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and they were undoubtedly some of those who had settled in Galatia. These traitors, upon a confused report that Seleucus had been killed in the action, had formed a resolution to destroy Antiochus, persuading themselves that they should be absolute masters of Asia, after the death of those two princes. Antiochus, therefore, was obliged, for his own preservation, to distribute all the money of the army amongst them.
* Eumenes, prince of Pergamus, being desirous of improving this conjuncture, advanced with all his forces against Antiochus and the Gauls, in full expectation to ruin them both, in consequence of their division. The imminent danger, to which Antiochus was then reduced, obliged him to make a new treaty with the Gauls, wherein he stipulated to renounce the title of their master, which he had before assumed, for that of their ally; and he also entered into a league offensive and defensive with that people. This treaty, however, did not prevent Eumenes from attack. ing them; and as he came upon them in such a sudden and unexpected manner, as did not allow them any time to recover after their fatigues, or to furnish themselves with new recruits, he obtained a victory over them, which cost him but little, and laid all Asia Minor
open to him. 'Eumenes, upon this fortunate event, abandoned himself to intemperance and excess at his table, and died after a reign of twenty years. As he left no children, he was succeeded by Attalus, his cousin german,
IA. M. 3763.
Strab. l. xül. p.
k Justin. 1. xxvii. c. 3.
who was the son of Attalus, his father's younger brother. This prince was wise and valiant, and perfectly qualified to preserve the conquests which he inherited. He entirely reduced the Gauls, and then established himself so effectually in his dominions, that he took upon himself the title of king ; for though his predecessors had enjoyed all the power, they had never ventured to assume the stile of sovereigns. Attalus, therefore, was the first of his house who took it upon him, and transmitted it, with his dominions, to his posterity, who enjoyed it to the third generation.
Whilst Numenes, and, after him, Attalus, were seizing the provinces of the Syrian empire in the west, Theodotus and Arsaces were proceeding by their example in the east." The latter hearing that Seleucus had been slain in the battle of Ancyra, turned his arms against Hyrcania, and annexed it to Parthia, which he had dismembered from the empire. He then erected these two provinces into a kingdom, which in process of time became very formidable to the empire of the Romans. Theodotus dying soon after, Arsaces made a league offensive and defensive with his son, who bore the same name, and succeeded his father in Bactria ; and they mutually supported themselves in their dominions by this union. The two brothers, notwithstanding these transactions, continued the war against each other with the most implacable warmth, not considering, that while they contended with each other for the empire their father had left them, the whole would be gradually wrested from them by their common enemies.
per Ich he
The treasure and forces of Antiochus being exhausted by the several overthrows and losses he had sustained, he was obliged to wander from one retreat to another, with the shattered remains of his he was at last entirely driven out of Mesopotamia. Finding, therefore, that there was no place in all the empire of Syria," where he could possibly continue in safety, he retired for refuge to Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia, whose daughter he had espoused. Ariarathes, notwithstanding this alliance, was soon weary of entertaining a son in law who became a burden to him ; for which reason he determined to destroy him, Antiochus, being informed of his design, avoided the danger by a speedy retreat into Egypt; where he rather chose to deliver himself up to the power of Ptolemy, the professed enemy of his house, than to trust a brother whom he had so highly offended. He, however, had reason to repent of this proceeding, for immediately after his arrival in Egypt, Ptolemy caused him to be seized and imprisoned ;' he also placed a strong guard over him, and detained him several years in that confinement, till at last he found means to escape by the assistance of a courtezan; but as he was quitting that kingdom, he had the misfortune to be assassinated by a band of robbers.
Ptolemy, in the mean time, devoted the sweets of peace to the cultivation of the sciences in his domin. ions, and the enlargement of his father's library at Alexandria with all sorts of books; but as a proper collection could not well be made without an able
* A. M. 3774. Ant. J. C. 230. • A. M. 3778. Ant. J. C. 226.
PA. M. 3765. Ant. J. C, 239.
librarian, to whose care it would be likewise necessary to consign them ; 'Evergetes, upon the death of Ze. nodotus, who had exercised that function from the time of Ptolemy Soter, the grandfather of that prince, sent to Athens for Eratosthenes, the Cyrenian, who was then in great reputation, and had been educated by Callimachus, a native of the same country. 'He was a man of universal learning, but none of his works have been transmitted to us, except his catalogue of the kings of Thebes in Egypt, with the years of their respective reigns, from Menes, or Misraim, who first peopled Egypt after the deluge, to the Trojan war. This catalogue contains a succession of thirty eight kings, and is still to be seen in Syncellus.
• When Seleucus saw himself extricated from the troubles his brother had occasioned, his first cares were employed in the reestablishment of order and tranquillity in the dominions he possessed ; and when he had accomplished this, he turned his thoughts to the reduction of the oriental provinces which had revolted from him. This last attempt, however, was not attended with success ; for Arsaces had been allowed too much time to strengthen himself in his usurpation. Seleucus, therefore, after many ineffectual endeavours to recover those territories, was obliged to discontinue his enterprise in a dishonourable manner. He, perhaps, might have succeeded better in time, if new commotions, which had been excited in his dominions during his absence, had not compelled him to make a speedy return, in order to suppress
9 Suid. in voc. Zlrod OTOS. 1 Ιd. in voc. Απολλώνιος et Ερατοσθενείς.
• A. M. 3768 Ant. J. C. 236.
them. This furnished Arsaces with a new opportu. nity of establishing his power so effectually, that all future efforts were incapable of reducing it.
Seleucus, however, made a new attempt, as soon as his affairs would admit ; but this second expedition proved more unfortunate than the first ; for he was not only defeated, but taken prisoner by Arsaces, in a great battle. The Parthians celebrated for many succeeding years, the anniversary of this victory, which they considered as the first day of their liberty, though in reality it was the first era of their slavery ; for the world never produced greater tyrants than those Parthian kings to whom they were subjected. The Macedonian yoke would have been much more supportable than their oppressive government, if they had persevered to submit to it. Arsaces now began to assume the title of king, and firmly established this empire of the east, which, in process of time, counterpoised the Roman power, and became a barrier, which all the armies of that people were incapable of forcing. All the kings who succeeded Arsaces made it an indispensable law, and counted it an honour, to be called by his name ; in the same manner as the kings of Egypt retained that of Ptolemy, as long as the race of Ptolemy Soter governed that kingdom. Arsaces raised himself to a throne from the lowest condition of life, and became as memorable among the Parthians, as Cyrus had been among the Persians, or Alexander among the Macedonians, or Romulus among the Romans."
*A. M. 3774. Ani. J. C. 230. Justin. I. sli. c. 4. et 5. · Arsaces, quæsito simul constitutoque regnio, non minus memorabilis Partbis, fuit, quam Persis Cyrus, Macedonibus Alexander, Romanis Romulus. Justin.