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doctrine on every side, and view it in almoft. every possible light. He does not enter into the specific characters whereby wit and humour are discriminated, which are the chief considerations here, His design leads him to consider rather those particulars wherein they all agree, than those wherein they differ. He treats of ludicrous objects and ludicrous writing, with a view to account for the superior copiousness and refinement of modern ridicule. When philosophical acuteness is happily united with fo


richness of fancy and mastery in language, the obscurity in which a subject was formerly involved, vanishes entirely, and a reader unacquainted with all other theories and hypotheses, can hardly be persuaded that there was ever any difficulty in the question. But there is reason to think, that the world will soon be favoured with an opportunity of judging for itself, in regard to the merits of that performance.

ONE reason, though not the only one, which the Author has for mentioning the manner wherein the composition of this Work has been conducted, and the time it has taken,

PRE FACE. vii is, not to enhance its value with the Public, but to apologize in some measure for that inequality in the execution and the style, with

which, he is afraid, it will be thought charge}; able. It is his purpose in this Work, on the

one hand, to exhibit, he does not say, a correct map, but a tolerable sketch of the human mind; and aided by the lights which the poet and the orator fo amply furnish, to disclose its secret movements, tracing its principal channels of perception and action, as near as possible, to their source : and, on the other hand, from the science of human nature, to ascertain, with greater precision, the radical principles of that art, whose object it is, by the use of language, to operate on the foul of the hearer, in the way of informing, convincing, pleasing, moving, or persuading. In the prosecution of a design so extensive, there are two extremes to be fhunned. One is, too much abstraction in invertigating causes; the other, too much minuteness in specifying effects. By the firft, the perspicuity of a performance may be endangered; by the second, its dignity may be sacrificed. The Author does not flatter him



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self so far as to imagine, that he hath succeeded perfectly in his endeavours to avoid either extreme. In a work of this kind, it is impossible, that everything should be alike perspicuous to every reader, or that all the parts should be equally elevated. Variety in this respect, as well as in others, is perhaps, on the whole, more pleafing and more instructive, than too scrupulous an uniformity. To the eye the interchange of hill and dale beautifies the prospect; and to the ear there is no music in monotony. The Author can truly say, that he has endeavoured, as much as he could, in the most abstruse questions, to avoid obscurity; and in regard to such of his remarks as may be thought too minute and particular, if just, they will not, he hopes, on a re-examination, be deemed of no consequence. Those may serve to illustrate a general observation, which are scarcely worth notice as subjects either of censure or of praise. Nor is there any thing in this Book, which, in his opinion, will create even the smallest difficulty to perfons accustomed to inquire into the faculties of the mind. Indeed, the much greater part


ix of it will, he is persuaded, be level to the capacity of all those readers (not perhaps the most numerous class) who think reflection of some use in reading, and who do not read merely with the intention of killing time.

He begs leave to add, that, though his subject be Eloquence, yet, as the nature of his work is didactical, wherein the understanding only is addressed, the style in general admits no higher qualities than purity and perspicuity. These were therefore his highest aim. The best ornaments out of place are not only unbecoming but offensive. Nor can any thing be farther from his thoughts than to pretend to an exemption from such positive faults in expression, as, on the article of Elocution, he hath fo freely criticized in the best English authors. He is entirely sensible, that an impropriety or other negligence in style will escape the notice of the writer, which hardly escapes that of any body else. Next to the purpose of illustrating the principles and canons which he here submits to the judgment of the Public, the two following motives weighed most with the Author, in inducing him to use so much freedom in re


gard to the writings of those for whom he has the highest veneration. One is, to show that we ought in writing as in other things, carefully to beware of implicit attachment and fervile imitation, even when they seem to be claimed by the most celebrated names. The other is, to evince, that we are in danger of doing great injustice to a work, by deciding hastily on its merit from a collection of such oversights. If the critic be rigorous in marking whatever is amiss in this way, what author may abide the trial ? But though such slips are not to be regarded as the fole or even principal test of demerit in literary produc-, tions, they ought not to be altogether overlooked. Whatever is faulty in any degree it were better to avoid. And there are consequences regarding the language in general, as well as the success of particular works, which should preserve verbal criticism from being considered as beneath the attention of any author. An author fo far from having reason to be offended, is doubtless obliged to the man who, free from captious petulance, candidly points out his errors of what kind foever they be.


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