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the course which she shall adopt; 19 An amendment has been prome and the language which he would posed, purporting a delay of a hold to Spain is, in effect this week, but, in effect, intended to * You have not yet done enough to produce a total abandonment of the implicate British faith, and to pro- object of the address; and that voke British honour. You have amendment has been justified by a not done enough, in merely en reference to the conduct of the abling Portuguese rebels to invade government and to the language Portugal, and to carry destruction used by me in this House between into her cities; you have not done three and four years ago. It is enough in combining knots of stated, and truly, that I did not traitors, whom after the most then deny that cause for war. had solemn engagements to disarm and been given by France in the in, to disperse them---you carefully vasion of Spain, if we had then re-assembled, and equipped and thought fit to enter into war on sent back with Spanish arms, to be that account. But it seems to be plunged into kindred Portuguese forgotten that there is one main bosoms. I will not stir for all difference between that case: and these things. Pledged though I the present, which difference, am by the most solemn obligations however, is essential and all-sufresent attack upon
ficient. We were then to go to Portugal as injurious to England, war, if we pleased, on grounds of I love too dearly the peace of political expediency. But we were Europe, to be goaded into activity not then bound to interfere, on beby such trifles as these. No..But half of Spain, as we give us a good declaration of war, bound to interfere on behalf of and then I'll come and fight you Portugal, by the obligations of with all my heart.' - This is the treaty. War might then have hon. gentleman's contrivance for been our free choice, if we had keeping peace. The more clumsy deemed it politic: interference on contrivance of his majesty's govem- behalf of Portugal is now our duty, ment is this :- We have seen unless we are prepared to abandon enough, to show to the world that the principles of national faith and Spain authorised, if she did not national honour. It is a singular instigate, the invasion of Portugal; confusion of intellect which con1 and we say to Spain, Beware, founds two cases so precisely disi we will avenge the cause of our similar. Far from objecting to the ally, if you break out into declared reference to 1823, I refer to that war; bút, in the mean time, we same occasion to show the conwill take effectual care to frustrate sistency of the conduct of myself your concealed hostilities.' : Who and my colleagues. We were then would not prefer this course of his accused of truckling to France, majesty's government, the object of from a pusillanimous dread of war. which is to nip growing hostilities We pleaded guilty to the charge in the ear, to that of the chivalrous of wishing to avoid war. We demember for Bristol, who would let scribed its inexpediency, its inconaggressions ripen into full ma- veniencies, and its dangers (danturity, in order that they may then gers, especially of the same sort be mowed down with the scythe of with those which I have hinted at a magnificentiwar?
to-day) but we declared that, al.
though we could not overlook those concerned, the employment of dangers, those inconveniencies, and such means would be strictly, I that inexpediency, in a case in might say epigrammatically, just. which remote interest and doubtful The Foreign Enlistment act was policy were alone assigned as mo- passed in the year 1819, if not at tives for war, we would checrfully the direct request, for the especial affront them all, in a case-if it benefit, of Spain. What right, should arrive where national then, would Spain have to comfaith or national honour were con- plain if we should repeal it now, cerned. Well, then--a case has for the especial benefit of Portugal? now arisen, of which the essence -The Spanish Refugees have been is faith, of which the character is harboured in this country, it is honour; and, when we call upon true ; but, on condition of abstainparliament, not for offensive war, ing from hostile expeditions against which was proposed to us in Spain : and more than once, when 1823 - but for defensive arma- such expeditions have been planment; we are referred to our ned, the British government has abstinence in 1823, as disqualify- interfered to suppress them. How ing us for exertion at the present is this tenderness for Spain remoment, and are told, that, because warded ?~Spain not only harwe did not attack France on that bours, and fosters, and sustains, occasion, we must not defend but arms, equips, and marshals the Portugal on this. I, Sir, like the traitorous refugees of Portugal, proposers of the amendment, place and pours them by thousands into the two cases of 1823 and 1826, the bosom of great Britain's nearest side by side, and deduce from them, ally. So far, then, as Spain is when taken together, the exposi- concerned, the advice of those who tion and justification of our general would send forth against Spain policy. I appeal from the warlike such dreadful elements of strife and preparations of to-day, to the for- destruction, is, as I have admitted, bearance of 1823, in proof of the not unjust. But I repeat, again pacific character of our counsels; and again, that I disclaim all such Í
appeal from the imputed tame- expedients ;-and that I dread ness of 1823, to the message of to- especially a war with Spain, benight, in illustration of the nature cause it is the war of all others in of those motives, by which a go- which, by the example and practice vernment, generally pacific, may of Spain herself, such expedients nevertheless be justly roused into are most likely to be adopted. Let action.
us avoid that war if we can, that “ It has been suggested, Sir, is, if Spain will permit us to do so. that we should at once ship off But in any case, let us endeavour the Spanish refugees, now in this to strip any war-if war we must country, for Spain; and that we have of that most formidable and should, by the repeal of the Foreign disastrous character the hon. and Enlistment act, let loose into the learned gentleman (Mr. Brougham) contest all the ardent and irregular has so eloquently described, and spirits of this country. Such ex which I was happy to hear him pedients I disclaim. I dread and concur with me in deprecating, as deprecate the employment of them. the most fatal evil by which the So far, indeed, as Spain herself is world could be afflicted.
“ Two honourable members in- parliament. No peace was in those sist that the French army in Spain days thought safe for this country has been, if not the cause, the en- while the crown of Spain continued couragement, of the late attack by on the head of a Bourbon. But Spain against Portugal; that his were not the apprehensions of those majesty's government were highly days greatly over-stated? And culpable in allowing that army to is the Spain of the present day enter into Spain, that its stay there the Spain of which the statesmen is highly injurious to British in- of the times of William and Anne terests and honour, and that we were so much afraid? Is it indeed, ought instantly to call upon France the nation whose puissance was exto withdraw it.
pected to shake England from her “I do not see how the withdraw- sphere ? No, Sir, it was quite ing the French troops from Spain another Spain-it was the Spain, could effect our present purpose. within the limits of whose empire The French army in Spain is now the sun never set-it was Spain a protection to that very party“with the Indies” that excited the which it was originally called in jealousies and alarmed the imaginato put down. Were the French tions of our ancestors. army suddenly removed at this “ It would be disingenuous, inprecise moment, I verily believe deed, not to admit that the entry of that the immediate effect of that the French army into Spain was, in removal would be, to give full a certain sense, a disparagementscope to the unbridled rage of a an affront to the pride, a blow to the fanatical faction, before which, feelings, of England :-and it can in the whirlwind of intestine strife, hardly be supposed that the governthe party least in numbers would ment did not sympathize, on that be swept away.
occasion, with the feelings of the “ So much for the immediate people. But I deny, that, queseffect of the demand which it is pro- tionable or censurable as the act posed to us to make, if that demand might be, it was one which newere instantly successful. But, cessarily called for our direct and when with reference to the larger hostile opposition. Was nothing question of a military occupation of then to be done ?-Was there no Spain by France, it is averred, that, other mode of resistance, than by a by that occupation, the relative direct attack upon France or by situation of Great Britain and a war to be undertaken on the soil France is altered ; that France is of Spain? What, if the possession thereby exalted and Great Britain of Spain might be rendered harmlowered, in the eyes of Europe:
less in rival hands--harmless as reI dissent from that averment. garded us--and valueless to the
“ I do not blame those exaggera- possessors ? Might not compensations; because I am aware that tion for disparagement be obtained, they are to be attributed to the and the policy of our ancestors recollections of some of the best vindicated, by means better adapted times of our history ; that they are to the present time? If France the echoes of sentiments, which, occupied Spain, was it necessary, in the days of William and of in order to avoid the consequences Anne, animated the debates and of that occupation, that we should dietated the yotes of the British blockade Cadiz ? - No. I looked
another way-I sought materials fidious conduct of the servants of, of compensation in another hemis- the king of Spain, to the captainsphere. Contemplating Spain, such general of provinces, and to infe as our ancestors had known her, I rior ministers, than to his Catholic resolved that if France had Spain, majesty. Whether, however, they it should not be Spain 'with the proceeded from the one or the Indies. I called the New World other, he could not possibly see into existence, toredress the balance bodies of troops on both sides of of the Old.
the Douro, and on the south of “ Once more I declare, that the the Tagus and the Guadiana, at object of the address, which I pro- the same time, all armed by the pose is not war: its object is to Spanish authorities, without imtake the last chance of peace. If mediately perceiving that there you do not go forth, on this oca must be a concurrence of the Spacasion to the aid of Portugal, Por- nish government. Under the cirtugal will be trampled down, to cumstances, therefore, of this preyour irretrievable disgrace: -and concerted invasion of the Portuthen will come war in the train of guese territory, he was of opinion, national degradation. If, under that the casus foederis did clearly circumstances like these, you wait exist. War, however, might still till Spain has matured her secret be prevented ; and he hoped for the machinations into open hostility, cordial assistance of France, by you will in a little while have the negotiations, in preventing the sort of war required by the pacifi- breaking out of hostilities, in bringcators :-and who shall say where ing his Catholic majesty to a just that war will end ?”
sense of his own danger, to a proper The Amendment was put and feeling of what was due both to negatived, there appearing only his dignity and his interest, and three or four supporters for Mr. to the obligations of good faith. Hume's proposition. The ori Lord Lansdowne also declared ginal question was then put and his full approbation of the procarried, with only the same number posed measure; and the address of dissentients.
was carried without a dissentient On the same night, in the voice. House of Lords, a similar address The unanimity which prevailed was moved by lord Bathurst, and in parliament on this decisive measeconded by lord Holland. The sure, was not more perfect than duke of Wellington spoke next; was the universal concurrence of beginning by expressing a hope sentiment regarding it, which exthat it would be permitted to him, isted throughout the country. The who for many years had had the reasons on which it was founded, direction of the resources of both and the promptitude with which it the countries which formed the had been adopted, inspired confisubject of discussion, against the dence; the ardour, the manliness, common enemy, to lament that the deep tone of generous feeling any necessity should arise for our with which it had been defended, interference between them. He excited esteem and admiration. also hoped, that the measures which Never were a government and its called for our interference, were subjects in more complete unison. more to be attributed to the per- The activity of the public offices
kept pace with the wishes of both; mons on the 12th of December, an armament consisting of five and on Christmas day, the ship, thousand men, under the command which carried the first detachment of sir William Clinton, was equip- of the British army, cast anchor in ped in an almost incredibly short the waters of the Tagus. space of time
Even the winds of On the 13th of December, the heaven seemed to favour the en- House 'adjourned till the 8th of terprise. Mr. Canning pronounced February. his speech in the House of Com