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another way, I sought materials fidious conduct of the servants of, of compensation in another hemis- the king of Spain, to the captainsphere. Contemplating Spain, such general of provinces, and to infeas our ancestors had known her, I rior ministers, than to his Catholic resolved that if France had Spain, majesty. Whether, however, they it should not be Spain 'with the proceeded from the one or the Indies. I called the New World other, he could not possibly see into existence, toredress the balance bodies of troops on both sides of of the Old.:

the Douro, and on the south of “ Once more I declare, that the the Tagus and the Guadiana, at object of the address, which I pro- the same time, all armed by the pose is not war: its object is to Spanish authorities, without imtake the last chance of peace. If mediately perceiving that there you do not go forth, on this oc must be a concurrence of the Spacasion to the aid of Portugal, Por- nish government. Under the cirtugal will be trampled down, to cumstances, therefore, of this preyour irretrievable disgrace: -and concerted invasion of the Portuthen will come war in the train of guese territory, he was of 'opinion, national degradation. If, under that the casus foederis did clearly circumstances like these, you wait exist. War, however, might still till Spain has matured her secret be prevented ; and he hoped for the machinations into open hostility, cordial assistance of France, by you will in a little while have the negotiations, in preventing the sort of war required by the pacifi- breaking out of hostilities, in bringcators:- and who shall say where ing his Catholic majesty to a just that war will end ?”

sense of his own danger, to a proper The Amendment was put and feeling of what was due both to negatived, there appearing only his dignity and his interest, and three or four supporters for Mr. to the obligations of good faith. Hume's proposition. The ori Lord Lansdowne also declared ginal question was then put and his full approbation of the procarried, with only the same number posed measure; and the address of dissentients.

was carried without a dissentient On the same night, in the voice. House of Lords, a similar address The unanimity which prevailed was moved by lord Bathurst, and in parliament on this decisive measeconded by lord Holland. The sure, was not more perfect than duke of Wellington spoke next; was the universal concurrence of beginning by expressing a hope sentiment regarding it, which exthat it would be permitted to him, isted throughout the country. The who for many years had had the reasons on which it was founded, direction of the resources of both and the promptitude with which it the countries which formed the had been adopted, inspired confisubject of discussion, against the dence; the ardour, the manliness, common enemy, to lament that the deep tone of generous feeling any necessity should arise for our with which it had been defended, interference between them. He excited esteem and admiration. also hoped, that the measures which Never were a government and its called for our interference, were subjects in more complete unison. more to be attributed to the per- The activity of the public offices

kept pace with the wishes of both; mons on the 12th of December, an armament consisting of five and on Christmas day, the ship, thousand men, under the command which carried the first detachment of sir William Clinton, was equip- of the British army, cast anchor in ped in an almost incredibly short the waters of the Tagus. space of time. Even the winds of On the 13th of December, the heaven seemed to favour' the en- House 'adjourned till the 8th of terprise. Mr. Canning pronounced February. his speech in the House of Com

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CHAP. VIII.

INDIA-Re-commencement of Hostilities with the Burmese-Military

Operations in the neighbourhood of Prome-British Army advances to Melloone-Conferences and Terms of Peace accepted - The Treaty not being ratified, the Army takes Melloone-The Army advances to Pagahm-men-Battle there-A Treaty concluded and ratified-Siege and Capture of Bhurtpore by Lord Combermere.--AFRICA-Defeat of the Ashantees.

THE

VHE armistice which had been voured to exculpate their monarch

concluded on the 17th Sep- from any blame on account of the tember, 1825, between the British hostile acts committed in Arracan, and Burmese commanders, was not

which had led to the war, by asemployed by the court of Ava in surances that they had been comany serious negotiations for peace, mitted without his authority or but in collecting forces for a vigor- consent, and that the remonstrances ous prosecution of the war. By of the Indian government had the second article of the amnesty been kept from his knowledge. it had been agreed that a commis- In the terms of peace which were sioner from Ava, with full powers, proposed, they quarrelled princishould meet the British author- pally with the demands for a cesities, on the 2nd of October, half sion of part of their territory, and way between Prome and Meaday, an indemnification in money for the stations of the respective the expenses of the war, and laarmies, to treat of the re-establish- boured hard to have them withment of peace. These conferences drawn, at least in the mean time, took place on the plain of Neoun- gravely holding out such considerben-zeik, the negotiators on each ations as this, that the dignity of side being accompanied by a train the king of Ava did not allow him of five hundred men, as the dignity to submit to terms imposed upon of the prime minister of Ava did him by a present force, but that, not allow him to move with a so soon as the Indian government' smaller retinue. The Burmese should have withdrawn their army commissioners displayed ostensibly from the country, there was nothe most amicable dispositions ; thing which his generosity would were anxious in their inquiries not concede to them. Being unafter the health of his majesty of able to obtain any modification of England, and the latest news; the terms, they desired, and obuniformly spoke of Britain and tained, an extension of the armisAva, as the “two great and civil- tice for twenty days, that they ized nations,” and scrupulously might have time to transmit them avoided every thing which might to Ava, and receive new instrucbe construed into an acknowledg- tions. The extension of the armisment of inferiority. They endea- tice, although proposed by the

enemy merely to gain time, was to cut off the communication with no sacrifice on the part of the Rangoon. When remonstrances British commander; for the season were made to the Burmese com, and the state of the country would manders, they with their usual not have permitted him to take disregard of truth, denied all knowthe field at an earlier period. ledge of these marauding expedi

On receiving the proposed terms tions, although it was proved by the of peace, his majesty of the Golden prisoners taken, that they were Foot broke out into the most in- acting directly under orders from temperate bursts of impotent pas- head-quarters. At length, when sion, and gave orders to his gene the armistice had nearly expired, rals immediately to renew offen- the thin mask was taken off

, and sive operations. His vigorous pre- the following haughty and laconic parations had again collected in answer was returned to the prothe neighbourhood of Meaday, an posals of peace made at Neouns army of between 50,000 and 60,000 ben-zeik: “ If you wish for peace, men,

He had sent down from you may go away; but if you wish Ava, a veteran leader of great either money or territory, no experience, Maha Nemiow, who friendship can exist between us. was to introduce a new mode of This is Burman custom.” conducting the war, and had at The whole army of Ava, nearly tached to his army a body of eight sixty thousand strong, immediately thousand Shans, a species of force advanced along the banks of the bearing a high character for gal- Irrawaddy against Prome, and lantry, and who had not yet met the six thousand British and naa British army in the field. Along tive Indian troops by whom it with them were three young wo was occupied. It was divided men of high rank who were be« into three bodies, which moved lieved, by their superstitious coun- parallel to each other, but were trymen, to be not only endowed dispersed with so little tactical with the gift of prophecy, but to skill, that insuperable physical obpossess the miraculous faculty of stacles prevented any one of them turning aside balls and bullets or from supporting any other, all rendering them innoxious. Con- being thus exposed to the immifident in their strength, and urged nent danger of being destroyed in by the threatening mandates of detail. The right division, contheir monarch, the Burmese chiefs sisting of fifteen thousand men, had no scruples of delicacy in vio- under the command of Sudda lating the truce. Scarcely had Woon, moved along the right or they departed from the place of western bank of the river. On conference at Neoun-ben-zeik, the opposite bank, separated by when numerous irruptions were the whole breadth of the Irramade by predatory bands from waddy, advanced the centre, contheir

army, transgressing the line sisting of between twenty-five of demarcation laid down in the thousand and thirty thousand men, armistice, laying waste the country headed by the Kee Wonghee in almost to the walls of Prome, in- person, and escorted by a consiterrupting the supplies of the derable armament of war boats. army, ascending the river, and Maha Nemiow himself took the threatening, and plainly intended, command of the left division,

positions in its rear as well as in
which likewise was fifteen thou- tinued succession of brisk skir
sand strong and contained the mishes. The division, however,
Shan horsemen; it marched on made good 'its advance to the
the same side of the river with neighbourhood of Watty-goon;
the centre, still more to the east- but colonel M Dowgal, having
ward, but was completely sepa- been killed while reconnoitring
rated from it and the river by an

there being no appear. impenetrable forest several miles ance of the two other divisions, in depth. The different divisions and the force and position of the advanced in the ordinary style of enemy being much too strong to Burmese, warfare, creeping on be attacked without their assistwards slowly, and certainly, stock- ance, a retreat was effected, with ading and entrenching themselves the loss of four officers and sixtyat every step, risking no general one men killed, and ten officers engagement, patiently working and a hundred and twenty men themselves round Prome to obtain wounded, besides forty missing.

Maha Nemiow, was emboldened its front. On the 10th of No- by this partial success to advance vember, the advanced guard of closer to Prome, but was not seMaha Nemiow, on the extreme duced from his cautious and secure left, was at Watty-goon, a village mode of approach, throwing up to the north-east of Prome, and his stockades at every step that not more than sixteen miles dis- he gained. The centre and the tant; his intention being to turn right division advanced simultathe right of the British position, neously, in the same mole-like and thus, at the same time, throw manner; and in the end of Nosuccours into the kingdom of Pegu vember, the centre, under the Kee on the east. Colonel M'Dowgal, Wonghee was distinctly visible, with two brigades of native in- stockaded in the difficult heights fantry, was ordered to dislodge of Napadee, which run along the them, and approached them in right bank of the river about five three divisions; one marching by miles above Prome, while Sudda. the direct road to Watty-goon, the Woon, with the right, was posted two others by circuitous routes, opposite to him in a similar man, but with the design that they ner. The British

army,

in the should all reach the point of attack mean time, remained quiet in its at the same time, and act simula positions, anxious that the enemy taneously against the front, flank, should be seduced to attack, and and rear of the enemy. But the even giving him apparent encouplan was disconcerted by the for- ragement to risk an assault. The wardness of the Burmese, who, troops never showed themselves instead of awaiting the attack in beyond the lines ; batteries were their position, met the centre and erected and entrenchments thrown principal division of the detach- up, as if in apprehension of the ment half way, and, bringing on approach of the assailants; and large bodies of Cafray horse, wher- rumours were circulated that preever the road emerged from the parations were making for a sud, jungle into ground sufficiently den retreat to Rangoon. But open for cavalry to act, both re- every expedient failed to divert tarded and weakened it by a con- Maha Nemiow from his own sys

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