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jesty's intention to dissolve, with thank you for the provisions which out delay, the present parliament, you have made for the service of and to direct the issue of writs for the year. the calling of a new one.

“ His Majesty's attention will “ His Majesty cannot take leave be constantly directed to the reof you without commanding us to duction of the public expenditure, express his Majesty's deep sense of in every degree that may be conthe zeal and public spirit which sistent with the due maintenance you have constantly displayed in of the security, honour, and inthe discharge of your several im- terests, of his kingdom. portant functions.

My Lords and Gentlemen, His Majesty particularly acknowledges the promptitude and ." We are specially commanded discretion with which you have to assure you, that his Majesty's applied yourselves to the objects paternal feelings have been deeply specially recommended to you by affected by the distresses which his Majesty at the commencement have prevailed among the manuof this session : and his Majesty facturing classes of his Majesty's confidently hopes, that the good subjects; and by the exemplary effect of your deliberations will be patience with which those dismanifested in the improved sta tresses have been generally borne. bility of public and private credit. “ His Majesty trusts, that the Disc His Majesty has the satisfac causes out of which the partial tion to inform you, that the dis- stagnation of employment has tinguished skill, bravery, and suc arisen, are, under the blessing of cess, with which the operations of Providence, in a course of gradual the British Arms in the dominions abatement. of the king of Ava have been car “ His Majesty is confident that ried on, have led to the signature, your presence and example in your upon highly honourable terms, of several counties will contribute to a preliminary treaty with that maintain and encourage the loyal sovereign, which his Majesty has and orderly spirit which pervades every reason to expect will be the the great body of his people. foundation of a secure and per “And his Majesty relies upon manent peace.

your disposition to inculcate that "His Majesty further commands harmony and mutual good-will us to repeat to you, that his Ma- among the several great

interests jesty's earnest endeavours have con of the country, upon which the tinued to be unremittingly exerted common prosperity of them all esto prevent the breaking out of sentially depends." hostilities among nations; and to put an end to those which still un On the 2nd of June Parliament happily exist, as well in America was dissolved, and writs ordered to as in Europe.

be issued for a new election, the “Gentlemen of the House of writs to be returnable on the 25th Commons,

of July. *s'« His Majesty commands us to

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CHAP. VII.

General Election- State of the Harvest--Importation of Grain allowed

--Meeting of the new Parliament-King's Speech-Amendment on the Address in the House of Lords, moved by Lord King-Amendment on the

e Address in the House of Commons, moved by Mr. Hume -Amendment moved by Mr. Western - Act of Indemnity-Motion for a Select Committee on Joint-Stock Companies--Resolutions against Bribery at Elections, moved by Lord Althorp-Resolutions for regulating Committees on Private Bills, moved by Mr. Littleton-King's Message respecting the Conduct of Spain towards Portugal-Mr. Canning's Speech on an Address in Answer to the Message-Discussion in the House of Commons-Mr. Canning's Reply- Address moved in the House of Lords-Speech of the Duke of WellingtonSailing of an Armament for Portugal-Adjournment.

LTHOUGH the elections, a single question of very difficult

which followed immediately solution. the dissolution of parliament, pre The Corn-laws, and Catholic sented several scenes of active and Emancipation, were the topics most vigorous individual combat, they frequently resorted to on the husdid not possess that interest which tings. As the lower classes had had attaches to them when their issue the impression that their food was is to decide the fate of contending high because the Corn-laws exparties. Mr. Stephen endeavoured isted to enrich the landholder, to to make the Slave-trade a test, by declare an opinion in favour of publishing an address to the elec- their abolition could not fail to tors of the United Kingdom, in gain cheers at a popular election. which he recommended to them Yetit is worthy of remark, that even that the first question put to a

where candidates found it necesa candidate should be, whether he sary or prudent to express their was a West-India Merchant, or sentiments on the subject, they selproprietor of slaves ? and, if the dom spoke of any specific enmity question should be in the affirma- to the landholders, or gave any tive, to refuse him the countenance pledge to keep food cheap, but of a single suffrage. Enthusiasm is found shelter behind the vague and almost always inconsistent, and, to unmeaning promise of supporting its vision, one single object occu such measures as would be equally pies all space. No better illus- for the benefit of the grower and the tration of this could be found, than consumer. At Liverpool a miserthat a sensible man should under- able attempt was made to get up value in a legislator all the quali- an opposition to Mr. Huskisson. ties suited for the discussion of The pretext for it was, that the the complicated interests of Great mercantile policy of the cabiBritain, because they might be net had injured the manufactures biassed to one particular side on

of the country, and the trade of

the port. But its abettors were defeat, announcing, that “he would few, and ignorant, and mean, repeat the experiment till it sucand could not find a candidate to ceeded.” That Cobbett should have accept of their vulgar support. polled nearly a thousand votes in Sir Francis Burdett and Mr. Hob- Preston is perfectly natural, behouse were returned for Westmins cause Preston enjoys almost uni. ter without opposition ; in South- versal suffrage ; and the fact is an wark, sir Robert Wilson was op- edifying example of the effects of posed strongly, but unsuccessfully. that mode of distributing the elecIn the county of Westmoreland, tive franchise. On the part of Mr. Brougham was again made the the man of the people the election instrument of a struggle against was a scene of unmixed blackthe family of Lowther, but received guardism. On its termination he a more signal defeat than in his thus addressed his mob: former attacks. In Northumbera Gentlemen, I have done much land, lord Howick and Mr. Beau- good to you by my coming ; I have mont (one of the former members sweated your tyrants--I have bled for that county) both failed, al- them. I have made the silly though each of them, before the Honourable (Mr. Stanley) throw election was done, gave his second 15,000l. among you, and that's no votes with a ministerial and suce joke; for though these lords have cessful candidate. In Scotland, the too much land, they have not too only struggle was for the represen- much money. I have tickled the tation of the stewartry of Kircud- captain too; I have made him bright, from which the former dance to some tune; he must have member was ousted by a majority pledged his half-pay to keep open of one in favour of Mr. Ferguson house for you, and now, like the of Craigdarroch, who had returned other half-pays in London, he must to his native country a voluntary live on plates of beef and goes

of exile of more than twenty years gin for the next seven years. As in India, whither he had gone to to Mr. Wood, I could not draw practise as a barrister after his con any money out of him, for the viction, along with lord Thanet, poor devil had none to spend ; but for a riot in the court at Maid- his father Otty Wood, the miserly stone on the trial of Arthur old sugar baker of Liverpool, I O'Connor.

have extracted from his pocket Cobbett had the courage to offer what a hundred-horse-power steamhimself to the electors of Preston, engine could not draw from him where he found amongst them a I have made him spend 7,000l. good many kindred hearts; and These are what I have done for Hunt, once a bold and dangerous you, good gentlemen. But I have demagogue (in so far as the power done more--I have kept out the and inclination to excite confusion Tory captain Barry. Not that I makes a man dangerous) but whose like Wood either; I only dislike fame had now sunk into that of a him least of the two; but you very successful manufacturer of shall not be cursed with either one shoe-blacking, had the effrontery or other of them, gentlemen. The to start for the county of Somerset, election is not worth a straw. I'll in special opposition to sir Thomas have it set aside next April, when Lethbridge, and to retire from his I'll bleed our opponents again, and

you'll elect for your representative carried before the lord mayor. the only man who has the wish Lord John Russell lost his elecand the ability, the heart and the tion for the county of Huntingdon; head, to serve you and his country his brother, the marquis of Tavis-myself, gentlemen, myself” He tock, was only second on the poll, did keep his promise so far as to in the county of Bedford, after petition against the return; but he Mr. Mi Queen an anti-Catholic neglected to enter into his recog- candidate ; and Mr. Pym, the other nizanees, and the petition was candidate on the Bedford interest, discharged.

lost his election altogether. EmanThe Catholic question was cipation, or resistance to emancibrought forward much more dis« pation, was not indeed proposed to tinctly, even in England: the vio- candidates as a test or generally or lence, and threats (for their lan- loudly; but, on the result of the guage was nothing less) of the English elections, the opponents of Catholics had called up a corres- that measure did gain an accession ponding spirit to resist them. It of strength. was known that their claims would It was in Ireland, and naturally be one of the earliest subjects of so, that the giving or refusing of a diseussion in the new parliament: vote depended on the answer rethe one party, therefore, strove to ceived to the question--will you insure the election of a House of vote for emancipation? The de Commons which would support magogues of the Catholic assoemancipation by so powerful a ma- ciation gave themselves entirely jority as to overcome, by moral in- up to carrying this one point, and Auence and political expediency, the were aided by a band of much majority of the House of Lords; more powerful agitators. The Cawhile the other struggled to regain tholic priests now mixed openly in that ascendancy in the House of the conflict; the contest on the Commons which they had lost in hustings was converted into an 1825, but had lost in a degree so award of eternal damnation; the small as to be yet recoverable. Of consolations of the church here, four candidates whom Yorkshire and the joys of heaven herefor the first time returned, two after, were lavished in promise were elected on the declared upon the Catholic peasant who ground of being opposed to

being opposed to voted for an emancipation candiemancipation; and lord Milton date; the darkness of excommunihad to submit to be interrupted in cation in this life, and the gloom his address from the hustings by of purgatory, or the flames of hell clamorous shouts of " no popery." in that which is to come, were de In London, alderman Wood, who nounced against him if he should so trembled for his election, complain- forget his God as to vote for an antied bitterly that his attachment catholic. Over the tattered and iga to the cause of the Catholics should norant peasant, whom his miserable he made a reason for opposing patch of potatoe-ground, rated at him: and a placard having been forty shillings, constituted a freeposted up, like other electioneering holder, the tyrannical sway of the squibs, alluding to that attachment, priest, armed with the terrors of the alderman actually had the hap* eternity, was irresistible. The as less bill-stieker apprehended, and sociated barrister and the political

priest travelled the country toge- and here are your priests who wait ther; in order to propagate the on the bed of your sickness, and common creed--the one, by threats are your friends alike in prospeof damnation, and the other, byrity or woe: follow us or them.” the more temporal considerations Mr. Shiell said, " the whole of civil and religious power; and, body of the peasantry have risen to insure any portion of the elo- up in a tumultuous revolt against quence expended from being lost their landlords. I avow that this upon the motley and unlettered extraordinary political phenomenon audience, when the lay apostle had is, to a great extent, the result of delivered his exhortation in Eng- the interposition of the clergy, lish, his clerical brother followed in whose influence has been brought their native Irish. Not merely into full and unrestrained activity.” political opposition, but downright This interference of a new inpersonal hatred towards an anti- fluence for the first time was catholic candidate was inculcated beneficial for the present, in the as a Christian duty. Mr. OʻCon- Irish elections, to the supporters nel traversed the county of Water- of emancipation : how far it may ford, with a rev. Mr. Sheehan by ultimately benefit the cause is his side, 'to rouse it against the more doubtful. The zeal and family of Beresford. Every tie of violence of the priesthood gave respect and civil influence which the question a new character, and had hitherto united the Catholic opened a new view of the intenant to his Protestant landlord, tended consequences of emancipagave way before the tremendous tion. What is called emancipation power of the church, hurrying on is a civil right, and, if granted, the unthinking votaries of igno- would reach only a few laynen. rance and

superstition. The It requires a considerable share of consequences were inevitable : the credulity to believe that the acpriest-hood wielded the electors, the tivity of the clergy had no conneclandlords were attacked and de- tion with the interests of their feated by those very forty-shilling own order ; that they laboured freeholders whom they had them with such diligence, and employed selves created for political purpo- all the powers of their church, ses; and wherever an anti-catho- merely from a generous willingness lic candidate came in contact with to assist others in a cause which the church, his failure was inevit- could be productive of no advantage able. In the county of Water to them. It is not uncharitable to ford, lord George Beresford, a believe that, in following a meremember of by far the first family ly civil measure under the standof the county, was compelled to ard of pretended civil liberty, they give up the contest, his own ten- foresee the gradual elevation of antry being marched forth against their own hierarchy. Never have him by Mr. O'Connel and the rev. the Catholic clergy, as a body, Mr. Sheehan. At a meeting held been the friends of civil liberty ; in Clonmel

, shortly after the and, in looking at their conduct in elections, to celebrate the triumph, the Irish elections, Protestants Mr. Sheehan, the priest, said, “we may find reason to suspect, that the said to the people, here are the Catholic church sees in emancipanatural enemies of your country, tion something much more closely

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