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No change, no grief, no age can them befall: “ Her amber hair like to the sanny tay,
Their bridal bed is in that heavenly hall, With gold enamels fair the silver wbite ; Where all days are but one, and only one is all. There heav'nly Loves their pretty sportings play, “ And as in state they thus in triumph ride,
Firing their darts in that wide faming light: The boys and damsels their just praises chant ,
Her dainty neck, spread with that silver
mold, The boys the bridegroom sing, the maids the
Where double beauty doth itself unfold, bride, While all the hills glad Hymens loudly vaunt:
In th' own fair silver shines, and fairer borrow'd Heav'n's winged shoals, greeting this glorious
“ His breast a rock of purest alabaster, (teth, Attune their higher notes, and Hymens sing: Where loves self-sailing shipwreck'd often sitEach thought to pass, and each did pass thought's Her's a twin-rock, unknown, but to th’ship-master; loftiest wing.
Which harbours bim alone, all other splitteth. “ Upon his lightning brow Love prondly sitting
Where better could her love than here have Flames out in pow'r, shines out in inajesty ;
[feasted? There all his lofty spoils and trophies fitting ;
Or he bis thoughts than bere more sweetly Displays the marks of highest Deity !
Then both their love and thoughts in each are ever There full of strength in lordly arms he stands,
rested. And every heart, and every soul commands :
“ Run now, you shepherd swains : ah! run you No heart, no soul, his strength and lordly force
Where this fair bridegroom leads the blessed Upon her forehead thousand cheerful Graces, And baste, you lovely maids, haste you together Seated on thrones of spotless ivory ;
With this sweet bride, while yet the sunshine There gentle love his armed hand unbraces;
(mons call, His bow unbent disclaims all tyranny ;
Guides your blind steps ; while yet loud sumThere by his play a thousand souls beguiles, That every wood and hill resounds withal,
Persuading more by simple modest smiles, Come, Hymen, Hymen, come, drest in thy golden Than ever he could force by arms, or crafty wiles. pall. “ Upon ber cheek doth Beauty's self implant “ The sounding echo back the music fung,
The freshest garden of her choicest flow'rs; While heav'nly spheres unto the voices play'd. On which, if Envy might but glance ascant, But see! the day is ended with my song, Her eyes would swell, and burst, and melt in And sporting bathes with that fair ocean maid: show'rs:
Stoop now thy wjug, my Muse, now stoop Thrice fajrer both than ever fairest ey'd;
thee low :
[now ; Heav'n never such a bridegroom yet descry'd; Hence may'st thou freely play, and rest thee Nor ever Earth so fair, so undefil'd a bride. While here I hang my pipe upon the willow - Full of his father shines his glorious face,
bough.” As far the Sun surpassing in his light,
So up they rose, while all the shepherds thmng As doth the Sun the Earth, with flaming blaze: With their loud pipes a country triumph blew, Sweet inõuence streams fron, his quick’ning sight: And led their Thirsil home with joyful song : His beams from nought did all this all dis Mean time the lovely nyinphs with garlands play;
[bound, And when to less than nonght they fell away, His locks in bay and honour'd palm-tree lle soon restor'd ain by his new orient ray.
With lilies set, and hyacinths around, " All Heav'n slines forth in her sweet face's frame:
And lord of all the year and their May sportings
Tuese, back restore the timely summer's fire,
But in the inirrors of her Spouse's eyes
(PREFIXED TO THF. edition of 1771.) All sweets, a glorious beauty to emparadise. It is common, and indeed natural, with most “ His looks like raven's plumes, or shining jet,
people who are either averse to thinking for themFall down in curls along his ivory neck;
selves, or are diffident of the rectitude of their Within their cirelets hundred Graces sel, (deck :
own opinions, to adopt implicitly, and retain with And with love-knots their correly liangings
zeal, the opinions of those who have acquired a His mighty shoulders, like that giant swain,
character in the world for ingenuity or penetra
tion. All Heav'n and Earth, and all in both sustain;
The name of Piscatory Eclogue is perhaps Yet knows no weariness, or feels oppressing pain. I unfavourable, from the severe treatment which
OP PASTORAL AND PISCATORY ECLOGU ..
Mr. Addison has been pleased to bestow on what part of our island, and allowed a master-piece of was the first attempt in this particular species of the pastoral kind', it had probably been measured composition, viz. the Eclogues of Sannazarins, by the same standard, and, in that case, as cerwhich (with all deference to the opinion of so able tainly coudemned. a critic) whoever shall peruse, will, it is believed, The word Pastoral implies, that the characters be convinced that they hardly deserve such usage. are shepherds : Eclogue signifies, a select poem Perhaps the truth was, that Mr. Addison, before of any kind ; but is generally applied to composiSannazarius came in his way, had laid down what tions of the like nature with pastorals; and so far he esteemed the essential requisites of pastoral, as they have some characterising marks in comand was afterwards, in his review of the pastoral mon, they may be judged of by a common stanwriters, necessarily obliged to praise or condemn dard; but an allowance must always be made for according to these rules.-However, it were ex the sentiments which are peculiar to the several tremely easy to show that several of his requisites characters. Thus we have seen Town Eclogues as are so far from being essentially necessary, that well as Pastoral Eclogues, to both of which it would many of the most esteemed pastorals can by be ridiculous to apply the same standard of simno means be reduced to, or measured by their plicity, &c.; each have their different merits, standard.
and are capable of their peculiar beauties. -PisThe pastoral state, according to his rules, is a catory Eclogue forms a third species, and cannot state of the most perfect simplicity, innocence, be measured by the standard of either of the forand ease ; in short, a golden age. It is not to be One rule is certain in all these composia denied, that in order to paint the pleasures of a tions : Examine the characters, and according as pastoral life, we inust bestow a tint of siinpli- ' they conform to nature, let the performance be city, and easy contentment; at the same time, judged. While we set up a visionary standard, nothing can be more fantastical than to depart such as that of a perfect state of innocence and entirely from nature and describe a manner of life, simplicity, we shall never find two persons who which neither ever dil, nor could possibly exist. agree exactly in opinion of the same performance, An affectation of this kind in the writers of pas Were it necessary to say any thing in recomtoral, is the reason why we are justly displeased | mendation of Piscatory Ecogue, we might assert with most of the modern pastorals, as well as with perhaps its advantages over Pastoral. The life of many of the ancient. But the compositions in this a fisherinan admits often of scenes as delightful way of writing, which are universally admired, will as those which the shepherd enjoys, and those be found to have departed far from this rule. The scenes are much more varied. The nature of the most esteemed Eclogues of Virgil admit often af occupation of the former gives rise to a greater polished, and even of refined sentiments: and it variety of incidents, and those likewise more inis with justice that we admire these, since it is teresting, than that of the latter can furnish.—A well known, that the earliest ages, and the greatest subject often handled must become trite, and Pissimplicity of manners have produced compositions catory Eclogne has the advantage over Pastoral in ricb in sentiments the most exalted, as well as displaying a field less beaten and less frequented.most beantiful. Many of Spenser's pastorals are But Fletcher's Eclogues will speak for themselves, so intolerably rude, (or simple, if one chooses to and sufficiently vindicate both the nature of the call them so), that they only excite ridicule: some composition and their own peculiar merit. there are extremely beautiful, but they are those These Eclogues have been but once printed, only where he has kept nature in view, and for- above 130 years ago, and they have met with a bore an over-affectation of simplicity.
fate which I am sure they do not merit, being Another rule of pastoral, according to this now almost unknown. I have illustrated them writer, and which indeed has a necessary depen- with notes, to explain some historical passages
dance on his first requisite, is, that the smallest which would have otherwise been obscure ; and hint of misfortune or calamity should be entirely likewise with some critical observations and similar banished from such a state of ease and innocence. passages from other poets, many of them old and He will allow only a few slight anxieties, such as but little known, with which I know some readers what a shepherd may feel on having his foot will not be displeased: at least, I am always pricked with a thorn, breaking his crook, or losing pleased to meet with the like in other performa favourite lamb; because, says he, we must ances, and I believe others are so too. think that life extremely happy, where these are the greatest misfortunes.-Rut besides the disguisting sentiment of improbability which this system conveys, we must always judge according to our
ECLOGUE I. own feelings; and instead of sympathising with the unhappy shepherd who laments such piteous calamities, we must undoubtedly laugh at him.The complaints of Virgil's Melibæus will affect every reader, because they are real, and come
THE ARGUMENT, home to every man's concerns.
The poet, under the character of Thelgon, a So much has been said on these, which Mr. fisher, paints his own father, and, in an alleAddison calls the requisites to pastoral, because gory, describes his life. Having spent his youth it is presumed he has on them founded bis criti. cism upon the Eclogues of Sannazarius. It is on 1 The Gentle Shepherd, a Scots pastoral cothese principles that he censures both Tasso and medy, where the characters and scenery are simple Guarini, in the Aminta and Pastor fido ; and had and beautiful, though at the same time strictly he seen a composition, the produce of the northern | natural.
in the country, he is solicited to court, where, though honourably employed by his sovereign, " You goodly nymphs, that in your marbie cell he seems to think his labours met not with the
In spending never spend your sportful dayes“, reward which they merited. This beautiful Or, when you list, in pearled boats of shell Eclogue begins with the most fanciful and pie. Glide on the dancing wave, that leaping plages turesque description. The season and scene
About the wanton skitie; and you that dwell are laid down :- An invocation to the sea
In Neptune's court, the ocean's plentcous nymphs :--Thelgou's childhood, and education
(song. among the fishers :--Tlie dawning and improve Deign you to gently hear sad Thelgon's plaining ment of his poetical genius:-His removal to court, and his employments in consequen e of it:-The rise of his love for Amyntas, with whom
“ When the raw blossom of my youth was yet he passionately expostulates. The Eclogue con In my first childhood's green enclosure bound, cludes with a most beautiful picture of the inno- Of Aquadune I learnt to fold my net, cent plea-ures of a fisher's lite, by which he en And spread the sail, and beat the river round, deavours to alluie Amyntas to reside with him. And withy labyrinths in straits to set,
And guide my boat where Thame and Isis heire By low y Æton slides, and Windsor proudly faire.
“ There, while our thinne nets dangling in the winde
Hung on our oares' tops, I learnt to sing I'r was the time faithful Halcyone',
Among my peers, apt words to fitly binde Once more enjoying new-liv'd Ceyx' bed,
In num'rous verse: witnesst thou ciystal springs Had lift her young birds to the wavering sea,
Where all the la'ís were pebles wont to finde : Bidding him calm his proud white-curled head,
And you, thick hasles, that on Thamis' brink And change his mountains to a champian lea;
Did oft with daliying bouglis his silver waters The time when gentle Flora's lover - reigues,
drink. Soft creeping all along green Neptune's emoothest plaines.
“But when my tender youth ’gan fairly blow, (seas:
I chang'd large Thames for Chamus' narrower When haplesse Thelgon (a poore fisher-swaine) There, as my years, so skill with years did grow; Came from his boat to tell the rocks his plaining:
And now my pipe the better sort did please ; In rocks he found, and the high-swelling main, So that with Limnus, and with Belgio,
More sense, inore pitie farre, more love remain I Jurst to challenge all my fisher peers, Than in the great Inyntas' fierce disdain : (ing, That by learn’d Chamus' banks did spend their Was not his peer for song 'mong all the lads
youthfull yeares'. Whose shrilling pipe, or voice, the sea born maiden glads.
4 Vide Eclogue III. $. 3. note 1.
In this description of the fisher's youth and About his head a rocky canopye,
education, there is a remarkable similarity to And craggy hangings, round a shadow threw, some passages in the 12th Eclogue of Spenser's Rebutting Phæbus' parching fervencie;
Shepherd's Calendar. Ile seems to have been an Into his bosom Zephyr softly dew;
admirer, and frequently too an imitator of that Hard by his feet the sea came waving by; (sang; great poet: but where he has borrowed his thoughts,
The while to seas and rocks (poor swaine!) be there are none, I believe, who, upon a comparison, The while the seas and rocks answ'ring loud echoes will deny that he has improved on then. The
furce: aud tenderness of sentiment, in many of
Spenser's Eclogues, is often much impaired by an | The poet's art is admirable, that in the first ailected rusticity of expression, which, though line be fills the reader's mind with a tender im some have imagined essential to pastoral, is enpression, by recalling to his memory the well- tirely distinct from simplicity and feeling, and is known mournful story of Ceyx and Halcyone, indeed unfit to convey such sentiments. This (Oviil. Met. b. xi. fab. 10.), at the same time that Fletcher well knew, and without losing sight of he uses it to convey a fine idea of the serenity of the characters of his speakers, has never descended the sea in spring.
to vulgarism or affected obscurity, 2 Zephyr.
• Extinctum nymphæ crudeli funere Daphnia 3 The scene here is finely imagined, and most Flebant: vos coruli testes, et flumina nymphis. beautifuily described. The numbers too, especi
Virg. Buc. Ecl. 5. ally the change and repetition of the words in the Our poet bas here beautifully improved on the two last lines of the stanza, have a fine effect on a musical ear. Dryden, that great master of bar thought of Virgil, by the addition of two fine mony in pumhers, has often used this change in whole stanza is picturesque in the highest de
images which are not exprest in the Latin. The the same words with admirable effect.
gree. The fanning wind upon her bosom blows,
7 The Chame or Cam is remarkable for its many To meet the fanning wind the bosom rose;
beautiful windings. It is here called learned, from The fanning wind and purlir.g streams continue her the university of Cambridge, which is situated on repcse.
the river. The university was founded, as some Cymon and Iphigenia. say, in the year 141; but Sigilbert, a Christian
XIV. u And Janus 'self, that oft with me compar'd, " And now he haunts th' infamous woods and With his oft losses raised my victory;
And on Napean nymphs doth wholly dote:[downs, That afterward in song he never dar'd
What cares he for poore Thelgon's plaintful sounds? Proroke my conqu'ring pipe; but enviously Thelgon, poore master of a poorer boat "o. Deprare the songs, which first his songs had marr'd; Janus is crept from his wont prison bounds,
And closely bite when now he durst not bark, And sits the porter to his eare and minde : [finde? Hating all others' light, because himself was dark. What hope Amyntas' love a fisher swaine should
" And a hether nature, joyn'd with art, had wrought
“ Yet once he said, (which I, then fool, believ'd), me,
(The woods of it, and Danon, witnesse be ;) Or I too much believ'd the fisher's praise;
When in fair Albion's fields he first arriv'd, Or whether Phæbus' self, or Moses, taught me,
* When I forget true 'Thelyon's love to me, Too much enclin'd to verse, and musicke playes; The love which ne'er my certain hope deceird ; So farre credulitje and youth had brought ine, The wavering sea shall stand, and rocks remove I sang sad Telethusa's frustrate plainte,
He said, and I believ'd ; so credulous is love. And ruitic Daphnis' wro:g, and magic's vain restrainte.
" You steady rocks, why yet do you stand still?
You fleeting waves, why do you never stand ? And then appeas'd young Myrtillos, repining Amyntas hath forgot bis Thelgon's quill; st general contempt of shepherd's life ;
His promise and his love are writ in sand : And raised my rime, to sing of Richard's Climbing; But rocks are firm though Neptune rage his fill;
And taught our Chame to end the old-bred strife, When thou, Amyntas, like the fire-drake Mythicus' claim to Nicias resigning:
[thon changest. The while his goodly nymphs with song delighted, The sea keeps on his course, when like the winde My notes with choicest flowers, and garlands sweet, requited.
" Yet as I swiftly sail'd the other day,
The settled rock seem'd from his seat remove, " From thence a shepherd great, pleas'd with my And standing waves seem'd doubtful of their way,
Drew me to Basilissa's' courtly place; (song, And by their stop thy wavering reprove : Fair Basilissa, fairest maid among
Sure either this thou didst but mocking say, The nymphs that white-cliffe Albion's forrests Or else the rock and sea had heard my plaining; grace.
But thou, ah me! art only constant in disdaining. Her errand drove my slender bark along
The seas which wash the fruitful German's land, “ Ah! would thou knew'st how much it better were' And swelling Rhene, whose wines run swiftly o'er To 'bide among the siniple fisher-swaines; the sand.
No shrieking owl, no night-crow lodgeth here'? ;
Nor is our simple pleasure mixt with pains : « But after, bolden'd with my first successe, Our sports begin with the beginning yeare ;
I durst essay the new-found paths, that led To slavish Mosco's dullard sluggishnesse ;
10 Hoc est, hoc, miserum quod perdidit. Ite Camænæ, Whose slotheful Sunne all winter keeps his bed, Ite procul, sprevit nostras Galatea querelas: But never sleeps in suminer's wakefulnesse :
Scilicet exiguæ videor quod navita cymbæ, Yet all for nought: another took the guin ::
Quodque leves hamos, nodosque retia tracto, Faitour, that reapt the pleasure of another's pain ! Despicior
Sannazar, Ec. 2.
11 This, and the two following stanzas, for eleXIII. * And travelling along the northern plains,
gance and true pastoral simplicity will yield to At her command I pass'd the bounding Twede,
few compositions, whether of the present age or And liv'd a while with Caledonian swains :
12 Mr. Addison, in his criticism on pastoral My life with fair Amyntas there I led : Anyntas fair, whom still my sore heart plains.
poetry, will allow no greater misfortune or incon.
venience to be described as incident to the state of Yet seem'd he then to love as he was lov'd; But (ah!) I fear, true love his high heart never
simplicity which is there supposed, than leftprov'd.
handed oaks, shrieking ravens, or at most the loss of a lamb or goat. Fletcher, in this passage, will
not fall under his censure, where he paints the king of the East-Saxons, is allowed to have been owl and the night-crow as the most disagreeable the first who established regular schools there. objects attending the life of a shepherd or fisher. Next Camus, reverend sire, went footing slow,
But this is too squeamish a piece of. criticism. His mantle hairy, and his bonnet sedge, There is no occasion for removing ourselves so far Inwrought with figures dim, and on the edge,
from real nature. Virgil, who disdained all peLike to that sanguine flow'r, inscrib'd with woe.
dantic restraint, has not confined himself to a Milton's Lycidas.
golden age for the scene of his pastorals. He has
painted his shepherds driven from the peaceful en• Probably the usurpation of Richard III. of joyment of their fields and flocks, and exposed to England. The other names are fictitious, or per- | insults from the soldiers and barbarians; and this haps they allude to stories told by other poets, serves to heighten the idea of pastoral innocence which I have never met with,
and simplicity, where such calamities are so power? Q. Elisabeth,
In calms, to pull the leaping fish to land; with all the force and tenderness of poetical In roughs, to sing and dance along the golden sand.
expression. " I have a pipe which once thou lovedst well,
DORUS, MYRTILUS, THOMALIN, THIRSIL
Myrtl., why idle sit we on the shore? In tb' ocean's rocky walls, came up to heare,
Since stormy winues and waves intestine spite Aud gave me gifts, which still for thee lye hoarded
Impatient rage of sail or bending oare; here.
Sit we, and sing, while windes and waters fight;
And carol loud of love, and love's delight. “ Here, with sweet bays, the lovely myruils grow,
Where th' ocean's fair-check'd maidens oft rcHere to my pipe they dancen on a row: pair;
No other swain may come to note their fair; Dorus, ah rather stormy seas require, Yet my Amyntas there with me shall go.
With sadder notes, the tempest's rage deplore: Proteus himself pipes to his flock bereby '.[eye. In calins let's sing of love and lover's fire. Whom thou shalt heare, ne'er scen by any jealous Tell me bow Thirsil late our seas foreswore,
When forc'd he left our Chame, and desert shore. “ But ab ! both me and shepherds he disdains,
While I sit piping to the gadding winde ; Better that to the boist'rous sea complains;
Now, as thou art a lad, repeat that lay; Sooner fierce waves are mor'd, than his harde Myrtil, his songs more please my ravish'd eare', minde.
Than rumbling brooks that with the pebbles play, I'll to some rock far from our common mains ',
Than murm'ring seas broke on the banks to heare,
Seest thon that rock, which hanging o'er the Dividing with his oare the surging maine,
Looks proudly down? there as I under lay, (main Which, dropping, seem'd with teares his case to
Thirsil with Thomalin I heard complain; weep;
Thomalin, (who now goes sighing all the day), The whistling windes joyn'd with the scas to
Who thus 'gan tempt his friend with Chamish boys And o'er his boat in whines lamenting creep.
Nought feared be fierce ocean's wat'ry ire, Who in his heart of grief and love felt equal fire.
TIIOMALIN. 13 Proteus was Neptune's herdsman, and kept
Thirsil, what wicked chance, or luckless starre, his sea-calves; he was jealous of being seen by the
From Chamus' streams removes thy boat and mind? shepherds, who used to surprise and bind him,
Farre hence thy boat is bound, thy mind more that he might sing to them, and tell them their
More sweet or fruitful streams where canst tbou
Where fisher-lads, or nympbs more fair or kind? τιν δού μελι. Ουκετ' αειδα
The Muses selves sit with the sliding Chame: Κισιύμαι δε πισων, και τοι λυκοι και δε μ' εδοντι Chame and the Muses selves do love thy name. Ως μιλι του γλυκο τούτο κατα βροχθοιο γενοιτο. . Where thou art lov'd so dear, so much to hate is TueocrIT. Idyll. 3.
The Muses me forsake, not I the Muses;
Not I my Chame, but me proud Chame refuses;
But like his swannes, when now their fate is nigh, Dorus and Myrtilus sitting on the beach, while Where singing sweet they livið there dead thuy lie'; the weather is unfavourable for fishing, amuse
So would I gladly live, so would I gladly die. themselves with a song. Myrtilus relates the cause of Thirsil's abandoning the employment lis stubborn hands my net hath broken quite: of a fisher, and forsaking his vative streams. My fish (the guerdon of my toil and pain) The author's father's misfortunes are again He causelesșe seiz'd, and, with ungrateful spite, touch'd on, in the character of Thelgon, conched Bestow'd upon a lesse deserving swain : under a beautiful allegory. Thirsil affected the cost and labour mine, his all the gain. with the ungenerons fate of his friend, and resenting likewise bis own unmerited hardships, * Nam neque me tantum venientis sibilus austri, forswears for ever his country and his occupa- Nec percussa jurant fiuctu tam littora, nec que tion. His parting with Thomalin, and the Saxusa inter decurrunt fumina valles. baunts and delights of his youth, are described
Virg. Buc. Ecl. 5,