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cision received the sanction of his fairly carried into effect. Intermajesty. On Monday it was com- rnally, let the Portuguese settle münicated to both Houses of Pare their own affairs ; but with reliament- and this day, Sir--at the spect to external force, while hour in which I have the honour Great Britain has an arm to raise, of addressing you the troops are it must be raised against the efforts on their march for embarkation..t of any power that should attempt
“As to the merits of the new forcibly to control the choice, and 2 constitution of Portugal, I have fetter the independence, of Pori neither the intention, nor the tugal. right, to offer any opinion. Per “Has such been the intention of sonally, I may have formed one; Spain? Whether the proceedings but as an English minister, all í which have lately been practised
have to say is May God pros or permitted in Spain, were acts of per this attempt at the establish
a government exercising the usual ment of constitutional liberty in power of prudence and foresight, 2 Portugal! and may that nation (without which a government is be found as fit ito enjoy and to for the good of the people which scherish its new-born privileges, as live under it no government at all), ját has often proved itself capable of or whether they were the acts of
discharging its duties amongst the some secret illegitimate power jnations of the world!'
of some furious fanatical faction, 249. "I am neither the champion nor over-riding the councils of the the critic of the Portuguese con- ostensible government, defying 4
it stitution. But it is admitted on in the capital, and disobeying it on * all hands to have proceeded from a
the frontiers. I will not stop to legitimate source and to us, as inquire. It is indifferent to PortuEnglishmen, it is recommended gal, smarting under
her wrongs. by the ready acceptance which it it is indifferent to England, who has met with from all orders of is called upon to avenge the Portuguese people. To that whether the present state of things constitution it is impossible that be the result of the intrigues of a Englishmen should not wish well. faction, over which, if the Spanish But it would not be for us to government has no control, it force it on the people of Portugal, ought to assume one, as soon as if they were unwilling to receive possible or of local authorities, itsmor if any schism should exist over whom it has control, and amongst the Portuguesethemselves, for whose acts it must, therefore, as to its fitness and congeniality be held responsible. It matters to the wants and wishes of the not, I say, from which of these nation. It is no business of ours sources the evil has arisen. to fight its battles. We go to either case, Portugal must be proPortugal in the discharge of a tected; and, from England that sacred obligation, contracted under protection is due. ancient and modern treaties. When Le Great, desertions took place there, nothing shall be done by us from the Portuguese army into to enforce the establishment of the Spain, and somedesertions took place constitution--but we must take from the Spanish army into Por-care that nothing shall be done by tugal. In the first instance, the others to prevent it from being Portuguese authorities were taken
- by surprise; but, in every subsé- with the Spanish government to quent instance, where they had an prove, that if its engagements have opportunity of exercising a discre- not been fulfilled
if its intentions tion, it is but just to say, that they have been eluded and unexecuted, uniformly discouraged the deser- the fault has not been with the tions of the Spanish soldiery government; and that it is ready There exist between Spain and to make every reparation in its Portugal specific treaties, stipulat- power. ing the mutual surrender of dem “ I have said that these promises serters. Portugal had, therefore, were made to France and to Great a right to claim of Spain that every Britain, as well as to Portugal. Portuguese deserter should be I should do a great injustice to forthwith sent back. I hardly France if I were not to add, that know whether from its own im- the representations of that govempulse, or in consequence of our ment upon this point, with the advice, the Portuguese government cabinet of Madrid, have been as waved its right under those treaties; urgent, and, alas ! as fruitless, ' as very wisely reflecting, that it would those of Great Britain. Upon the be highly inconvenient to be placed first irruption into the Portuguese by the return of their deserters, in territory, the French government the difficult alternative of either testified its displeasure by instantly granting a dangerous amnesty, or recalling its ambassador ; and it ordering numerousexecutions. The further directed its chargé d'affaires Portuguese government, therefore, to signify to his Catholic majesty, signified to Spain that it would be that Spain was not to look for any entirely satisfied if, instead of sur- support from France against the rendering the deserters, Spain consequences of this aggression
would restore their arms, horses, upon Portugal. I am bound, I and equipments ; and, separating repeat, in justice to the French the men from their officers, would government, to state, that it has remove both from the frontiers into exerted itself to the utmost, in the interior of Spain." Solemn en- urging Spain to retrace the steps gagements were entered into by which she has so unfortunately the Spanish government to this taken. It is not for me to say "effect--first with Portugal, next whether any more efficient course with France, and afterwards with might have been adopted to give England. Those engagements, effect to their exhortations : but as concluded one day, were violated to the sincerity and good faith of the next. The deserters, instead the exertions made by the governof being disarmed and dispersed, ment of France, to press Spain to were allowed to remain congregated the execution of her engagements, together near the frontiers of Por. I have not the shadow of a doubt ; tugal; where they were enrolled, -and I confidently reckon upon trained, and disciplined, for the their continuance. expedition which they have since « There are reasons which enundertaken. It is plain that in tirely satisfy my judgment that nothese proceedings, there was perfidy thing short of a point of national somewhere. It rests with the faith or national honour, would jusSpanish government to show, that tify at the present moment, any voit was not with them-it rests Juntary approximation to the possi
bility of war. Let me be under- opinions. But I much fear that stood, however, distinctly, as not this country (however earnestly meaning to say that I dread war she may endeavour to avoid it) in a good cause (and in no other could not, in such case, avoid seeing may it be the lot of this country ranked under her banners all the ever to engage !), from a distrust restless and dissatisfied of any na of the strength of the country to tion with which she might come in commence it, or of her resources to conflict. It is the contemplation of maintain it. I dread it, indeed, this new power, in any future war, but upon far other grounds : 1 which excites my most anxious apdread it from an apprehension of prehension. It is one thing to have the tremendous consequences which a giant's strength, but it would be might arise from any hostilities in another to use it like a giant. The which we might now be engaged. consciousness of such strength is, Some years ago, in the discussion undoubtedly, a source of confidence of the negotiations respecting the and security ; but in the situation French war against Spain, I stated in which this country stands, our that the position of this country business is, not to seek opportunities in the present state of the world, of displaying it, but to content was one of neutrality, not only ourselves with letting the probetween contending nations, but fessors of violent and exaggerated between conflicting principles; and doctrines on both sides feel, that it that it was by neutrality alone that is not their interest to convert an we could maintain that balance, umpire into an adversary. The the preservation of which, I be situation of England, amidst the lieved to be essential to the welfare struggle of political opinions which of mankind. I then said, that I agitates more or less sensibly diffeared that the next war which ferent countries of the world, may should be kindled in Europe, would be compared to that of the ruler of be a war not so much of armies, as the winds, as described by the of opinions. Not four years have poet:elapsed, and behold my apprehen
Celsâ sedet Æolus arce, sion realised! It is, to be sure, Sceptra tenens; mollitque animos et within narrow limits that this war
temperat iras ;
Ni faciat, maria ac terras cælumque of opinion is at present confined :
profundum but it is a war of opinion, that Quippe ferant rapidi secum, verràntque Spain (whether as government or
per auras, as nation) is now waging against The consequence of letting loose Portugal; it is a war which has the passions at present chained and commenced in hatred of the new confined, would be to produce a institutions of Portugal. How scene of desolation which no man long is it reasonable to expect that can contemplate without horror
r; Portugal will abstain from retalia- and I should not sleep easy on my tion. If into that war this country couch, if I were conscious that I shall be compelled to enter, we had contributed to precipitate it by shall enter into it, with a sincere a single moment. This is the and anxious desire to mitigate reason---a reason very different from rather than exasperate, and to fear-the reverse of a consciousmingle only in the conflict of arms, ness of disability--why I dread not in the more fatal conflict of the recurrence of hostilities in any
part of Europe ; why I would bear to enter upon, and long maintain, a much, and forbear long ; why I war on a great scale. It was highly would put up with almost any inconsistent in Mr. Canning, who thing that did not touch national was the advocite of peace in 1823, faith and national honour rather to precipitate the country into a than let slip the furies of war, the war now, without either affording leash of which we hold in our sufficient time for deliberation, or hands--not knowing whom they establishing a case of unavoidable may reach, or how far their ravages necessity to enter into it. The may be carried. Such is the love hon. member moved an amendof peace which the British govern- ment, “ that the House be called ment acknowledges ; and such the over this day week.” nécessity for peace which the cir Mr. Wood, member for Preston, cumstances of the world inculcate. seconded the amendment. Let us fly to the aid of Portugal, Mr. Baring did not see how the by whomsoever attacked ; because ministers could have adopted any it is our duty to do so: and let us other course than that for which cease our interference where that they now asked the sanction of duty ends. We go to Portugal, the House. He could not help not to rulé, not to dictate, not to regretting that government had prescribe constitutions--but to de- looked so passively on the invasion fend and to preserve the inde- of Spain in 1823. If, at that pendence of an ally. We go to time, the same resolution had been plant the standard of England shewn in the case of Spain, as was on the well-known heights of Lis" at this time in the case of Portugal, bon. Where that standard is Europe would have been saved planted, foreign dominion shall not from that calamity into which, at come.”
some time or other, he firmly beMr. Canning sat down much lieved that an invasion would draw exhaustéd, amid loud cheers from it. He could not view the possesall sides of the House.
sion of Spain by France, continued The Speaker read the Address, year after year, without feeling which was received with great ap- that it was extremely dangerous to plause, and put the question that this country. To what degree the it be adopted.
commenced, might Sir Robert Wilson supported the spread, in point of expense and exaddress; at the same time adding, tent, there was no saying beforethat, in his opinion, Great Britain hand. But, keeping in mind the was bound to require of France, that taxes which had been repealed she should march her troops out since the conclusion of the war, he of Spain, as a first step to the denied that the pressure at this defence of Portugal. She had en
time could be such as to render us tered Spain merely to release the incapable of bearing the burthens king, and to restore peace, and that war might bring upon us. object had long ago been ac Mr. Bankes, senior, was of opicomplished. !
nion that the House should be asMr. Hume rose amid loud mur sured that the war. was quite inmurs, and opposed the Address, dispensable, before they rushed principally on the ground that into it. He was not satisfied that this country was not in a situation such was the case. The disturb
ances in Portugal werer of a po- upon our resources; for a small litical character, and connected sum spent now in due time, may with its internal arrangements. He be the means of saving us an exdid not shrink from war because penditure of ten times that amount, he despaired of the resources of with interest-aye, and compound the country, and, therefore, he interest accumulated upon it. In would not support the amendment, the principles, now adopted and but neither could he vote for the avowed by the organs of our original motion.
government, we have a strong and 2: Mr. Brougham supported the impregnable bulwark, which will Address. Adverting to the ground enable us not only to support our on which the amendment was burthens, and, should the day of principally supported, he said, trial come upon us, to meet the «The hon.members (Messrs. Hume combined world in arms, but which and Wood) must recollect, and the will afford the strongest practical House and the country must bear security against future danger; in mind, that the question is not and render it eminently improbaat present, whether, even at the ble that we shall ever have that expense of your charaoter for good combined world to contend with, faith, you will consent to bear so long as those principles are hereafter among mankind a stained maintained. Our burthens may reputation, and a forfeited honour. remain, but our government know The question is not whether you that when the voice of the people will do so, and by so doing avert a is in their favour, they have a lever, war. * I should say no, even if this if not within their hands, within choice were within your reach; their grasp.” but the question is whether, for a Mr. Bright contended, that no little season of miserable, insecure, act of aggression against Portugal precarious, dishonourable, unbear- had been avowed by Spain, and able truce. I cannot call it peace, that consequently no casus foederis for it has nothing of the honour existed. The occupation of Porand the comfort, which make the tugal by five thousand men would name of peace proverbially sweet amount to nothing more than an TI say, the question is, whether for armed neutrality. Now, by the
this wretched, precarious, disgust- terms of the treaty, we were bound -ing, and intolerable postponement to assist Portugal only in the event
of hostilities, you will be content of actual hostilities having been shereafter to have recourse to war, commenced, and then we were - when war can no longer be avoided, bound to attack Spain with all our
and when its horrors will fall upon might. you-degraded and ruined in cha Mr. Canning's reply was even racter in the eyes of all the nations more eloquent than his opening of Europe, and, what is ten thou- speech.,?,1 sand times worse, degraded and - The hon. gentleman" (Mr. ruined in your own. I say, Sir, - Bright) he said, “who spoke last; in degraded and ruined in reputation, his extreme love for peace, proposes and what may appear worse to expedients, which would render 1 those to whose minds such topics war inevitable. He would avoid 1.do not find so easy an access, the interference at this moment, when war will fall with tenfold weight Spain may be yet hesitating as to