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struction still more frightful to behold; it is called Rápiá, and is made with extreme difficulty and danger. In the instance, it consisted of six posts driven horizontally into clefts of the rocks, about twenty-feet distant from each other, and secured by wedges. Upon this giddy frame a staircase of fir-spars was erected, of the rudest nature; twigs and slabs of stone connected them together. There was no support on the outer side, which was deep, and overhung the Tidúng, a perfect torrent.

“ After surmounting this terrific passage, they came to another, where the footpath had been swept away. It would have been impracticable, but, from previous intimation, thirty people had been despatched the preceding night from Thangi ; and had just completed two tolerable sangas by the time the party arrived, so that they passed in safety.

“The route from Thangi to Marang lies through a forest of pine (Ri), upon the slope of a hill composed entirely of blue slate, often crumbling in pieces.

“From the confluence of the Tidúng with the Setlej, the town of Ríbé, or Ridang, has a charming appearance : yellow fields, extensive vineyards, groves of apricots, and large well-built stone houses, contrast with the gigantic Raldang mountains. These are scarcely four miles from the town.

Marang is a large town, surrounded by high mountains. Although 8,500 feet above the sea, it enjoys a mild climate. During eight days' halt, the temperature varied from 58° to 82°; and flies were very troublesome. The sun, even at this season (July), does not appear more than nine hours: was scarcely visible above the mountains before 8, a.m., and disappeared behind them at 5, p. m. There were alternate light clouds and sunshine, and now and then a little rain, which in this valley never falls heavy: the height of the outer chain of the Himálaya being sufficient to exclude the rains which dem luge Hindusthán for three months.

Having collected from the surrounding villages supplies for ten days, Messrs. Gerard proceeded to examine the valley of the Táglá river, which has its source in Chinese Tartary. They travelled to Nisang (on the Táglá), a Tartar village, already visited both in 1818 and 1820; crossing the Túngrang pass, which was again measured, and the previous measurement (13,739 feet) confirmed. The

pass leads over a spur, which runs down to the Setlej river, from a cluster of snowy mountains, upwards of 20,000 feet high. The rocks are slate: it easily splits into large even slabs, which are well adapted for carving the sacred Tartar sentences upon them. Across the Setlej the mountains are of white granite, breaking into gravel, and more abrupt than on the hither side.

“ They proceeded along the banks of the Táglá to U'rchá, and thence to Rakor, through the Ruthingé pass, and near the source of a rivulet of that name, after passing the Khátí, which descends very steeply from the Himálaya on the south, in which direction a peak of vast altitude is visible. The elevation of the pass is 14,638 feet; that of the resting-place at Rakor, 14,100 feet. A few birches are growing 200 or 300 feet lower.

“Upon the left bank of the Táglá, the height of the mountains is upwards of 16,000 feet, and no snow appears. The rocks are brown clay slate, and mica slate. Upon the right bank of the river, the mountains appear to be all clay slate, crumbling into soil, and forming a natural declivity. The summits seem to be 18,000 feet high, at least; and there is very little snow in streaks. Farther to the east is a large mountain, white with snow, and near it a naked ridge of rocks, ending in a number of sharp points, apparently formed of

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slate. In the vicinity of the source of the Ruthingi, several conical points are seen covered with snow.

The travellers continued along the banks of the Táglá to Zongchen, passing several streams which fall into it, and a larger one named Kegóche, which comes from the south (S. by W.), and one less considerable, called Langúrge, from the S.E., both very muddy. The Táglá itself is quite clear, and its course is from the N.E. They crossed at once by a sango.

“ The path lay upon broken slate and slippery soil, then upon inclined faces of rock; at one time ascending steeply upon loose stones; at another, descending abruptly upon rude steps and scaffolding, projecting over the stream, and between cliffs that subtend an angle of 60° or 65° on either side. Now and then these crags are perpendicular for 200 or 300 feet, and they even overhang the pathway. Large snowbeds conceal the river for several hundred yards : an immense load of stones and gravel lies above the snow. In one place the accumulation of rocks, which have fallen from the surrounding peaks, is sixty or seventy feet thick; and the river is seen rushing from beneath a large vault, whose under surface is frozen snow.

“The height of Zoncheng is 14,700 feet, which, in lat. 31° 36', according to received theory, should be buried under everlasting snow. The situation, however, is far different. On every side of the glen, which is a bowshot broad, appeared gently-sloping hills, for the most part covered with Támá (Tartaric furze). The banks of the river were covered with grass turf, and prickly bushes. Around, the land was covered with verdure ; flocks of sheep were browsing, and deer leaping : altogether it was a romantic spot, wanting but trees to make it delightful.

“During the march the sun was found at times powerful ; but the temperature was evidently decreasing with the elevation. The highest observed in the day (23d of July) was 68o. “ The rocks were limestone; the soil a stiff yellow clay, rent in every

direction by small fissures, and seeming to have been under water. The surface was ground to dust.

“ The next stage was to Zamsirí, by the Këúbrang pass : after tracing the Táglá (crossed frequently by snow-beds), until it was reduced to an inconsiderable rivulet at the foot of the pass.

The ascent of the pass is by no means steep, the angle being only nineteen or twenty degrees. But the difficulty of breathing, and severe headaches, which all the party, not excepting their Tartar guides, experienced more or less, rendered the exertion of walking very laborious. As they advanced, vegetation became more scarce, till at length it wholly disappeared ; and the last mile presented a scene of solitude and desolation.

“ The elevation was found by barometric measurement to be 18,313 feet above the sea.


is reckoned the boundary between Kunáwar and that part of Chinese Tartary which is under the authority of the Grand Lama of Lahasa.

Zamsári, a mere halting place for travellers, on the banks of the Shéltí, to which they proceeded from Këúbrang, is 15,600 feet above the sea, a height equal to that of the passes through the outer range of snowy mountains; yet there is nothing to remind one of the Himalaya. Gently sloping hills and tranquil rivulets, with banks of turf and pebbly beds, flocks of pigeons, and herds of decr, would give one the idea of a much lower situation. But nature (Capt. Gerard remarks) has adapted the vegetation to that extraordi

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nary country; for, did it extend no higher than on the southern face of the Himalaya, Tartary would be uninhabitable by either man or beast.

“It seems surprising (he goes on to observe) that the limit of vegetation should rise higher the further we proceed, but so it is ;-on ascending the southern slope of the snowy range, the extreme height of cultivation is 10,000 feet; and even there the crops are frequently cut green. The highest habitation is 9,500 feet; 11,800 feet may be reckoned the upper limit of forest, and 12,000 that of bushes : although in a few sheltered situations, such as ravines, dwarf birches and small bushes are found almost at 13,000 feet.

“In the valley of the Baspá river, the highest village is at 11,400 feet; the cultivation reaches to the same elevation; and the forest extends to 13,000 feet at the least.

Advancing further, you find villages at 13,000 feet, cultivation at 13,600 feet, fine birch trees at 14,000 feet, and táma bushes, which furnish excellent fire-wood, at 17,000 feet.

To the eastward, towards Mánassaróvar, by the accounts of the Tartars,
it would


and bushes thrive at a still greater height.
“ The travellers descended the valley of the Shélti river to its confluence
with the Súmdó river, and ascended to the crest of the Húkëó pass, of which
the elevation is 15,786 feet. The soil is reddish, apparently decomposed
limestone, with no large stones. The ground is thickly covered with green
sward and beds of prickly bushes. No rocky points are seen, the whole being
gentle slopes of gravel, much resembling some of the Scotch highlands ; the
támá at a distance seeming like heath. Yaks and horses were feeding on the
surrounding heights; and the climate was pleasant; the temperature being 57o.

“ Three of the people, who were attending the cattle, watched the party for some time, until being convinced there were Europeans, they mounted their horses, and set off at a gallop. The travellers quickened their pace, determined to advance as far as practicable; but two miles further they were stopped by the Chinese, after they had crossed a rivulet with swampy banks, winding among rich turf, near which, they found many ammonites, at the height of 16,200 feet, on the elevated land between Húkëó and Zinchin.

The Tartars under Chinese authority were encamped, awaiting their arrival, of which previous intimation had been received, and pointed out a spot for their camp, and a line beyond which they should not pass. Their manners were polite, and their civility was requited by presents of tobacco, the only thing for which they seemed to have any, the least desire.

The height of Zinchin is 16,136 feet, and the eminences in the vicinity rise many hundred feet higher. In every direction, horses were seen galloping about, and feeding on the very tops of the heights; altogether there were about 200. Kites and eagles were soaring in the air, large flocks of small birds, like linnets, were flying about, and locusts jumping among the bushes.

Immediately across the Setlej, the mountains are abrupt; but, more to the east, there is a succession of gentle slopes. Beyond them again, appeared a lofty snowy range. It seemed to run N. 50° W. to S. 50° E. Clouds hang about it.

At this altitude the atmosphere exhibited that remarkable dark appearance which has been often observed in elevated situations. The sun shone like an orb of fire, without the least haze. At night, the part of the horizon where the moon was expected to rise, could scarcely be distinguished before the

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limb touched it; and the stars and planets shone with a brilliancy never seen, unless at great heights.

“With a transit telescope of 30 inches, and a power of 30, stars of the fifth magnitude were distinct in broad day ; but none of less size were perceptible. At Súbáthú, 4,200 feet above the level of the sea, stars of the fourth magnitude require a power of 40 to make them visible in the day.

“The temperature was greater than expected: the thermometer rose to 60° in the shade, and at sunset was 42°. It sank to 30° before sunrise. About nine in the forenoon a wind from the S.W. began; it was at its greatest strength at 3 p. m., and subsided at sunset.

“The climate is very different from that which is experienced in crossing the outer range of the Himálaya at the same season. Here, at the height of 16,000 and 17,000 feet, is abundance of fuel (metóh, bearing a beautiful yellow flower, and no prickles), good water, and a serene sky; there, at an inferior elevation, no firewood is nearer than five or six miles, the clouds hang around the mountains, the sun is rarely visible, and showers of rain are frequent."

(The remainder next month.)


HELL's doors to him on easy hinges roll,
Whose spotless raiment hides a spotted soul.
Meekness, not bigotry or self-conceit,
At the dread hour of doom, most grace shall meet.-
Let not the hero boast his warlike deeds ;
Heaven may condemn the cause for which he bleeds.-
Devotion, prayer, and penitence alone,
Can in the sight of God for sins atone:
Not the contortions of the devotee,
Ascetic fasts, and mock humility;
But goodness, temp'rance, charity and zeal,
More than all forms, the righteous heart reveal.-
Let not fanaticism thy thoughts withdraw
From social duties, and the holy law;
Nor aim at dazzling purity,—too bright
For earth, where black pollutes the fairest white.
The holy hermit Hell's dark pathway trod-
Unjust to erring man, though just to God.*

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* This distich refers to an apologue, of which the above lines form the Khatimah, or peroration, wherein a holy hermit, in the presence of our Saviour, is represented as spurning a penitent sinner, whom the Almighty receives into Paradise ; whilst the hermit, for placing his trust in mere forms of worship, is consigned to Hell.

Asiatic Journ. VOL. XXI. No. 123.

2 X


THE CASE OF CURSETJEE MANACKJEE. We have received, from Bombay, the following communication, in answer to what has appeared, respecting the case of the individual above named, in a contemporary publication.

Cursetjee Manackjee had a contract for the supply of provisions for one year, “ for the Company's Military Establishment at Bombay.An indent from Sir A. Wellesley, for various articles for the Madras army to be lodged at Poona, was confidentially sent to the Governor of Bombay, and Capt. Moor was as confidentially employed to furnish the supplies : he was garrison storekeeper at the time, an office merely of receipt and issue, debarred from making purchases. Among a variety of articles included in the indent, rice was the only one that fell within the contract in question. Capt. Moor entertained doubts how far Cursetjee Manackjee, by the terms of his contract, had a right to make the supply of the rice required for Madras troops.

“ He informed the contractor that the purpose for which he was procuring the article was unconnected with his contract ; that native (as that officer reported) agreed to abide by my advice—it was, at all events to wave it, and as a further inducement to him to do so, I determined to purchase, through him and his agent, the other articles required for the Madras army. In the hope and expectation that his claims, in other points, would be favourably considered, Cursetjee Manackjee did not scruple to offer to wave the subject of remuneration on that in question, although he submitted how far his contract would, in an attentive perusal, warrant his making it."

Here there was a fair compact between two individuals, each reposing in the honour of the other. Doubts were entertained of the Bombay contractor's right to furnish a supply of rice for the troops of the Madras presidency-the contractor agrees to wave his right for certain considerations.

Had Capt. Moor told the contractor that the rice was required" for a private and altogether distinct purpose,” and under that pretence obtained the rice at a rate below the contract price “ for the military establishment at Bombay,” it would have been a gross fraud--a robbery. The purpose for which the rice was required could not, “ from motives of policy,” be immediately divulged ; but the communication was sufficiently candid; the secret was not long mainlained-in the course of two months it was known that the rice was for the Madras troops; for the bills sent in under the signature of Cursetjee Manackjee were headed “ for General Wellesley's army.”

The inducement held out to Cursetjee Manackjee to wave a doubtful claim under his contract, was a promise by Capt. Moor to allow Cursetjee Manackjee the advantage of supplying the various other articles included in Sir A. Wellesley's indent, which his contract did not embrace. Capt. Moor determined to employ Cursetjee in the provision of this rice also, not at the contract, but at the market price. Was this an adequate consideration to the contract or for the compromise of a doubtful claim? Moor's evidence is the best on this point.

Capt. Moor adverted “to the advantages that Cursetjee Manackjee assuredly derived from having been employed in making the purchase of this rice for Gen. Wellesley's army: first, by keeping others out of the market in the purchase of an article, for the supply of which he had two extensive contracts with Government, by my allowing him to be the channel of purchase of grain and wheat also, on which he has, in some instances, received brokerage-in others,

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