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ing, at the same time, that those were the hair of Berenice. Several other astronomers, either to make their court as well as Conon, or that they might not draw upon themselves the displeasure of Ptolemy, gave those stars the same name, which is still used to this day. Callimachus, who had been at the court of Philadelphus, composed a short poem on the hair of Berenice, which Catullus afterwards translated into Latin, which version is come down to us.

'Ptolemy, in his return from this expedition, passed through Jerusalem, where he offered a great number of sacrifices to the God of Israel, in order to render homage to him, for the victories he had obtained over the king of Syria; by which action he evidently discovered his preference of the true God, to all the idols of Egypt. Perhaps the prophecies of Daniel were shewn to that prince; and he might conclude, from what they contained, that all his conquests and successes were owing to that God, who had caused them to be foretold so exactly by his prophets.

z Seleucus had been detained for some time in his kingdom, by the apprehension of domestic troubles; but when he received intelligence that Ptolemy was returning to Egypt, he set sail with a considerable" fleet, to reduce the revolted cities. His enterprise was, however, ineffectual; for, as soon as he advanced into the open sea, his whole navy was destroyed by a violent tempest; as if heaven itself, says Justin, had made the winds and waves the ministers of his vengeance on this parricide. Seleucus, and some of his

y Joseph. contra Appian. 1. ii.

* A. M. 3759. Ant. J. C. 245. Justin. 1. xxvii. c. 2.

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attendants, were almost the only persons who were saved, and it was with great difficulty that they escaped naked from the wreck. But this dreadful stroke, which seemed intended to overwhelm him, contributed, on the contrary, to the reestablishment of his affairs. The cities of Asia which had revolted through the horror they conceived against him, after the murder of Berenice and her children, no sooner received intelligence of the great loss he had now sustained, than they imagined him sufficiently punished; and as their hatred was then changed into compassion, they all declared for him anew.

*This unexpected change having reinstated him in the greatest part of his dominions, he was industrious to raise another army, to recover the rest. This effort, however, proved as unsuccessful as the former; his army was defeated by the forces of Ptolemy, who cut off the greatest part of his troops. He saved himself at Antioch, with the small number of men who were left him, when he escaped from the shipwreck at sea; as if, says a certain historian, he had recovered his former power, only to lose it a second time with the greater mortification, by a fatal vicissitude of fortune.

After this second frustration of his affairs, the cities of Smyrna and Magnesia, in Asia Minor, were induced, by mere affection to Seleucus, to form a confederacy in his favour, by which they mutually stipulated to support him. They were greatly attached to his family, from whom they undoubtedly had received

A. M. 3760. Ant. J. C. 244.


Quasi ad ludibrium tantum fortunæ natus esset, nec propter aliud opes regni recepisset, quam ut amitteret. Justin.

many extraordinary favours; they had even rendered divine honours to his father, Antiochus Theos, and also to Stratonice, the mother of this latter. Callinicus retained a grateful remembrance of the regard these cities had testified for his interest, and afterwards granted them several advantageous privileges. They caused the treaty we have mentioned to be engraven on a large column of marble, which still subsists, and is now in the area before the theatre, at Oxford. This column was brought out of Asia, by Thomas, earl of Arundel, at the beginning of the reign of Charles the first; and, with several other antique marbles, were presented to the university of Oxford by his grandson, Henry, duke of Norfolk, in the reign of Charles the second. All the learned world ought to think themselves indebted to noblemen who are emulous to adorn and enrich universities, in such a generous manner; and I wish the same zeal had been ever testified for that of Paris, the mother of all the rest, and whose antiquity and reputation, in conjunction with the abilities of her professors, and her attachment to the sacred persons of kings, have rendered her worthy of being favoured in a peculiar manner by princes and great men. The establishment of a library in this illustrious seminary, would be an immortal honour to the person who should lay the foundation of such a work.

Seleucus, in the extremities to which he was reduced, had made application to his brother Antiochus, whom he promised to invest with the sovereignty of the provinces of Asia Minor, provided he would join him with his troops, and act in concert with him. The young prince was then at the head of an army in those

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provinces; and though he was but fourteen years of age, yet, as he had all the ambition and malignity of mind that appear in men of an advanced age, he immediately accepted the offers made him, and advanced in quest of his brother, not with any intention to secure him the enjoyment of his dominions, but to seize them for himself. His avidity was so great, and he was always so ready to seize for himself whatever came in his way, without the least regard to justice, that he acquired the sirname of Hierax," which signifies a bird that preys on all things he finds, and thinks every thing good upon which he lays his talons.


When Ptolemy received intelligence that Antiochus was preparing to act in concert with Seleucus against him, he reconciled himself with the latter, and concluded a truce with him for ten years, that he might not have both these princes for his enemies at the same time.

'Antigonus Gonatas died much about this period, at the age of eighty, or eighty three years, after he had reigned thirty four years in Macedonia, and forty four in Greece. He was succeeded by his son Demetrius, who reigned ten years, and made himself master of Cyrenaica and all Lybia. & Demetrius first married the sister of Antiochus Hierax; but Olym


Antiochus, cum esset annos quatuordecim natus, supra ætatem regni avidus, occasionem non tam pio animo, quam offerebatur, arripuit: sed, latronis more totum fratri eripere cupiens, puer, sceleratam virilemque sumit audaciam. Unde Hierax est cognominatus; quia, non hominis sed accipitris ritu, in alienis eripiendis vitam sectaretur. Justin.

d A' kite.

A. M. 3761. Ant. J. C. 243.

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pias, the daughter of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, engaged him, after the death of her husband Alexander, who was likewise her brother, to espouse her daughter Phthia. The first wife, being unable to support this injurious proceeding, retired to her brother Antiochus, and earnestly pressed him to declare war against her faithless husband; but his attention was then taken up with other views and employments.

This prince still continued his military preparations, as if he designed to assist his brother, in pursuance of the treaty between them ; but his real intention was to dethrone him, and he concealed the virulent disposition of an enemy under the name of a brother., Seleucus penetrated his scheme, and immediately passed mount Taurus, in order to check his progress. Antiochus founded his pretext on the promise which had been made him, of the sovereignty of the provinces of Asia Minor, as a compensation for assisting his brother against Ptolemy; but Seleucus, who then saw himself disengaged from that war without the aid of his brother, did not conceive himself obliged to perform that promise. Antiochus resolving to persist in his pretensions, and Seleucus refusing to allow them; it became necessary to decide the difference by arms. A battle was accordingly fought near Ancyra, in Galatia, wherein Seleucus was defeated, and escaped with the utmost difficulty from the enemy. Antiochus was also exposed to great dangers, notwithstanding his victory. The troops, on whose valor he chiefly relied, were a body of Gauls, whom he had taken into his pay,

h Pro auxilio bellum, pro fratre hostem, imploratus exhibuit.
i Justin 1. xxvii. c. 2.

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