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it derived, however, fresh vigour "What, then, is the force-what

, effect that epoch to the present hour, ties? If all the treaties to which this has the independent monarchy article of the treaty of Vienna refers, of Portugal ceased to be nurtured had perished by some convulsion of by the friendship of Great Britain.' nature, or had, by some extraorThis alliance has never been seri- dinary accident, been consigned to ously interrupted; but it has been total oblivion, still it would be imrenewed by repeated sanctions. It possible not to admit, as an inconhas been maintained under diffi- testable inference from this article culties by which the fidelity of of the treaty of Vienna alone, that other alliances' was shaken, and in a moral point of view, there is has been vindicated in fields of incumbent on Great Britain, a deblood and of glory.

cided obligation to act as the " It is not at distant periods of effectual defender of Portugal. If history, and in by-gone ages only, I could not show the letter of thatthe traces of the union between a single antecedent stipulation, Great Britain and Portugal are to I should still contend that a solemn be found. In the last compact of admission, only ten years old, of the modern Europe, the compact which existence at that time of “ Treaties forms the basis of its present inter- of Alliance, Friendship, and Guarnational law-I mean the treaty antee,” held Great Britain to the of Vienna of 1815—this country, discharge of the obligations which with its eyes open to the possible that very description implies. But inconveniences of the connection, fortunately there is no such difficulbut with a memory awake to its ty in specifying the nature of those past benefits-solemnly renewed obligations. The preceding treaties the previously existing obligations are so numerous, and their general of alliance and amity with Portu- result is so uniform, that it may be gal. The third article of the treaty sufficient to select only two of concluded at Vienna in 1815, bee them to show the nature of all. tween Great Britain on the one “The treaty of 1661, which was hand, and Portugal on the other, concluded at the time of the maris couched in the following terms: riage of Charles the 2nd with the

The Treaty of Alliance con- Infanta of Portugal, after recita cluded at Rio de Janeiro, on the ing the marriage, and making 19th of February, 1810, being over to Great Britain, in consefounded on circumstances of a quence of that marriage, first, a temporary nature, which have considerable sum of money, and happily ceased to exist, the said secondly, several important places ; Treaty is hereby declared to be runs thus:- In consideration of void in all its parts and of no effect;. all which grants, so much to the without prejudice however, to the benefit of the King of Great Britain, ancient Treaties of alliance, friends and his subjects in general, and of ship, and guarantee, which have so the delivery of those important long and so happily subsisted be- places to his said Majesty, and his tween the two Crowns, and which heirs for ever, &c. the King of are hereby renewed by the High Great Britain does profess and Contracting Parties, and acknow- declare, with the consent and adledged to be of full force and effect.' vice of his council, that he will VOL. LXVIII.


take the interest of Portugal and by recruiting it from time to time all its dominions to heart, defend- at their own expense.' ing the same with his utmost “ It is not, however, on specific power, by sea and land, even as articles alone-it is not so much, England itself :'--and it then pro- perhaps, on either of these ancient ceeds to specify the succours to be treaties taken separately as it is sent, and the manner of sending on the spirit and understanding of them.

the whole body of treaties, of “ The treaty of 1703 was a tri- which the essence is concentrated partite engagement between the and preserved in the treaty of States-general of Holland, Eng- Vienna, that we acknowledge in land, and Portugal. The second Portugal a right to look to Great article of that treaty sets forth, Britain as her ally and defender. that “if ever it shall happen that This being the state, morally and the Kings of Spain and France, politically, of our obligations toeither the present or the future, wards Portugal, it is obvious that that both of them together, or when Portugal, in apprehension of either of them separately, shall the coming storm, called on Great make war, or give occasion to sus- Britain for assistance, the only pect that they intend to make war, hesitation on our part could be upon the kingdom of Portugal, not whether that assistance was either on the continent of Europe, due, supposing the occasion for or on its dominions beyond seas; demanding it to arise--but simply, her majesty the queen of Great whether that occasion in other Britain, and the lords the States- words, whether the casus fæderiş general, shall use their friendly had arisen. offices with the said kings, or “In our opinion it had. Bands either of them, in order to of Portuguese rebels, armed, equip, persuade them to observe the ped, and trained, in Spain, had terms of peace towards Portugal, crossed the Spanish frontier, carryand not to make war upon ing terror and devastation into

The third article declares, their own country, and proclaiming that, in the event of these good sometimes the brother of the reignoffices not proving successful, but ing sovereign of Portugal, some altogether ineffectual, so that war times a Spanish princess, and should be made by the aforesaid sometimes even Ferdinandof Spain, kings, or by either of them, upon as the rightful occupant of the Portugal, the above mentioned Portuguese throne. These rebels powers of Great Britain and crossed the frontier, not at one Holland, shall make war with all point only, but at several points : their force, upon the foresaid kings for it is remarkable, that the or king who shall carry hostile aggression, on which the original arms into Portugal: and towards application to Great Britain for that war which shall be carried on succour was founded, is not the in Europe, they shall supply aggression with reference to which 12,000 men, whom they shall that application has been complied arm and pay, as well when in with. The attack announced by quarters as in action; and the said the French newspapers was on the High Allies shall be obliged to north of Portugal, in the province keep that number of men complete, of Tras-os-Montes; an official ac count of which has been received tion, that the mercenaries in this by his majesty's government only instance were natives of Portugal ? this day. But on Friday an account “ The vote for which I call, is a was received of an invasion in the vote for the defence of Portugal, south of Portugal, and of the not a vote for war against Spain. capture of Villa Viciosa, a town Unjustifiable as I shall show the lying on the road from the south- conduct of Spain to have been ern frontier to Lisbon. This new contrary to the law of nations, and fact established even more satisface of good neighbourhood, of God torily than a mere confirmation of and of man, still I do not mean to the attack first complained of preclude a locus poenitentiæ, a would have done, the systematic possibility of redress and reparation. nature of the aggression from Spain It is our duty to fly to the defence against Portugal

. One hostile of Portugal, be the assailant who irruption might have been made by he may. In thus fulfilling the some single corps escaping from stipulations of ancient treaties, of their quarters-by some body of the existence and obligation of stragglers, who might have evaded which all the world are aware, we, the vigilance of Spanish authori- according to the universally adties; and one such accidental and mitted construction of the law of unconnected act of violence might nations, neither make war upon not have been conclusive evidence that assailant, nor give to that of cognizance and design on the assailant, much less to any other part of those authorities. But when power, just cause of war against a series of attacks are made along ourselves. the whole line of a frontier, it is “ In some quarters, it has been difficult to deny that such multi- imputed to his majesty's ministers, plied instances of hostility are that an extraordinary delay inevidence of concerted aggression. tervened between the taking of the

" If a single company of Spanish determination to give assistance to soldiers had crossed the frontier in Portugal, and the carrying of that hostile

array, there could not be a determination into effect. But doubt as to the character of that how stands the fact ? On Suninvasion. Shall bodies of men, day, the 3rd of this month, we armed, clothed, and regimented by received from the Portuguese amSpain, carry fire and sword into bassador a direct and formal demand the bosom of her unoffending of assistance against a hostile agneighbour, and shall it be pretended gression from Spain. Our answer that no attack, no invasion has was that although rumours had taken place, because, forsooth, reached us through France, his these outrages are committed against majesty's government had not that Portugal by men to whom Portugal accurate information that official had given birth and nurture? What and precise intelligence of factspetty quibbling would it be, to say on which they could properly that an invasion of Portugal from found an application to parliament. Spain was not a Spanish invasion, It was only on last Friday night because Spain did not employ her that this precise information arown troops, but hired mercenaries rived. On Saturday his majesty's to effect her purpose? And what confidential servants came to a difference is it, except as aggravaa decision. On Sunday that de


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the rsanction of his fairly carried into effect. - InterMonday it was com- nally, let the Portuguese settle both Houses of Pare their own affairs; but with rethis day, Sir at the spect to external force, while

I have the honour Great Britain has an'arm to raise, of addressing you.--the troops are it must be raised against the efforts on their march for embarkation. of any power that should attempt

As to the merits of the new forcibly to control the choice, and 2 constitution of Portugal, I have fetter the independence, of Pora ? neither the intention, nor the tugal. 1: right, to offer any opinion. Per- “ Has such been the intention of (isonally, I may have formed one; Spain? Whether the proceedings but as an English minister, all I which have lately been practised have to say isa May God pros- or permitted in Spain, were acts of per this attempt at the establish- a government exercising the usual ment of constitutional liberty in power of prudence and foresight, Portugal ! and may that nation (without which a government is be found as fit to enjoy and to for the good of the people which ocherish its new-born privileges, as live under it no government at all), ját has often proved itself capable of or whether they were the acts of

discharging its duties amongst the some secret illegitimate power i nations of the world!'

of some furious fanatical faction, por "I am neither the champion nor over-riding the councils of the

the critic of the Portuguese .con- ostensible government, defying it vystitution. But it is admitted on in the capital, and disobeying it on all hands to have proceeded from a the frontiers. I will not stop to legitimate source-and to us, as inquire. It is indifferent to PortuEnglishmen, it is recommended gal, smarting under her wrongs by the ready acceptance which it it is indifferent to England, who has met 'with from all orders of is called upon to avenge them the Portuguese people. To that whether the present state of things constitution it is impossible that be the result of the intrigues of a Englishmen should not wish well. faction, over which, if the Spanish But it would not be for us to government has no control, visit force it on the people of Portugal, ought to assume one as soon as if they were unwilling to receive possible or of local authorities, it or if any schism should exist over whom it has control, and amongst the Portuguesethemselves, for whose acts it must, therefore, *as to its fitness and congeniality be held responsible. It matters

to the wants and wishes of the not, I say, from which of these nation. It is no business of ours sources the evil has arisen.

In to fight its battles. We go to either case, Portugal must be proPortugal in the discharge of a tected; and from England that sacred obligation, contracted under protection is due. ancientand modern treaties. When Great, desertions took

place there, nothing shall be done by us from the Portuguese army into to enforce the establishment of the Spain, and some desertions took place constitution--but we must take from the Spanish arny into Por-care that nothing shall be done by tugal. In the first instance, the others to prevent it from being Portuguese authorities were taken

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by surprise; but, in every subse- with the Spanish government to quent instance, where they had an prove, that if its engagements have opportunity of exercising'a discre- not been fulfilled if its intentions tion, it is but just to say, that they have been eluded and unexecuted, uniformly discouraged the deser- the fault has not been with the tions of the Spanish soldiery. government; and that it is ready There exist between Spain and to make every reparation in its Portugal specific treaties, stipulat- power. ing the mutual surrender of de- I have said that these promises serters. Portugal had, therefore, were made to France and to Great a right to claim of Spain that every Britain, as well as 'to Portugal. Portuguese deserter should be I should do a great injustice to

forthwith sent back. I hardly France if I were not to add, that know whether from its own im- the representations of that govem pulse, or in consequence of our ment upon this point, with the advice, the Portuguese government cabinet of Madrid, have been as waved its right underthose treaties; urgent, and, alas ! as fruitless, ' às very wisely reflecting, that it would those of Great Britain. Upon the be highly inconvenient to be placed first irruption into the Portuguese by the return of their deserters, in territory, the French government the difficult alternative of either testified its displeasure by instantly granting a dangerous amnesty, or recalling its ambassador ; and it ordering numerousexecutions. The further directed its chargé d'affaires Portuguese government, therefore, to signify to his Catholic majesty, i signified to Spain that it would be that Spain was not to look for any entirely satisfied if, instead of sur- support from France against the rendering the deserters, Spain consequences of this aggression would restore their arms, horses, upon Portugal. I am bound, I and equipments; and, separating repeat, in justice to the French the men from their officers, would government, to state, that it has remove both from the frontiers into exerted itself to the utmost, in the interior of Spain. Solemn en- urging Spain to retrace the steps gagements were entered into by which she has so unfortunately

the Spanish government to this taken. It is not for me to say effect=first with Portugal, next whether any more efficient course with France, and afterwards with might have been adopted to give England. Those engagements, effect to their exhortations : but as . concluded one day, were violated to the sincerity and good faith of

the next. The deserters, instead the exertions made by the governof being disarmed and dispersed, ment of France, to press Spain to were allowed to remain congregated the execution of her engagements, together near the frontiers of Pore I have not the shadow of a doubt ; tugal; where they were enrolled, and I confidently reckon upon trained, and disciplined, for the their continuance. expedition which they have since “ There are reasons which enundertaken. It is plain that in tirely satisfy my judgment that nothese proceedings, there was perfidy thing short of a point of national somewhere. It rests with the faith or national honour, would jus« Spanish government to show, that tify at the present moment, any voit was not with them-it rests Juntary approximation to the possia

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