung: Our gold goes out so fast, for foolish foreign things,

I was that city, which the garland wore Which upstart gentry still into our country brings;

Of Britain's pride, delivered unto me Who their insatiate pride seek chiefly to inaintain

By Roman victors, which it won of yore; By that, which only serves to vises vile and vaiu :

Though yought at all but ruins now I be, Which our plain fathers erst would have accounted

And lie in mine own ashes, as ye see: sin,

Ver'lam I was; what boots it that I was, Before the costly coach, and silken stock came in;

Sith now I am but weeds and wasteful grass ? Before that Indian weeds so strongly was embrac'd, Wherein such mighty sums we prodigally waste ; As under the Romans, so in the Saxon times That merchants, long train'd up in gain's deceitful afterward, it endured a second ruin ; and, out of school,

[fool, its corruption, after the abbey erected by king And subtly having learn'd to soothe thc humorous Ofta, was generated that of St. Alban's ; whither, in Present their painted toys unto this frantic gull, later times (d), most of the stone-works, and what. Disparaging onr tin, our leather, corn and wool; soever fit for building, was by the abbots translated. When foreigners, with ours, them warmly clothe

So that, and feed,


-Xow remains no memory,
Transporting trash to us, of which we ne'er had
But whilst the angry Muse thus on the tinie ex-

Nor any little inonument to see,

By which the traveller that fares that way. Sith every thing therein consisteth in extremes;

" This once was she," may warned be to say (). Lest she, enforc'd with wrongs, her limits should The name hath been thonght, from the river transcend,

there rmuing called Ver, and Humphrey Lhail() Here of this present song she briefly makes an end. makes it, as if it were Ver-Ihan, i. e. a church 16 Tobacco

Thou saw'st great burden'd ships through these

thy valli.- pass.

Lay not here unlikelihoods to the author's ILLUSTRATIONS.

charge; he tells you more judiciously towards

the end of the song. But the cause why some In wandering passage the Muse returns from the bare thought so is, for that, Gildas (8), speaking wedding, somewhat into the land, and first to of St. Albau's inartyrdom, and his miraculous Hartford; whence, after matter of description, to passing through the river at Verlamcestre, calls London.

it iter ignotum trans Thamesis fiuvii alveum : so Thou saw'st when Ver'lam once her head aloft did by collection they guessed that Thames had then

his full course this way, being thereto fart ber bear.

mored by anchors and such like here digged up. For, under Nero, the Britons, intolerably loaden This conjecture hath been followed by that noble with weight of the Roman government, and espe. Muse (h) thus in the person of Verlam : pecially the Icens, (now Norfolk avd Suffolk men) provoked by that cruel servitude, into which not And where the crystal Thamis wont to slide themselves only, but the wife also and posterity

In silver channel down along the Lee, of their king Prasutagns were, even be yond right About whose flow'ry banks, on either side, of victory, constrained, at length breathing for A thousand nymplis, with mirthful jollity, liberty, (and in a farther continualice of war, hav Were wont to play from all annoyance free: ing for their general R. Boudicea, Bupduica, or

There now po river's course is to be seen, as the difference of her name is) rebelled against

But inoorish fens, and marshes ever green, their foreign conqueror,

and in martial opposition committing a slaughter of no less than 80,000, (b) Municipiom Tacit. Annal. 14. (as Dio bath, although Tacitus miss 10,000 of Il Noct. Antic. 16. cap. 13. this number) ransacked and spoiled Maldon. (then (c) In his Ruins of Time. Camaloduvnm) and also this Verulam, near St. (d) Leland. ad Cyg. Cant. Alban's) which were the two chief towns of the (e) Spens, ubi supra. isle (a); the first a colony, (whereof the 8th song) (f) In Brev. Brit.

(g) In Epist. de Excid. Britan, (a) Saet. lib. 6. cap. 39.

(h) Spenser.

upon Ver.

There also where the winged ships were seen, of the statute (as I hare seen in a fair MS. ex. In liquid waves to cut their foamy way; amined by the exemplitication, for the record it. A thousand fishers number'd to have been

self is with many other lost) hal not those words, In that wide lake looking for plenteous prey as the register (1) also specially admonishes, nor Of fish, with balts which they usd to betray, is any part of that chapter in soinc MSS, which I Is now no lake, nor any tisher's store,

marvel at, seeing we have a formal writ grounded Nor ever ship shall sail there any more.

upon it.

Not much amiss were it here to ituemBut, for this matter of the Thaines, those two

ber a worse fault, but continually received, in the grand antiquaries, Leland and Caunden; bave Nullus forestarius, &c. aliquam collectam faciat

charter of the forest, article VIl. where you read joined in judgment against it: and for the an

pisi chors, they may be supposed of fish-boats in large quando faciunt regarlun. Tot forestarii, &c.

per visum & sacramentuin XII. regardatorum pools, which have nere been ; and yet are left

the truth of the best copies (and so was the rerelics of their name.

cord) being in this digestion : Nullus forestarius, Since vs bis kingly ways Molmutius first began. &c. aliquam collectam faciat. Et per visum

Near 500 years before our Saviour, this hing sacramentum XII. regardatoruin, quando faciunt Moliutius (take it upon credit of the British regarlum, tot forestarii pouantur, &c. as, beside story) constituted divers laws; especially that authentic MSS. it is expressly in the like charter, churches, ploughs, and highways, should have almost word for word, given first by king John, liberties of sanctuary, by no authority violable. and printed in Matthew Paris ; 'twixt which, and That churches should be free, and enjoy liberty that of ours commonly read, he may be made a for refuge, consenting allowance of most nations time-deserving comparison. Were it not for dia have tolerated, and in this kingdom (it being gression, I would speak of the senseless making affirmed also by constitution of king Lucius (i), a of Boniface, archbishop of Canterbury, witness Christian) every church-yard was a sanctuary, until to the grand charter in 9th Henry Ill. when as by act of parliament (1) under Henry vil that it is plain that he was not bishop until the 25th. licence, for protection of offences, being too much The best copy that ever I saw had Simon, archabuzed, was taken away ; but, whether now re. bishop of Canterbury ; which indeed was worse, stored in the last parliament (!), wherein all there being no such prelate of that see in those statutes concerning abjuration or sanctuary made times; but the mistake was by the trauscriber's before 35th Elizabeth are repealed, I examine not. turning the single S. (according to the form of The plough and husbandmen have by our sta- writing in that age) into Smon for Stephen, tutes (m), and so especially by civil (n) and Per- who was (Stephen of langton) archbishop at sian law (o), great freedoms. Highways being, that tiine. But I forget myself in following without excepljon, necessary, as well for peace as matter of my more particular study, and rewar, have been defended in the Ronia » laus (P), turn to Molmutius. His con-titution being geand are taken in ours, to be in that respect (as neral for liberty of high ways, controversy grew they are by implication of the name) the king's about the course and liinits of thein; whereupon highways, and res sacræ (9): & qui aliquid inde his son, king Belin, to quit the subject of that occupaverit excedendo fines & terminos terræ doubt, caused more especially these four, here suæ, dicitur freisse purpresturam super ipsum presently spoken of, to be made, which might be regem. According to this privilege of Molmutius for interrupted passage, both in war and peace; in the statute of Marlbridge (r) it is enacted, that and hence by the author they are called military, none should distrain in the king's highway, or the (a naine given by the Romans to such highways common street, but the king and his ministers, as were for their marching armies) and indeed by specialem authoritatem ad hoc habentibus; which more polite conceit (u) and juclicious authority, I particularly transcribe, because the printed these our ways have been thought a work of the hooks are therein so generally corrupted by addi- Romans also. But their courses are diffe. tion of this here cited in Latin : you see it alters rently reported, and in some part their names the law much, and we have divers judgments, also. The author calls them Warling-street, the that in behalf of the king by common bailiffs, Fosse, Ikinill, and Rickeneld. This name of without special authority, distress may be taken (), Rickeneld is in Randall of Chester, and by him as for an amerciament in the sheriff's torn or leet, derived from Saint Dewy's in Pembroke into or for parliament knights' fees. But the old rolls Hereford, and so through Worcester, Warwick,

Derby, anil York shires to Tinmouth, which (up(1) Florilegus. (k) 22 Hen. 8. cap. 14. on the author's credit reporting it to me) is also (1) Jacob. Sess. 1. c. 25.

justifiable by a very ancient deed of lands, bound(m) Westm. 2. c. 20 & 21 Ed. 1. District. ell near Biriningham, in Warwickshire, by RickScaccarii.

eneld. To endeavour certainty in them, were (n) C. Quæ res pignori oblig. l. 7. Executores but to obtrude umwarrantable conjecture, and & alibi.

abuse time and you. Of Watling (who is here (0) Xenoph. Cyroped. s.

personated, and so much the more proper, be(P) ff. de via public.

cause Verlam was called also by the English (9) Bract. lib. 4. tract. Assis. Nov. diss. c. 16. (r) Watling-chester) it is said that it went from $.8.

Dover, in Kent, and so by west of London (yet (r) 52 Hen. 3, cap. 16. & V. Art. Cler. cap. 9. Statutum Marlbridge sibi restitutun.

(?) Original. fol. 97. b. Charta de Foresta ad (s) 34 Ed. 1. Avoury 232. 8. Rich. 2. ibid. 194. MS, emendat. 11 Hen. 4. fol. 1. 19. Ed. 2. Avoury, 221. & 225. (u) V. Camden Roman. alibi,

(7) Lhuid. Breviar. Brit.

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part of the name seems to this day left in the That of so great descent, and of so large a dover, middle of the city) to this place, and thence in a Might well ally their house, and much increase his crooked line through Shropshire by Wrekin bild power ; into Cerdigan (y); but others (2) say from Verlam And striving to prefer their son, the best they may, to Chester ; and where all is referred to Belin by Set forth the lusty food in rich and brave array, Geffrey ap Arthur, and Polychronicon, another (a) Bank'd with embroider'd meads, of sundry sutes of tells you that the sons of (I know not what) king flowers,

(showers: Wethle made, and denominated it. The Fosse is His breast adorn'd with swans, oft Rashid with silver derived, by one consent out of Cornwall into De- A train of gallant foods, at such a costly rate vonshire, through Somerset, over Coteswold by As might beseein their care, and fitting his estate. Tewkesbury, along near Coventry, to Leicester, Attended and attir'd magnificently thus, through Lincoln to Berwick, and thence to Caith. They send him to the court of great Oceanus, ness, the utmost of Scotland. Of restitution of The world's huge wealth to see; yet with a full in, the other you may be desperate; Rickeneld I have tent,

(went. told you of ; in Henry of Huntingdon no such To woo the lovely nymph, fair Medway, as he name is found, but with the first two, Ickenild Who to bis dame and si re his duty scarce had done, and Erming-street. Ickenild, saith be, goes from And whilst they sadly wept at parting of their son, east to west: Erming-street, from south to north: See what the Thames Lefel, when 'twas suspected another tells me, that Erming-street begins at St.

least. Dewy's, and conveys itself to Southampton ; which As still his goodly train yet every hour inereas'd, the author hath attributed to Ichning, begun upon And from the Surrian shores clear Wey came down the word's community with Iceps) in the eastern

to meet

(greet, parts. It is not in my power to reconcile all His greatness, whom the Thames so graciously doth these, or elect the best; I only add, that Erming- That with the fero-crown'd flood' he minion-like street, which, being of English idiom, seems to doth play: have had its name from Irmunsull in that signifi. Yet is not this the brook, enticeth him to stay. cation, whereby it interprets (6) an universal pillar But as they thus, in pomp, came sporting on the worshipped for Mercury, president of ways, is like shoal,

[Mole. enough (if Huntingdon be in the right, making it Gainst Hampton-court he meets the soft and gentle from south to north) to have left its part in Stan- Whose eyes so pierc'd his breast, that seeming to street, in Surrey, where a way made with stones foreslow and gravel, in a soil on both sides very different, The way which he so long intended was to go, continues near a mile; and thence towards the With trifling up and down, he wand'reth here and eastern shore, in Sussex, are some places seening

there; as other relics of it. But I bere determine no- And that he in her sight transparent might appear, thing.

Applies bimself to fords, and setteth his delight

On that which most might make bim gracious in (y) Polychron. lib. 1. cap. de Plat. reg.

her sight,

(bed, (2) Henric. Huntingd. hist. 1.

Then Isis and the Thame from their conjoined (a) Roger. Hoveden, part 1. fol. 248.

Desirous still to learn how Thames their son had (b) Adam. Breinens. hist. Eccles. cap. 5. and sped

(spent, see to the 3d song.

(For greatly they had hop'd, his time bad so been
That he ere this had won the goodly heir of

And sending to inquire, had news return'd again

(By such as they employ'd, on purpose in his POLY-OLBION.


How this their only heir, the isie's imperial food,
Had loiter'd thus in love, neglectful of his good.
No masrail (at the news) though Ouse 2 and

Thame were sad,
To Medway, Thames a suitor goes;

More comfort of their son expecting to have bad. But fancies Mole, as forth be flows.

Nor blame them, in their looks much sorrow Her mother, Homesdale, holds her in :

though they show'd : She digs through earth, the Tbaines to rin.

Who fearing lest he might thus meanly be bestow'd, Great Thames, as king of rivers, sings

And knowing danger still increased by delay, The catalogue of th’ English kings.

Einploy their utınost power to hasten him away. 'Thence light the Muse, to th’southward soars, But Thames would hardly on: oft turning back, to The Surrian and Sussexjan shores;

show The forests and the downs surveys,

From his mouch-lovedl Mole how loth he was to go. With rillets running to those seas ;

The mother of the Mole, old Homesdale !, likeThis song of hers then cutteth short,

wise bears For things to come, of much import.

Th' affection of ber child, as as they do theirs : Who nobly though deriv'd, yet could have been content

(descent, At length it came to pass, that Isis and her Thame T' have match'd her with a flood of far more mean Of Medway understood, a nymph of wondrous fame;

(should prove

Coming by Pernham, so called of fern there And much desirous were, their princely Thames growing. If (as a wooer) he could win her maiden-love; 2 Isis. ' A very woody vale in Suriy.



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