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Of all the English shires be thou sumam'd the that Rother then fell into the ocean about Hith; free,
[reck’ned be. | where (as the relics of the name in Lime, and the And foremost ever plac'd, when they shall distance from Canterbury in Antoninus, making And let this town, which chief of thy rich country is, | Portus Lemanis(a), which is misprinted in Surata's Of all the British sees be still metropolis.” [hie, edition, Pontem Lemanis, sixteen miles off) it
Which having said, the Stour to Tenet him doth seems Limen, then also, there was it discharged Her in his loving arms embracing by and by, out of the land. But for the author's words read Into the mouth of Thames one arm that forth doth this; Equestris Paganorum exercitus cum suis The other thrusting out into the Celtic sea. [lay, equis CCL navibus Cantiam transvectus in Ostio g. Griin Goodwin all this while seems grievously to Amnis Limen qui de sylva magna Andred nomilower,
nata decurrit, applicuit, à cujus ostio IIII. Nor cares he of a straw for Tenet, nor her Stour; milliariis in eandem sylvam naves suas sursum Still bearing in his mind a mortal hate to France traxit, ubi quandam arcem semistructam, quam Since mighty Albion's fall by war's uncertain pauci inhabitabant villani, diruerunt, aliamque chance,
[is had, sibi firmiorem in loco qui dicitur Apultrea conWho, since his wish'd revenge not all this while struxerunt, which are the syllables of Florence of 'Twixt very grief and rage is fall’n extremely mad; Worcester; and with him in substance fully That when the rolling tide doth stir him with her agrees Matthew of Westminster; nor can I think waves,
[raves, but that they imagined Rye (where now Rother Straight foaming at the mouth, impatiently he hath its mouth) to be this port of Limen, as the And strives to swallow up the sea-marks in his Muse here; if you respect her direct terms. deep,
(keep. Henry of Huntingdon names no river at all, but That warn the wand'ring ships out of his jaws to lands them ad portum Limene cum 250 navibus
The surgeons of the sea do all their skill apply, qui portus est in Orientali parte Cnet juxta If possibly, to cure his grievous malady:
magnum nemus Andredslaige. How Rother's As Amphitrite's nymphs their very utmost prove, mouth can be properly said in the east (but rather By all the means they could, his madness to re in the south part) of Kent, I conceive not, and move.
[do bring, am of the adverse part, thinking clearly that From Greenwich to these sands, some scurvy-grass Hith must be Portus Lemanis, which is that coast, That inwardly apply'd's a wondrous sovereign as also learned Cainden teaches, whose authority thing.
(blood; cited out of Huntingdon, being near the same time From Shepey, sea-moss some, to cool his boiling with Florence, might be perhaps thought but as of Some, his ill-season'd mouth that wisely under-equal credit; therefore I call another witness (that stood,
(to excite lived (b) not much past L. years after his arrival) Rob Dover's neighbouring cleeves of sampyre, in these words: In Limneo portu constituunt His dull and sickly taste, and stir up appetite. puppes, Apoldre (so I read, for the print is corNow, Shepey, when she found she could no far- rupted) loco condicto Orientali Cantiæ parte, ther wade
destruúntque ibi prisco opere castrum propter After her mighty sire, betakes her to his trade, quod rustica manus exigua quippe intrinsecus With sheep-hook in her hand, her goodly flocks erat, illicque hiberna castra confirmant. Out of to heed,
(breed. which you note both that no river, but a port only, And cherisheth the kind of those choice Kentish is spoken of, and that the ships were left in the Of villages she holds as husbandly a port, shore at the haven, and thence the Danes conveyed As any British isle that neighboureth Neptune's their companies to Appledore. The words of this court.
[love Ethelwerd I respect much more than the later But Greane, as much as she her father that did stories, and I would advise my reader to incline so (And, then the inner land, no farther could remove)
What time I think in Hell that instrument devised. In such continual grief for Albion doth abide,
He means a gun; wherewith that most noble That almost under food she weepeth every tide.
and right martial Thomas Montague, earl of Salisbury, at the siege of Orleans, in the time of
Henry VI. was slain. The first inventor of them ILLUSTRATIONS.
(I guess you dislike not the addition) was one Out of Sussex, into its eastern neighbour, Kent, Berthold Swartz (c), (others say Constantius this canto leads you. It begins with Rother, wbuse Anklitzen, a Dutch monk and chymist) who running through the woods, inisling Oxney, and having in a mortar, sulphurous powder for medisuch like, poetically bere described, is plain enough cine, cover ! with a stone, a spark of fire by to any apprehending conceit; and upon Medway's chance falling into it, fired it, and the flame resong of our martial and heroic spirits, because a
moved the stone; which he observing, made large volume might be written to explain their
use afterwards of the like in little pipes of iron, glory in part lar action, and in less compre- and showed the use to the Venetians in their war hension, without wrong to many worthies it is not with the Genoese at Chioggia, about 1380. Thus performable, I have omitted all illustration of that is the common assertion : but I see as good kind, and left you to the Muse herself.
authority (d) that it was used above twenty years That Limen then was named.
(a) Lemanis in notit. utr. provinc. So the author conjectures; that Rother's mouth (6) Ethelwerd. lib. 4. cap. 4. was the place called Limen, at which the Danes (c) V. Polyd. de Invent. rer. 2. cap.3. & Salmath. io the time of king Alfred made irruption; which ad G. Panciroll. 2. tit. 18. he must (I think) maintain by adding likelihood, (d) Achilles Gassar, ap. Munst. Cosmog. 3, VOL. IV.
before in the Danish sèas. will not dispute the might with the same subdne Kent also , wherefore conveniency of it in the world, compare it with Stigand, archbishop, and Egelsin, abbot, as the Salmoneus's imitation of thunder, Archimedes's chief of that shire, observing that now whereas engines, and such like; nor tell you that the heretofore no villains (the Latin is, nullus fuerat Chinese had it, and printing, so many ages before servus, ard applying it to our law-phrase, I us, as Mendoza Maffy and others deliver ; but not translate it) had been in England, they should be with persuading credit to all their readers.
now all in bondage to the Norinaps, they assembled Whereas some say before he used on foot to pass.
all the county, and showed the imuninent dangers,
the insolence of the Normans, and the hard conThe allusion is to Britain's being heretoforedition of villainage: they, resolving all rather to joined to Gaul in this strait betwixt Dover and die than lose their freedom, purpose to encounter Calais (some thirty miles over) as some mo- with the duke for their country's liberty. Their derns have conjectured. That learned antiquary captains are the archbishop and the abbot. Upon I. Twine is very confident in it, and derives the name
an appointed day they meet all at Swanescomb, from Brith, signifying (as he says) as much as
and harbouring themselves in the woods, with Guith, i. e. a separation, in Welsh, whence the boughs in every man's hand, they encompass his isle of Wight (e) was so called; Guith and Wight way. The next day, the duke coming by Swanesbeing soon made of each other. Of this opinion comb, seemed to see with amazement, as it were, is the late Verstegan, as you may read in him;
a wood approaching towards him; the Kentish and for examination of it, our great light of
men at the sound of a trumpet take themselves antiquity Camden hath proposed divers con
to arms, when presently the archbishop and abbot siderations, in which, experience of particulars
were sent to the duke, and saluted him with these must direct. Howsoever this was in truth, it is words : " Behold, sir duke, the Kentish men come as likely, for aught I see, as that Cyprus was once
to meet you, willing to receive you as their liege joined to Syria, Eubcea (now Negropont) to lord, upon that condition, that they may for ever Baotia, Atalante to Eubæa, Belbicum to Bithynia, enjoy their ancient liberties and laws used among Leucosia to Thrace, as is affirmed ($); and Sicily their ancestors; otherwise presently offering war; (whose like our island is) was certainly broken off being ready rather to die, ihan undergo a yoke of from the continent of Italy, as both Virgil ex bondage, and lose their ancient laws. The Norpressly, Strabo and Pliny deliver ; and also the
man, in this narrow pinch, not so willingly, as names of Rhegium, tæpè rè "Prywuolas(8), and of wisely, granted the desire; and hostages given on the self Sicily; which rather than from secare, both sides, the Kentish men direct the Normans to I derive from sicilire(h), which is of the same
Rochester, and deliver them the county and the signification and nearer in analogy: Claudian calls castle of Dover.” Hither is commonly referred the the isle
retaining of ancient liberties in Kent. Indeed it Diducta Britannia Mundo; is certain that special customs they have in their and Virgil bath
Gavelkind, (although now many of their gentle-Toto divisos orbe Britannos.
men's possessions (1) are altered in that part)
suffeting for felony, without forfeiture of estate, Where Servius is of opinion, that, for this purpose, and such like, as in particular, with many other the learned poet used that phrase. And it de- diligent traditions you have in Lambard's Perserves inquisition, how beasts of rapine, as foxes ambulation ; yet the report of Thomas Spot, is and such like, came first into this island, (for not, methinks, of clear credit, as well by reason England and Wales, as now Scotland and Ireland, that no warrant of the historians about the Con. had store of wolves, until some three hundred quest affirms it, (and this monk lived under years since) if it were not joined to a firm land, Edward (.) as also for his commixture of a fauxete that either by like conjunction, or narrow passage about villainage, saying it was not in England of swimming, might receive them from that conti- before that time, which is apparently false by nent where the ark rested, which is Armenia. divers testimonies. Gif peop (says king Ines's That men desired to transport them, is not likely; laws) pyrce on Sunnan dæz. be his Hlafordes and a learned jesuit (i), hath conjectured, that the bæresy hefrco(m); and, under Edward the Con. West Indies are therefore, or have been, joined fessor, Thorold of Beauchenale grants to the abbey with firm land, because they have lions, wolves, of Crowland his manor of Spalding, with all the panthers, and such like, which in the Bermudas, appurtenances, scilicet Colgrinum præpositum Cuba, Hispaniola, St. Doiningo, and other re
meum, & totam sequelam suam, cum omnibus mote isles, are not found. But no place here to bonis & catallis, quæ habet in dicta villa, &c. dispute the question.
Item Hardingum fabrum & totam sequelam suam; Not suffering foreign laws should thy free customs and the young wench of Andover, that Edgar was bind.
in love with, was a Nief. But for Kent, perhaps To explain it, I thus english you a fragment of since that time it hath been adjudged in our law (te).
it inight be true, that no villains were in it, seeing an old monk (k) : “When the Norman conqueror that one born there could not without coguisance had the day, he came to Dover castle, that he of record be a villain.
(e) Sam. Beulan. ad Nennium. (f) Plin. bist. Nat. 2. cap. 88.
(?) Stat. 31 Hen. 8. cap. 3. (g) From breaking off. Trog. hist. 4. & Strab. 2. (m)“ If a villain work on Sunday by his Lord's (1) Varr. de re rustic. 1. cap. 49.
command, he shall be free." (i) Joseph. Acost. de natur. novi orbis 1. cap. 20. (n) Itin. Cornub. 30 Ed. 1. Villenage 46. & & 21.
Mich. 5 Ed. 2. Ms. in Bibliothec. Int. Templ. (4) Tho. Spotus ap. Larub. in explic. verb. cas. John de Gartop.
And foremost ever plac'd when they shall reckon'd | And him as dearly lor'd; for when he would de. be.
part, For this honour of the Kentish, hear one (0) that With Hercules to fight, she took it so to heart, wrote it about Henry II. Enudus (as some copies That falling low and flat, her blubber'd face to are, bat others, Cinidus; and perhaps it should
hide, be so, or rather Cnudus, for king Cnut, or else I By Thames she well near is surrounded every tide: cannot conjecture what) quantâ virtute Anglorum, And since of worldly state she never taketh keep, Dacos Danosque fregerit' motusque compescuerit But only gives her self, to tend and milk her Noricorum, vel ex eo perspicuum est, quod ob
[set song égregiæ virtutis meritum quam ibidem potenter
But Muse, from her so low, divert thy high& patentèr exercuit, Cantia nostra, prima co
To London-wards, and bring from Lea with thee hortis honorem & primus congressus hostium
along usque in hodiernum diem in omnibus præliis The forests, and the floods, and most exactly show, obtinet. Provincia quoque Severiana, quæ moderno How these in order stand, how those directly flow! usu & nomine ab incolis Wiltesira vocatur, eadem For in that happy soil, doth pleasure ever won, jure sibi vendicatCohortem subsidiariam, adjecta sibi Through forests, where clear rills in wild meanders Devonia & Cornubiâ. Briefly, it had the first
(made, English king, in it was the first Christianity among Where dainty summer bowers, and arborets are the English, and Canterbury then honoured with Cut out of bushy thicks, for coolness of the shade. the metropolitic see; all' which give note of Fools gaze at painted courts, to th' country let me honourable prerogative.
To climb the easy hill, then walk the valley low : Grim Goodwin but the while seems grievously to No gold-embossed roofs, to me are like the woods ; lower.
No bed like to the grass, no liquor like the floods : That is Goodwin sands, which is reported to A city's but a sink, gay houses gaudy gra 'es, bare been the patrimony of that Goodwin earl of The Muses have free' leave, to starve or live in Kent (), under Edward the Confessor, swallowed into the ocean by a strange tempest somewhat
But Waltham forest', still in prosperous estate, after the conquest, and is now as a Aoating isle or As standing to this day (so strangely fortunate) quicksand, very dangerous to sailors, sometimes Above her neighbour nymphs, and holds her head as fixt, sometimes moving, as the Muse de
A turf beyond them all, so sleek and wond'rous
Upon her setting side, by goodly London grac'd, () Joh. Sarisbur. de Nugis curial. 6. cap. Upon the north by Lea, her south by Thames em18.
A dainty forest-nymph of her society.
And of the Dryades held in very high account;
Yet in respect of her stood far out of the way,
“ Dear sister, rest content, nor our declining rue,
What thing is in this world, that we can say is The Muse, now over Thames makes forth,
(plough, Upon her progress to the North,
The ridge and furrow shows, that once the crooked From Cauney with a full career,
Turn'd up the grassy turf, where oaks are rooted She up against the stream doth bear; Where Waltham Forest's pride exprest,
And at this hour we see, the share and coulter tear She points directly to the east,
The full corn-bearing glebe, where sometimes And shows how all those rivers strain
forests were ;
(oar spoil, Through Essex, to the German main;
And those but caitiffs are, which most do seek When Stour, with Orwel's aid prefers,
Who having sold our woods, do lastly sell our soil; Our British brave sea-voyagers ;
'Tis virtue to give place to these ungodly times, Half Suffolk in with them she takes,
When as the fost'red ill proceeds from others' Where of this song an end she makes,
[their force ? 'Gainst lunatics, and fools, what wise folk spend
For folly headlong falls, when it hath had the Bear bravely up my Mase, the way thou went'st
(and vile, before,
[shore, And when God gives men up, to ways abhorr'd and cross the kingly Thames to the Essexian Of understanding he deprives them quite, the
while Stem up his tideful stream, upon that side to rise, Where Cauney', Albion's child in-isled richly lies, They into errour run, confounded in their sin, Which, though her lower scite doth make her seem As simple fowls in lime, or in the fowler's gin.
but mean, Of him as dearly lov'd as Shepey is or Greane,
2 The situation of Waltham forest.
• Hatfield forest, lying lower towards the east, ! An island lying in the Thames, on Essex side. I between Stortford and Dunmow.
SONG THE NINETEENTH.
And for those pretty birds, that wont in us to sing, Shrieks heard like people's cries, that see their
[confound. When Chelmer scarce arrives in her most wished And curse them in their notes, who first did woods bay,
[ed way, Dear sister Hatfield, then hold up thy drooping head, But Blackwater comes in, through many a crook. We feel no such decay, nor is all succour fled : Which Pant was call’d of yore; but that, by time For Essex is our dower, which greatly doth abound exil'd, With every simple good, that in the isle is found : She Froshwell after hight, then Blackwater instyl'd, And though we go to wreck in this so general But few such titles have the British floods among. waste,
When Northey near at hand, and th' isle of Ousey This hope to us remains, we yet may be the last.” rung When Hatfield taking heart, where late she With shouts the sea-nymphs gare, for joy of their sadly stood,
arrive, Sends little Rolling forth, lier best beloved flood; As either of those isles in courtesy do strive, (do Which from her cbristal font, as to enlarge her | To Thetis' darlings, which should greatest honour fame,
And what the former did, the latter adds thereto. To many a village lends her clear and noble name, But Colne, which frankly lends fair Colchester Which as she wand'reth on, through Waltham holds
[fame) (wondrous gay ; (On all th’ Essexian shore, the town of greatest With goodly oaken wreaths, which makes her Perceiving how they still in courtship did contend, But making at the last into the wat’ry marsh, Quoth she, “ Wherefore the time thus idly do you Where though the blady grass unwholesome be spend ?
(worth, inid harsh,
(Waltham gave, What is there nothing here, that you esteem of Those wreaths away she casts, which bounteous That our big-bellied sea, or our rich land brings With bulrush, flags, and reed, to make her wond
forth? rous brave,
(streams, Think you our oysters here, unworthy of your And herself's strength divides, to sundry lesser praise ?
(please, So wantoning she falls into her sovereign Thames. Pure Walfeet', which do still the daintiest palates From whose vast beechy banks a rumour straight As excellent as those, which are esteemed most, resounds,
[grounds, The Cyzic shells, or those on the Lucrinian coast; Which quickly ran itself through the Essexian Or cheese, which our fat soil to every quarter That Crouch amongst the rest, a river's name sends;
[commends. should seek,
Whose tack the hungry clown, and ploughman so As scorning any more the nickname of a creek, If you esteem not these, as things above the ground, Well furnish'd with a stream, that from the fill to Look under, where the urns of ancient times are fall,
(dust, Wants nothing that a flood should be adorn'd The Roman emp'rors' coins, oft digg'd out of the On Benge's * batful side, and at her going out. And warlike weapons, now consum'd with cankerWith Walnot, Foulnesse fair, near wat'red round ing rust;
[stand, The huge and massy bones', of mighty fearful Two isles for greater state to stay her up that To tell the world's full strength, what creatures Thrust far into the sea, yet fixed to the laud;
(earth As nature in that sort them purposely had plac'd, When in her height of youth, the lusty fruitful That she by sea and land, should every way be Brought forth her big-limb'd brood, even giants grac'd. [were) that took,
in their birth." Some sea-nymphs and besides, her part (there Thus spoke she, when from sea they suddenly As angry that their Crouch should not be callid a
do hear brook ;
[wrong. A strong and horrid noise, which struck the land And bade her to complain to Neptune of her with fear;
(tune sent, But whilst these grievous stirs thus bapp'ned For with their crooked trumps, bis Tritons Nepthem among,
(neatly clear, To warn the wanton nymphs, that they inconti. Choice Chelmer comes along, a nymph most
(sant road; Which well near through the midst doth cut the should straight repair to Stour, in Orwell's pleawealthy shire,
(her chase. For it had been divulg'd the ocean all abroad, Ry Dunmow gliding down to Chelmsford holds That Orwell and this Stour, by meeting in one bay, To which she gives the name, which as she doth Two, that each otber's good intended every way, embrace
Prepar'd to sing a song, that should precisely show, Clear Can comes tripl-ing in, and doth with Chel- That Medway •, for her life, their skill could not mer close :
ouigu; With whose supply (though small as yet) she She for old Maldon makes, where in her passing by,
1 Walfeet oysters. She to remembrance calls that Roman colony, Cyzicum is a city of Bithynia --Lucrinia is a And all those ominous signs her fall that did forego, city of Apulia upon the Adriatic sea ; the oysters As that which most express'd their fatal overthrow, of which places were reckoned for great delicates Crown'd victory revers'd, fell down whereas she with the Romans. stood,
? The bones of giant-like people found in those And the vast greenish sea, discolour'd like to blood. parts.
* Medway, in the 18th song, reciteth the cata• The fruitfullest hundred of Essex.
logue of the English warriors.
Eor Stour, a dainty flood, that duly doth divide And towing up his stream, first taught the English Fair Suffolk from this shire, upon her other side ;
oars, By Clare first coming in, to Sudbury doth show, The useful way of trade to those most gainful shores. The even course sbe keeps ; when far she doth not “ And when the Norman stem here strong and flow,
potent grew, But Breton a bright nymph, fresh succour to her And their successful sons did glorious acts pursue, brings;
One Nicholas nam'd of Lyn, where first he breath'd Yet is she not so prɔud of her superfluous springs,
(hold him dear ; But Orwell, coming in from Ipswich, thinks that she, Though Oxford taught him art, and well may Should stand for it with Stour, and lastly they l’th' mathematics learn'd (although a friar proagree, [made, fess'd)
[possessid, That since the Britons hence their first discoveries To see those northern climes, with great desire And that into the east they first were taught to
Himself be thither shipp'd, and skilful in the globe, trade;
Took every several height with his true astrolobe ; Besides, of all the roads, and havens of the east, The whirlpools 13 of the seas, and came to underThis harbour where they meet, is reckoned for the stand, best.
From the four cardinal winds, four indraughts that Our voyages by sea, and brave discoveries known,
commandl; Their argument they make, and thus they sing lot any of whose falls, if th' wandering bark doth their own;
light, "In Severn's late tun'd lay', that empress of it hurried is away with such tempestuous'fight, Jo which great Arthur's acts are to the life ex Into that swallowing gulph, which seeins as it press'd;
would draw His conquests to the north, who Norway did in The very earth itself into th' infernal maw. Who Greenland, Iceland next, then Lapland lastly Four such immeasur'd pools, philosophers agree, made
l'th' four parts of the world undoubtedly to be : His awful empire's bounds, the Britons' acts among,
From which they have suppos'd, nature the winds This godlike hero's deeds exactly have been sung;
[seas. His valiant people then, who to those countries and from them to proceed the flowing of the brought,
“ And when our civil wars began at last to cease, With many an age since that, our great'st dis
And these late calmer times of olive-bearing peace, This worthiest then of ours, our Argonauts 10 shall Gave leisure to great minds, far regions to descry; lead.
That brave advent'rous knight, our sir Hugh “Next Malgo, who again that conqueror's steps
[gealed piles, to tread,
Shipp'd for the northern seas, 'mongst those conSocceeding bim in reign, in conquests so no less,
Fashion'd by lasting frosts, like mountains, and
like isles, Plough'd up the frozen sea, and with as fair success,
(great mini, By that great conqueror's claiin, first Orkney (In all her fearfull'st shapes saw horrour, whose over-ran ;
In lesser bounds than these, that could not be conProud Denmark then subdu'd, and spacious Nor
Adventur'd on those parts, where winter still doth way won, Seiz'd Iceland for his own, and Gothland to each When most the icy cold had chain'd up all the shore, (before. decp)
[took, Where Arthur's full-sail'd fleet had ever touch'd
In bleak Arzina's road his death near Lapland before.
Where Kegor from her scite, on those grim seas “And when the Britons' reign came after' to de
doth look. cline,
“Two others follow then, eternal fame that won, And to the Cambrian hills their fate did thein Our chancellor, and with him, compare we Jen
kinson; The Saxon swaying all, in Alfred's powerfuil reign, Our English Octer put a fleet to sea again,
For Rossia both embark'd, the first arriving there, Of th' huge Norwegian hills and news did hither Ent'ring Duina's mouth, up her proud stream did bring,
steer, Whose tops are hardly wrought in twelve days' To Volga, to behold her pomp, the Russian state, But leaving Norway then a starboard, forward
Muscovia measuring then; the other with like fate, kept,
[swept, Both those vast realms survey'd, thea into Bactria And with our English sails that mighty ocean pass'd,
(waste, Where those stern people won, whom hope of gain To Boghor's bulwark walls, then to the liquid doth call,
Where Oxus rolleth down 'twixt his far distant In hulks with grappling hooks, to hunt the dreadful
soars, And great Duina 1 down from her first springing And o'er the Caspian main, with strong antired place,
Adventured to view rich Persia's wealth and pride, Doth roll her swelling waves in churlish Neptune's Whose true report thereof, the English since wave
tried. “ Then Woolstan after him discovering Dantzic
“With Fitch our Eldred next, deserv’dly placed Where Wexel's ! mighty mouth is pour'd into the Both travelling to see the Syrian Tripolis.
The first of which in this whose noble spirit was See the fourth song.
To view those parts, to us that were the most un"! The great river of Russia. 1. The greatest river of Dantzic,
!' The greatest wonder of nature.
10 Sea voyagers.